|Highest governing body||International Ski Federation|
|First contested||15 March 1936, Bloudkova velikanka, Planica, Kingdom of Yugoslavia|
|Team members||Single competitors, or teams of four|
Ski flying is a discipline developed from ski jumping, in which much greater distances can be achieved. As in ski jumping, ski flying is a form of Nordic skiing where athletes individually descend at very fast speeds along a specially built takeoff ramp using skis only; jump from the end of it with as much power as they can generate; then glide – or "fly" – as far as possible down a steeply sloped hill; and ultimately land in a stable manner. Points are awarded for distance and style by five judges, with overall competition sanctioned by the International Ski Federation (FIS).
The rules and scoring in ski flying are mostly the same as they are in ski jumping, and events under the discipline are usually contested as part of the Ski Jumping World Cup season, but the hills are constructed to different standards in order to accommodate jumps of up to two thirds longer in distance. There is also a stronger emphasis on aerodynamics. From its beginnings in the 1930s, ski flying has developed its own distinct history and given rise to all of the sport's world records: the current world record is 251.5 metres (825 ft), set by Anders Fannemel in 2015.
- 1 History
- 1.1 1930s–40s
- 1.2 1950s–60s
- 1.3 1970s
- 1.4 1980s
- 1.5 1990s
- 1.6 2000s–present
- 2 Differences to ski jumping
- 3 Rules and technique
- 4 Scoring and judging
- 5 Ski flying specialists
- 6 Slovenian presence
- 7 Accidents
- 8 Television coverage
- 9 Ski flying in other media
- 10 Gallery
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
Breaking the 100 metre barrier and the birth of ski flying
The origins of ski flying can be traced directly to 15 March 1936 in Planica, Slovenia (then a part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia), when 18-year-old Austrian Josef "Sepp" Bradl became the first man in history to land a ski jump of over 100 metres (330 ft). His world record jump of 101.5 metres (333 ft) was set at Bloudkova velikanka ("Bloudek giant"), a new hill designed and completed in 1934 by engineers Stanko Bloudek and Ivan Rožman, together with Joso Gorec. With jumps now in the triple digits, Bloudek enthused: "That was no longer ski jumping. That was ski flying!" It was with these words that ski flying took on a life of its own. Such was the awe and disbelief at these massive jumps, the units of measurement were trivialised by the media, who suggested that the metre used in Yugoslavia was shorter than elsewhere in Europe.
Bradl later spoke fondly of the jump which made him an icon in the sport:
The air pushed violently against my chest; I leaned right into it and let it carry me. I had only one wish: to fly as far as possible! ... [After landing the jump], many thousands of curious eyes looked up at the judges' tower. I could hardly believe it when an additional '1' popped up on the scoreboard![nb 1]
Dispute between the FIS and Planica
In the early 1930s, prior to the construction of Bloudkova velikanka, the FIS had deemed ski jumping hills with a K-point of 70 metres (230 ft) to be the absolute largest permissible. Athletes who chose to compete on hills with a K-point of more than 80 metres (260 ft) were outright denied a licence to jump, and events allowing for distances beyond 90 metres (300 ft) were strongly discouraged – even disacknowledged – on the grounds that they were unnecessarily dangerous and brought the sport into disrepute. Bloudek and his team nonetheless went ahead and flouted the rules in creating a so-called "mammoth hill" specifically designed for previously unimaginable distances. Bloudkova velikanka originally had a K-point of 90 m, by far the largest of any hill at the time, but was upgraded in less than two years to 106 metres (348 ft) in eager anticipation of the 100+ m jumps to come. In 1938, exactly two years to the day of his milestone jump, Josef Bradl improved his world record by a wide margin to 107 metres (351 ft).
After a period of wrangling and increasing public interest in the novelty of this new 'extreme' form of ski jumping, the FIS relented. In 1938, a decision was made at the fifteenth International Ski Congress in Helsinki, Finland to allow for "experimental" hill design, thereby officially recognising ski flying as a sanctioned discipline. Despite this reluctant recognition, the FIS still frowned upon the practice of aiming predominantly for long distances over style, and to this day refuse to publish lists of world records in an official capacity. Furthermore, the rules for ski flying would not be ratified until after World War II.
In 1941, with the K-point increased further to 120 metres (390 ft), the world record was broken five times in Planica: it went from 108 metres (354 ft) to 118 metres (387 ft) in a single day, shared between four athletes. After World War II had passed, Fritz Tschannen matched the K-point with a jump of 120 m in 1948. This marked the last time Planica would hold the world record for almost two decades, as emerging new hills would soon provide stern competition.
New ski flying hills across Europe
A challenger to Planica arrived in 1949 with the construction of Heini-Klopfer-Skiflugschanze ("Heini Klopfer ski flying hill") in Oberstdorf, East Germany. Designed by former ski jumper turned architect Heini Klopfer, as well as then-active ski jumpers Toni Brutscher and Sepp Weiler, the hill had a K-point of 120 m to match that of Bloudkova velikanka. The FIS, still wary of the rising popularity of ski flying and wanting to keep it in check, refused to sanction the construction of the hill, having previously disacknowledged the 1947 and 1948 events in Planica.
In 1950 the stance of the FIS eased once again, as the inaugural International Ski Flying Week was given approval to be staged in Oberstdorf. During this week-long event, an estimated crowd of altogether 100,000 witnessed the world record fall three times, with Dan Netzell claiming the final figure of 135 metres (443 ft). Tauno Luiro eclipsed it the following year by jumping 139 metres (456 ft), a world record which would stay in place for almost ten years until Jože Šlibar jumped 141 metres (463 ft) in 1961. The past two decades of Planica holding a near-monopoly over the world record now seemed a distant memory, as it would instead be Oberstdorf's turn to do exactly the same.
Also in 1950, a ski flying hill was built at Kulm in Tauplitz/Bad Mitterndorf, Austria. Peter Lesser first equalled the world record there in 1962, improving it three years later to 145 metres (476 ft). Another hill entered the scene in 1966, when Vikersundbakken ("Vikersund hill") in Vikersund, Norway was rebuilt to ski flying specifications, having originally opened as a ski jumping hill in 1936. On this newly rebuilt hill the world record was first equalled, then broken twice to end up at 154 metres (505 ft) in 1967. Although hills in Norway were still at the forefront of ski jumping, their prominence in ski flying was short-lived, as it would be the last time Vikersund would hold a world record until four decades later.
Seeking to co-operate on hill design and event organisation, the venues at Kulm, Oberstdorf and Planica formed the KOP working group in 1962 (KOP being an abbreviation of Kulm/Oberstdorf/Planica). This group would go on to consult with the FIS in all aspects of ski flying, celebrating their 50th anniversary in 2012.
Breaking the 150 metre barrier
In 1967, in Oberstdorf, Lars Grini became the first to reach 150 metres (490 ft). Planica triumphantly reclaimed its world record in 1969 with a new hill: Velikanka bratov Gorišek ("Giant by brothers Gorišek") was the brainchild of Slovenian brothers Janez and Vlado Gorišek, both engineers, who opted to design a new hill with a K-point of 153 metres (502 ft) instead of enlarging the adjacent Bloudkova velikanka, which was showing signs of deterioration. Today, Janez is affectionately called the "father" of modern ski flying and a revered figure in Slovenia. Bloudkova velikanka was subsequently recategorised as a ski jumping hill.
At the opening event of Velikanka bratov Gorišek, five world records were set: Bjørn Wirkola and Jiří Raška traded it between themselves four times, until Manfred Wolf ended their run with a jump of 165 metres (541 ft). It can be said that competition between hill locations, all vying for world record honours, truly began at this time. The 1960s remains the decade with the highest amount of world records since the advent of ski flying, with seventeen in total being set on the hills in Oberstdorf, Planica, Kulm and Vikersund. By contrast the 1950s had the fewest with four, all being set in Oberstdorf.
Planica vs. Oberstdorf
The world record stayed in Planica for four years, during which the K-point at Velikanka bratov Gorišek was upgraded to 165 m in time for the inaugural Ski Flying World Championships in 1972, which eventually superseded International Ski Flying Week later in the decade. This new event was sanctioned a year earlier by the FIS at their 28th International Ski Congress in Opatija, Croatia (then a part of Yugoslavia). Much like in 1938 when the discipline received official recognition from the FIS, another milestone had been reached as ski flying was now granted its own world championship-level event on par with the Ski Jumping World Championships, having spent almost four decades as a mere 'special attraction' alongside its older sibling.
With no world records set at the 1972 event, the organisers in Oberstdorf got to work by upgrading their hill to a K-point of 175 metres (574 ft) for the 1973 Ski Flying World Championships. Janez Gorišek was brought in to oversee the project following Heini Klopfer's death in 1968. With the gauntlet laid down, the results were showcased immediately when Heinz Wossipiwo set a world record of 169 metres (554 ft) in Oberstdorf. Determined to claim the world record for himself, Walter Steiner – the reigning Ski Flying World Champion – jumped 175 metres (574 ft) and 179 metres (587 ft) but crashed heavily on both attempts, sustaining a concussion and a fractured rib. He would finish the event with a silver medal, behind winner Hans-Georg Aschenbach.
A year later in Planica, in front of a 50,000-strong crowd, Steiner finally achieved the world record he had been striving for, landing a jump of 169 m to equal that of Wossipiwo in 1973. Spectators were astonished and the event organisers momentarily bewildered, as Steiner had landed well beyond the markers used to indicate distance alongside the hill, which only went as far as the existing K-point of 165 m. For the first time since their respective hills had been built, the competition was levelled between Oberstdorf and Planica. On the next day of the event in the latter, Steiner tried to go even further: he landed at 177 metres (581 ft) but fell down on what was almost flat ground, although this time he managed to walk away (albeit on unsteady legs) with only cuts to his face.
Safety issues arise
All these increasingly long distances came at a price, as illustrated by filmmaker Werner Herzog in his 1974 documentary The Great Ecstasy of Woodcarver Steiner. During both the aforementioned events in Oberstdorf and Planica, several athletes including Steiner had far exceeded the limits of the hill by simply 'running out of slope'. The results were potentially fatal each time: athletes came only metres away from landing on completely flat ground, or the equivalent of falling from a multi-storey building. Furthermore, only a wool cap and goggles – or no headgear at all – were worn; an antiquated feature left unchanged from the very earliest days of ski jumping more than 150 years prior. In 1979, at their 32nd International Ski Congress in Nice, France, the FIS mandated helmets to be worn by athletes at all ski jumping and flying events.
In Herzog's documentary, Steiner is shown to reflect with trepidation in Oberstdorf:
Ski flying has reached the point where it's beginning to present real dangers. We've just about reached the limit, I believe, as far as speed is concerned. ... Maybe I'd prefer to turn back [and] go back to flying off 150- or 130-metre hills, but it's the thrill of flying so far that nevertheless gives me a kick.[nb 2]
Further down the hill and pointing to a wooden marker indicating Steiner's failed efforts, Herzog explains solemnly:
This mark is, in fact, the point where ski flying starts to be inhuman. Walter Steiner was in very great danger. If he'd flown 10 metres (33 ft) metres more, he'd have landed down here on the flat. Just imagine, it's like falling from a height of 110 metres (360 ft) onto a flat surface: to a certain death.[nb 3]
In Planica, Herzog quoted Steiner as having said that he felt like he was in an arena with 50,000 people waiting to see him crash. On the third day of the event, while talking to journalists after a jump, Steiner appeared jaded at the organisers' pressure on him to set more world records at the expense of his well-being: "They let me jump too far four times. That shouldn't happen. It's scandalous of those Yugoslav judges up there who are responsible."[nb 4]
The stalemate between the venues did not last long, as four world records were set in Oberstdorf within a span of four days in 1976, bringing the official figure up to 176 metres (577 ft) set by Toni Innauer at the end of the event. Three years later, Planica drew level once again when Klaus Ostwald equalled the world record. Elsewhere, in the Western Hemisphere, the United States opened their own ski flying venue in 1970: Copper Peak in Ironwood, Michigan had a K-point of 145 m, therefore not designed for world record distances from the outset. It is the only ski flying hill to have been built outside of Europe.
Harrachov joins in, Planica vs. Oberstdorf continues
Planica and Oberstdorf briefly had a new challenger when the Čerťák K-165 hill in Harrachov, Czech Republic (then a part of Czechoslovakia) was opened in 1980. For one year, all three venues shared the world record when Armin Kogler jumped 176 m at Harrachov's opening event. He improved this to 180 metres (590 ft) in 1981, this time in Oberstdorf. Two years later, Pavel Ploc brought the world record back to Harrachov by jumping 181 metres (594 ft) at the Ski Flying World Championships; this remains the last time a world record was set in Harrachov. Notably, in the 1980 event, 16-year-old rookie Steve Collins won all three competitions with jumps consistently close to world record figures.
The issue of safety in ski flying became a serious talking point at the aforementioned 1983 Ski Flying World Championships. In only a single day, the hill in Harrachov – a location named "Devil's Mountain" – became notorious for causing violent accidents. Horst Bulau crashed and suffered a concussion, while Steinar Bråten and Jens Weißflog had their own crashes. Ploc also crashed heavily in 1980 and 1985. All escaped serious injury, but it was a chilling precursor of more to come.
Over the next few years, the one-upmanship continued as the world record was again traded between Planica and Oberstdorf. In 1984, Matti Nykänen jumped 182 metres (597 ft) twice on the same day in Oberstdorf. By improving this to 185 metres (607 ft) the next day, Nykänen became the first athlete since Reidar Andersen in 1935 to set three world records in the space of 24 hours. It would be the end of an era as this was the last time a world record was set in Oberstdorf; altogether twenty were set there.
In 1985, to coincide with that year's Ski Flying World Championships, Planica underwent another upgrade to increase the K-point to 185 m. World records were again shattered as a result. Mike Holland first jumped 186 metres (610 ft) to become the first American world record holder since Henry Hall in 1921. Nykänen would follow this up by landing a metre further. In the final round of that event, and in a show of dominance as he closed in on his second Ski Jumping World Cup title, Nykänen wowed the crowd with a jump of 191 metres (627 ft) to punctuate his title win and effectively bring the Planica–Oberstdorf rivalry to a close.
Mike Holland later described his own jump:
The world record jump was very smooth. It felt like I was lying on my stomach on a glass coffee table, watching a movie projected on a screen underneath the table. Although the flight was very smooth, it seemed like the movie projector was running the film faster than intended.
Safety issues reach their peak
The 1986 Ski Flying World Championships in Kulm highlighted the dangers of the sport in a most graphic way. On the second and final day of the event, Andreas Felder equalled the world record to win the gold medal, ahead of Nykänen who won bronze. However, this was overshadowed by a series of horrific accidents which took place earlier. In treacherous crosswind conditions, Masahiro Akimoto lost control moments after takeoff, falling from a height of about 9 metres (30 ft) onto his back. He suffered a fractured ankle in addition to chest and shoulder injuries. A few minutes later, Rolf Åge Berg frighteningly lost control at the same height but was able to land safely on both skis.
Immediately afterwards, Ulf Findeisen crashed spectacularly, landing head-first and flipping head over heels repeatedly along the slope, only coming to a stop several seconds later. Al Trautwig, commentating for American TV network ABC, described Findeisen as looking "like a ragdoll" after the fall. Former ski jumper Jeff Hastings, co-commentating, said: "I'm feeling a little sick to my stomach, Al... I can't believe this. I've never seen ski flying like this... So many falls." Findeisen was barely conscious and had to be stretchered away, later going into cardiac arrest but surviving.
In the last round of the event, Berg attempted another jump but was not as lucky this time: he fell out of the air, just as before, and crashed exactly the same as did Findeisen. One of Berg's skis, which had come loose after impact and was still attached to his foot, flailed around and hit him in the face as he was sliding to a stop. His injuries, including concussion and a broken cruciate ligament, were career-ending. At this point, Trautwig began calling into question the nature of the sport: "Jeff, we talk about the fear and why the ski flyers are scared... I'm really starting to ask, why we're here and why they're doing it."
Ski flying endured a tentative era beginning in 1987, when Piotr Fijas set a world record of 194 metres (636 ft) in Planica. With height over the hills and inrun speeds at an all-time high (Pavel Ploc reached 115.6 kilometres per hour (71.8 mph) off the table in Harrachov in 1983), as well as distances approaching 200 metres (660 ft), the FIS took a stance against record-hunting for safety reasons. From Felder's world record in 1986 onwards, the FIS implemented a rule in which distance points would not be awarded beyond 191 m; the jump would still count, but no points further than that could be achieved. Per this rule, Fijas' jump was officially scaled down to 191 m by the FIS, but the KOP group (led by the organisers in Kulm, Oberstdorf and Planica) independently recorded the actual figure. Neither Kulm nor Planica would hold a ski flying event for several years, leaving Oberstdorf and Vikersund to host the Ski Flying World Championships in 1988 and 1990, respectively. At those events, world record distances and major incidents were avoided.
New safety measures
The dangers of the sport were still on full display at the 1992 Ski Flying World Championships in Harrachov, where Andreas Goldberger suffered a similar crash to the ones which occurred in 1986. On the first day of the event, a few seconds into his jump, dangerous wind conditions forced Goldberger to lose control at a height of around 9 m and a speed of more than 107.4 kilometres per hour (66.7 mph), sending him plummeting face-first onto the hill below. He was taken by helicopter to a hospital, having sustained a broken arm and collarbone.
The second and final day was stopped and cancelled due to worsened weather, culminating in a high-speed fall on the outrun by Christof Duffner after he landed an unofficial, world record-equalling jump of 194 m. Goldberger's efforts from earlier in the event were enough to earn him a silver medal behind eventual winner Noriaki Kasai, who became the first non-European Ski Flying World Champion. Goldberger was also able to return to top-level competition within less than a year.
Protective wind nets by the side of the hill were later installed in Harrachov for 1996 to minimise the effects of crosswind, along with major reprofiling of the slope to comply with FIS safety regulations. This reprofiling – particularly at the hill's highest point, known as the 'knoll' – was critical in reducing the fearsome height reached by athletes after takeoff, estimated to be 15–18 metres (49–59 ft) in 1980. Speaking about his experience at the 1983 Ski Flying World Championships, Mike Holland said:
Climbing over the knoll, I thought 'this is SO damned high, I shouldn't be this high.' Since I wasn't ready for such height and speed, I threw out my arms at the end of the flight and let myself down four metres short of the world record.
Thanks to the modifications of the hill angle and positioning of the inrun table (the latter of which was moved further back), athletes no longer jumped with as much height as before and no major accidents have occurred in Harrachov since 1992.
Technique changes: parallel to V-style
It was during this time that the whole of ski jumping as a sport underwent a significant transition in technique. Until the early 1990s nearly all athletes used the Däscher technique or parallel style, in which the skis were held close together and parallel to each other. This had been the norm since the 1950s, evolving into a modified variation in the 1980s with the skis pointed diagonally off to the side in a crude attempt to increase surface area. However, this came largely at the expense of stability and balance, akin to 'walking a tightrope' in mid-air and leaving athletes at the mercy of the elements. Akimoto, Findeisen, Berg and Goldberger's accidents were all caused by unpredictable gusts of wind which made them lose control at the highest and fastest stage of their jumps, exacerbated by an outdated technique ill-suited to the new extremes of ski flying, as well as the prevalence of older hills featuring very steep slopes.
In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Jan Boklöv pioneered the V-style: skis were instead spread outwards in an aerodynamic "V" shape, with the athlete's body lying much flatter between them. This created more surface area and lift, instantly enabling distances of up to ten per cent further. It also had a positive effect of granting more stability in the air, although the peak speed was lower. At first this new technique was looked upon unfavourably by the judges, who made it an issue to downgrade style points for those who used it. Nevertheless, within a few years, with Boklöv having won the 1988–89 Ski Jumping World Cup season and other athletes promptly adopting the technique, the judges' stance quietly eased and the V-style became the standard still used today.
The technique itself had a transitional period of its own, going from a narrower "V" in the early 1990s – retaining some features of the parallel style – to a much wider one at the end of the decade. Some athletes preferred to cross the back of the skis to exaggerate the "V" angle or lean even more forward so that their body lay almost flat between the skis; both variations remain in use. The V-style was still not immune to failure if the air pressure under one ski was lost, but the results were much less catastrophic than with the parallel style: the latter had resulted in more head-first landings, whereas the V-style saw somewhat 'safer' landings on the back or shoulders.
Breaking the 200 metre barrier
In 1994, ski flying returned to a newly independent Slovenia, where the hill in Planica had been reprofiled with the aim of allowing for jumps of more than 200 m. The FIS was strongly against this and initially threatened to cancel the event on the grounds that its regulations on hill design had been violated. Negotiations between the organisers in Planica and the FIS managed to defuse the situation, allowing that year's Ski Flying World Championships to take place. Before the event, Espen Bredesen said: "Of course I want to be the first [to reach 200 m], but I think that 210 metres (690 ft) or 215 metres (705 ft) are also possible."
With all athletes having switched to the V-style, the sport was about to reach one of its biggest ever milestones, albeit on the second day of the event due to strong winds forcing cancellation of the opener. Martin Höllwarth first jumped 196 metres (643 ft) to edge the world record ever closer to 200 m. This was the first time one had been set using the V-style, meaning Piotr Fijas' was the last to use the parallel style. On the same day, Andreas Goldberger got tantalisingly close to the magic number when he actually landed at 202 metres (663 ft) but failed to maintain his balance as he squatted down and touched the snow with his hands; this rendered his jump an unofficial world record.
The official honours went to Toni Nieminen a short time later, who cleanly landed a history-making jump of 203 metres (666 ft) to claim both the world record and the achievement of being the first ever ski jumper to break the 200 m barrier. Christof Duffner almost had his moment of glory the next day when he jumped 207 metres (679 ft), but fell upon landing just as he had done two years earlier in Harrachov. At the end of the event, Bredesen claimed the world record for himself with a clean jump of 209 metres (686 ft). The restrictive rule concerning jumps beyond 191 m, in place since 1986, was subsequently abolished by the FIS. However, as the rule was still in place at the time of Nieminen's jump, his additional distance was nullified, handing Jaroslav Sakala the Ski Flying World Championship.
In 2014, Nieminen spoke about the jump that cemented his name in the history books:
It was the kind of jump in which, even when arriving [at the bottom of the hill] in the landing position and not knowing at all what lies ahead, I remember that my legs were trembling. That's how terrified I was. ... Overcoming your own fears is the best feeling. The nature of the sport is that one has to challenge themselves. That's why this jump has remained a highlight of my career.[nb 5]
Beginning with Fijas's world record in 1987, Planica would enjoy a very long period of exclusivity. Much like in the 1930s and 1940s, no other hills came close to reclaiming the accolade for eighteen years, despite nearly all receiving size upgrades to K-185. Only Ironwood remained unchanged at K-145, staging its last event to date in 1994 with a hill record of 158 metres (518 ft) shared between Werner Schuster and Mathias Wallner. Since then, the hill has served as a popular tourist attraction in which sightseers are able to access the top of the inrun via an elevator. In 2013, following almost two decades of disuse as a sporting venue, it was announced that the hill at Copper Peak would be renovated as the world's largest ski jumping hill, additionally capable of staging summer events.
With eight years between Fijas and Höllwarth's world records, it was the longest drought of unbroken records since that of Tauno Luiro from 1951 was broken by Jože Šlibar in 1961. The margin between Höllwarth and Nieminen's world records was 7 metres (23 ft), the largest since Sepp Weiler and Dan Netzell in 1950, which was 8 metres (26 ft). In Planica the world record was broken a further four times in the 1990s, ending with Tommy Ingebrigtsen jumping 219.5 metres (720 ft) in 1999 to send ski flying into the new millennium.
Further changes in technique, equipment and hill profiles have seen the world record increase by almost 50 metres (160 ft) within 21 years. In 2000, the world record in Planica was demolished by 5 metres (16 ft) with jumps of 224.5 metres (737 ft) and 225 metres (738 ft) by Thomas Hörl and Andreas Goldberger, respectively. The latter stood for three years until being equalled by Adam Małysz in 2003, but his achievement was only temporary. On the same day, and in a span of the next four, Matti Hautamäki set three consecutive world records of 227.5 metres (746 ft), 228.5 metres (750 ft) and 231 metres (758 ft), much like Matti Nykänen had done in 1984. When interviewed soon after the event, Hautamäki said that "The longer one stays in the air, the more fun it is."[nb 6]
Before the 2004 Ski Flying World Championships, the hill was renamed to Letalnica bratov Gorišek ("Flying hill by brothers Gorišek"). In 2005, Planica continued its dominance of ski flying when the world record was shattered four times on the same day. Tommy Ingebrigtsen, Bjørn Einar Romøren and Hautamäki all traded records, with Romøren emerging victorious with a jump of 239 metres (784 ft) to claim the final figure. Some minutes after that, having already captured his second consecutive Ski Jumping World Cup title, Janne Ahonen went for broke by stretching out a jump of 240 metres (790 ft) but fell from a dangerous height and landed hard on flat ground; his world record was rendered unofficial. In the aftermath of the event and following numerous near-flat ground landings, it became clear that ski flying had once again outgrown an older hill – which last saw an upgrade twelve years prior – and needed enlarging in the years to come.
Hill renovations and breaking the 250 metre barrier
In 2005, almost immediately after the Planica event, talks were under way to upgrade the hill in Vikersund. This became a reality in mid-2010, when the FIS announced major rule changes at the 47th International Ski Congress in Antalya, Turkey to allow for even larger ski flying hills to be constructed. Vikersund was the first to undergo renovation to increase its K-point from 185 m to 195 metres (640 ft), making it the largest hill in the world. Janez Gorišek, known for his expertise in ski flying hill design, was the leader of this project. The new facility was given a rousing introduction at its opening event in 2011, when Johan Remen Evensen jumped 243 metres (797 ft) and 246.5 metres (809 ft), returning the world record to Vikersund for the first time since 1967. This was a 'trial' event staged before the 2012 Ski Flying World Championships, which went on to draw a crowd of 60,000.
Another modification in Vikersund (this time to K-200) resulted in the coveted 250 metres (820 ft) barrier being reached in 2015, with Peter Prevc landing a clean jump right on the mark to claim another historic milestone in the sport. Prevc's glory was short-lived when Anders Fannemel broke this figure only a day later, landing a jump of 251.5 metres (825 ft) to set the current world record. At the same event, prior to Fannemel's jump, Dmitry Vassiliev crashed hard at 254 metres (833 ft) after exceeding the hill size boundary in an almost identical way to Janne Ahonen in Planica a decade earlier; this gave Vassiliev unofficially the furthest distance ever reached in ski flying to date.
Also in 2015, both Kulm and Planica finished upgrading their hills to K-200. All three aforementioned hills – Planica, Kulm and Vikersund – are now equipped for jumps exceeding 230 metres (750 ft), as well as having improved facilities for athletes and spectators. Although the new hills are much larger than ever before, they feature longer and less steeply angled slopes. Designed purely with the V-style in mind and the knowledge of 80 years' worth of world record progression, flight curves have been made shallower in order to allow athletes to glide along the contour of the slope. This has significantly reduced such precarious heights over the knoll as was the case in the early 1990s and prior: in that era, athletes who knew only of the parallel style would aim to jump in an upward trajectory off the table, reaching vast heights but at the expense of distance.
Anticipating a renewed world record rivalry, organisers in Vikersund have welcomed the healthy competition with Planica. Regarding the new hill in Kulm, Andreas Goldberger remarked that world records should not be expected there because of its different design.
At the end of the 2014–15 Ski Jumping World Cup season, FIS race director Walter Hofer commented that the world record had reached its limit on the newest hills, and that no further expansion to their size was expected in the near future. He also noted in 2011 that the FIS rules on hill sizes would likely remain unchanged for another decade. Despite this, Janez Gorišek is said to have made plans for a 300 metres (980 ft) hill in Planica, albeit put on hold until the FIS rules are again changed. Anders Fannemel has said he believes 252 metres (827 ft) is the limit in Vikersund, but that the world record can be broken again in Planica.
Differences to ski jumping
Unlike ski jumping, which can be contested in the summer on specially equipped hills, ski flying is strictly a winter sport and not part of the Winter Olympics; no world records have therefore been set at the games. Also in contrast to ski jumping, athletes are not able to practice on ski flying hills out-of-season as they are used only for competition events.
Rather than being considered a separate sport on its own, ski flying is essentially an offshoot involving larger hills and longer distances than in ski jumping. According to former US ski jumping coach Larry Stone, "It's the same thing, just bigger. You're going faster and flying higher. ... Basically, it's just a real big jump." Today, the term "ski flying" has evolved to be used only for jumps in the region of 170 metres (560 ft) or further, with 200 metres (660 ft) being the competitive standard. By comparison, the longest ever distance from a ski jumping hill is 152 metres (499 ft), set at Mühlenkopfschanze ("Mühlenkopf hill") in Willingen, Germany. Distances of around 90–120 metres (300–390 ft) are the standard on most ski jumping hills.
Ski flying hills
The main difference between ski flying and ski jumping pertains to hill design, as mandated by the FIS: historically, hills with a K-point or main landing zone of more than 145 metres (476 ft) were classed as ski flying hills. As jumping distances increased by the decade, so did a small number of unique hills at locations seeking to outdo each other in a friendly rivalry for world record honours. Since 1980, there have only been five of these hills in Europe and one in the United States. On all modern ski flying hills the K-point is set between 185–200 metres (607–656 ft), with a hill size of 205–225 metres (673–738 ft); far greater than the largest ski jumping hills, which only have K-points of up to 125–130 metres (410–427 ft) and a hill size of 140–145 metres (459–476 ft). Seven ski flying hills in total were constructed between 1934 and 1980. Six are currently active, but only five of them as flying hills:
|Opened||Hill name||Location||K-point||Hill size||Hill record holder||Metres||Feet||Ref.|
|1934||Bloudkova velikanka[nb 7]||Planica||K-120||Noriaki Kasai[nb 8]||147.5||484|||
|1936/66||Vikersundbakken||Vikersund||K-200||HS 225||Anders Fannemel||251.5||825|||
|1950||Kulm||Tauplitz/Bad Mitterndorf||Severin Freund||237.5||779|||
|Heini-Klopfer-Skiflugschanze||Oberstdorf||K-185||HS 213||Harri Olli||225.5||740|||
|1969||Letalnica bratov Gorišek||Planica||K-200||HS 225||Peter Prevc||248.5||815|||
|1970||Copper Peak[nb 9]||Ironwood, Michigan||K-145||HS 175|| Werner Schuster
|1980||Čerťák||Harrachov||K-185||HS 205|| Matti Hautamäki
Ski flying events
The first Ski Flying World Championships were held in Planica in 1972 and have been staged biennially at all hills (except Copper Peak) since 1988. The event replaced various incarnations of International Ski Flying Week, which ran from 1950 to 1978. Gold, silver and bronze medals are awarded, with the winner receiving the title of Ski Flying World Champion. Team competitions were added in 2004.
Ski flying events outside of the World Championships are a regular feature on the Ski Jumping World Cup calendar, usually taking place on two or three hills only. Because athletes almost always participate in both disciplines, points scored in ski flying also count towards the Ski Jumping World Cup standings. However, since 1991, a separate title and trophy – the Ski Flying World Cup – has been awarded at the end of each season to the overall points winner of solely those events. This should not be confused with the Ski Flying World Championships which, like the Ski Jumping World Championships, are a distinct event from the World Cup and not included as part of those points standings.
Rules and technique
Ski jumpers – or in this case ski flyers – take off at speeds between 98–109 kilometres per hour (61–68 mph), flying as high as 6–9 metres (20–30 ft) above the hill, accelerating to around 120–130 kilometres per hour (75–81 mph) before landing, and spending up to nine seconds in the air; all these figures are considerably less in ski jumping. David Goldstrom, longtime commentator for British Eurosport, once described the appearance of ski flying as that of "flying like a bird".
A ski jump – or ski flight – begins from the 'inrun', a ramp at the top of the hill in the form of a tower or set naturally against the hill formation. Access to this area is via ski lift or on foot. Atop the inrun, there are several numbered 'start gates' on which the athlete sits and awaits a signal via a set of traffic lights (green, yellow and red). The FIS 'race director' and 'jury', who are in charge of the entire event, are responsible for these lights. An athlete may enter the gate when yellow is shown. If red is shown after this point, the wind conditions will have been deemed unfavourable for a safe jump: the athlete must then carefully exit the gate as they had entered it and await another opportunity to jump. Failure to dismount the gate within ten to fifteen seconds, or jumping without being given the signal to go, will disqualify the athlete.
Wind is measured in metres per second (m/s) in the form of front, back and crosswind components. A hard limit, or 'corridor', of 3 metres (9.8 ft) per second is permitted at any time: if this is exceeded, all pending jumps are halted until the wind settles to an acceptable level. Since weather conditions must be optimal in order to jump competitively and safely, they are actively monitored by the race director and jury who continuously make decisions on how an event will progress.
The resulting delays may last anywhere from under a minute, to many minutes depending on how variable the conditions are observed to be. The position of the gate also determines the inrun speed, creating a difference of as much as 10 kilometres per hour (6.2 mph) depending on whether the gate is set higher or lower. Based on the jury's decision, the gate number is subject to being adjusted accordingly; including between jumps.
If conditions are normal and green is shown, the athlete's coach – who is situated lower down the inrun with a flag in hand – gives them the final signal to go. Once given this signal, the athlete drops down from the gate to a crouching position and descends the inrun. Speed is rapidly picked up within seconds via built-in tracks into which the skis are slotted. A skilled athlete must make an effort to reduce friction by not allowing the skis to bump too much against the sides of the tracks. No ski poles are used, and no assistance from others (such as a push from the gate) is allowed.
Walter Hofer has been the FIS chief race director of ski flying and ski jumping events since 1992. Miran Tepeš, a former ski jumper himself, is the assistant race director and second-in-command to Hofer. The aforementioned traffic lights are operated directly by Tepeš.
The athlete is propelled forward off the 'table' (the very end of the inrun) with a tremendous burst of energy that requires great leg strength. At this very instant, they adopt their own unique aerodynamic flying position in what is called the 'transition'; all of this taking place in only a tenth of a second. Timing is crucial and there is very little margin for error at this critical phase, which can mean the difference between an excellent, average or poor jump. Overration of the body (leaning too far forward), or a loss of balance or air pressure under the skis can lead to disaster; see the section on accidents below. Much like aircraft wings, the skis are flexible to an extent, which results in them visually bending upon takeoff.
Once the athlete is in the air, characteristics similar to that of a glider come into force. Ski flyers are able to cover such tremendous distances and land safely primarily due to the skis they use, which are substantially wider and longer than their cross-country or alpine skiing counterparts. Skilful use of front wind and thermal updrafts from the hill (often involving some degree of luck) is used to generate additional lift, creating pressure under the unusually large skis and allowing athletes to effectively ride on a 'cushion of air'. A reasonable amount of front wind is favourable to a long jump as it has the effect of delaying the athlete's descent back onto the hill, whereas back wind is considered unfavourable and tends to shorten a jump by pushing them downwards towards the hill too early.
To further aid the athletes to glide as aerodynamically as possible, they wear a one-piece fabric bodysuit more similar to a wingsuit than a ski suit. This bodysuit is loose-fitting and generates yet more lift, but the amount of slack is stringently regulated by the FIS so as to not allow for excessive bagginess and thereby reducing its wingsuit-, sail- or parachute-like properties. By the early 2000s, bodysuits had reached exceptionally baggy proportions, resulting in humorous comparisons to flying squirrels. A ban on these baggy suits came into effect soon after, and today the level of slack for bodysuits is measured by FIS scrutineers after each jump: if the amount is exceeded, that athlete is disqualified due to an 'equipment violation'.
The ultimate aim is to land on, or ideally surpass, the K-point. In order to attain the most points from the style judges, athletes strive for a 'Telemark' landing: rather than simply land with both feet together, one foot is placed in front of the other and the body held stable with arms outstretched until the 'outrun' line (a zone at the very end of the hill, where the sloped has fully flattened out) is reached. Failing to make a Telemark landing results in a loss of style points. Considerably more points are lost if a landing fails before the outrun line, such as falling over or touching the ground with any part of the body except the feet.
Distance is measured from the edge of the table to the point of landing by increments of 0.5 metres (1.6 ft). This is done using electronic and video monitoring systems together with people assigned to observe jumps by the side of the hill, known as 'distance measurers'. If enough jumps are deemed to be too near the 'critical point' – where the slope begins to flatten out – an immediate meeting is held between the jury and race director, which usually results in the gate being lowered so as to curb inrun speeds and therefore distances.
Scoring and judging
Ski flying uses the same points system as ski jumping, with only one minor difference. In ski jumping, a metre has a value of 2 points for normal hills and 1.8 points for large hills; in ski flying, a metre is worth 1.2 points. This value is multiplied by the number of the K-point: an athlete who lands on a K-point of 185 m receives 222 points. For a K-point of 200 m, 240 points are earned. Importantly, 'bonus points' are available for every metre beyond the K-point. Points for distance form the bulk of an athlete's total score for a single jump.
Another crucial element of scoring are 'style points' awarded by the judges. Five representatives are selected from different countries, who are situated in an observation tower by the side of the hill. They each award points up to 20, in increments of 0.5, based on stylistic merit:
- An athlete's skis should be kept steady and flat during flight, ideally avoiding excessive 'paddling' or an inward cant
- Good balance, an efficient body position and posture should be maintained with minimal arm movement
- The landing should be in a Telemark manner
- If a Telemark landing is not made, 2 style points are deducted
- If a landing is made but fails before the outrun line, a maximum of 5 style points must be deducted
Notably, the highest and lowest judges' scores are omitted, giving a maximum of 60 style points. A perfect jump on a K-200 hill would therefore garner a minimum of 300 points, or more depending on bonus points for distance. However, such a scenario is only an example and not representative of the highly variable nature of the sport. Gaining one or more scores of 20 is very rare, and five is extremely rare. Generally, a good to excellent jump can be expected to receive judges' scores of 18 to 19.5. While a lower score for style puts an athlete at the risk of being less competitive, this may be mitigated or even nullified if they have attained substantial bonus points for distance.
A ski flying event consists of several preliminary stages, culminating in a competition to decide a winner and subsequent order. There are up to three of these competitions – individual and/or team – contested independently on separate days. These are preceded by a qualification round on the opening day of the event, in which 40 to 70 athletes each jump once to ensure their place for the rest of the event. 40 of these places are available, compared to 50 in ski jumping. If the very last competition of the season takes place on a ski flying hill, only 30 will jump.
On the opening day of the event, a non-scoring 'training' round takes place; there is also a non-scoring 'trial' round before each competition. Both are essentially practice rounds. The order of jumps – or 'starting order' – in qualification is based on the athletes' positions in the Ski Jumping World Cup standings in ascending order of points, with the leader (who is assigned a distinctive yellow bib) going last. A unique feature of the World Cup, which applies to both ski flying and ski jumping events, is that the current top ten athletes going into a qualification round are said to be 'pre-qualified': their place in the competition is already secure, so their jump is optional.
The competition itself is composed of two rounds. In round one, all qualified athletes complete a single jump in the aforementioned World Cup order. Only the top 30 points scorers from the first round proceed to the second, while the rest are eliminated from the competition. In round two, the starting order is instead based solely on the points gained in the first round: the lowest scoring athlete jumps first, while the leader has the very last jump of the competition. When both rounds are completed, the athlete with the most points overall is declared the winner. A podium ceremony is held immediately afterwards for the top three finalists, who each receive prize money allocated by the FIS.
A common situation in ski jumping, and especially ski flying due to the magnified risks overall, arises when unfavourable weather conditions cause a competition to be cut short or cancelled completely; it is also not uncommon for an entire event to be cancelled. Reasons include strong winds, a lack of (or too much) snow, and poor visibility for athletes and/or judges. In the case of a shortened competition, the scores from the first round – if completed – are used to determine the final result. This is called a single-round competition and still counts towards the World Cup.
As in ski jumping, team competitions are often included at ski flying events. These are contested as part of the World Cup, but points instead count towards a separate Nations Cup for teams; athletes' individual World Cup standings are unaffected by team competitions.
A national team is made up of four athletes selected by their head coach. There can be upwards of eight teams from different countries, providing they are able to field a full team of four. Just like individual competitions, there are two rounds, but with a difference. Each round is divided into four rotations, in which a member of every team jumps once.
Points are the same as they are in individual competitions, however an athlete's points for a jump are instead added to their team's total tally. Teams are narrowed down to eight for the second round based on points scored, with the same four athletes jumping in their order of rotation as before. The winning team is the one with the most points at the end of the competition, after which the top three final teams participate in a podium ceremony.
Ski flying specialists
A number of athletes have been regarded as ski flying specialists for their ability to consistently produce very long jumps and often world records:
- Anders Fannemel – the current world record holder with 251.5 metres (825 ft)
- Peter Prevc – the first to ever land a jump of 250 metres (820 ft) and the current hill record holder in Planica with 248.5 metres (815 ft), which are respectively the second and third longest official jumps in history. He has also landed sixteen jumps over 230 metres (750 ft), by far the most of anyone.
- Matti Nykänen – 1985 Ski Flying World Champion and the only male five-time world record holder. He was once described by American TV commentators as "the best aviator out there today; he knows how to fly."
- Matti Hautamäki – four-time world record holder and the current hill record holder in Harrachov, with 214.5 metres (704 ft)
- Bjørn Einar Romøren and Tommy Ingebrigtsen – both two-time world record holders
- Robert Kranjec – 2012 Ski Flying World Champion who has stated a preference for the discipline. He also holds the unofficial hill record in Oberstdorf, with 226 metres (741 ft), but fell upon landing.
- Jurij Tepeš – twelve jumps over 230 m; the second most after Prevc. He holds the unofficial hill record in Harrachov, with 220 metres (720 ft), but fell upon landing.
Others noted for their proficiency and success at ski flying include:
- Walter Steiner – 1972 and 1977 Ski Flying World Champion, and former world record holder
- Mike Holland – the last American ski jumper to hold a world record, who has said "ski flying was my speciality"
- Noriaki Kasai – 1992 Ski Flying World Champion and the current Japanese national record holder with 240.5 metres (789 ft)
- Andreas Goldberger – 1996 Ski Flying World Champion and former world record holder
- Sven Hannawald – 2000 and 2002 Ski Flying World Champion
- Roar Ljøkelsøy – 2004 and 2006 Ski Flying World Champion
- Gregor Schlierenzauer – 2008 Ski Flying World Champion with eleven jumps over 230 m; the third most after Prevc and Tepeš. He also holds the Austrian national record, with 243.5 metres (799 ft).
- Severin Freund – 2014 Ski Flying World Champion and the current hill record holder in Kulm, with 237.5 metres (779 ft). He also holds the German national record, with 245 metres (804 ft).
Some have fared better at ski flying than ski jumping:
- Martin Koch – acknowledged as an expert in the discipline and indeed scored four out of five of his total World Cup wins on ski flying hills
- Harri Olli – two of his three World Cup wins have taken place on ski flying hills. He is also the hill record holder in Oberstdorf, with 225.5 metres (740 ft).
- Florian Liegl and Johan Remen Evensen (two-time world record holder) – both scored their only individual World Cup wins on ski flying hills
Conversely, prominent athletes who won the overall Ski Jumping World Cup but never a ski flying event include:
World Cup titleholders who only won once on a ski flying hill:
Women in ski flying
Women have also had a presence in ski flying. The women's world record currently stands at 200 metres (660 ft), set in 2003 by Daniela Iraschko-Stolz in Kulm. At the same location, in 1997, Eva Ganster set an unprecedented six world records for women (an amount since unmatched by any woman or man) in a span of five days, bringing her tally to a final figure of 167 metres (548 ft). Despite these successes, women have yet to participate in ski flying at World Cup level. The first ever Ski Jumping World Cup season for women was held in 2011–12, but as of yet no ski flying events have been sanctioned.
Ever since its inception in 1936, ski flying has centred around Slovenia. The first ever recorded jumps of over 100 and 200 m, together with a total of 41 world records, have been set on two different hills in the alpine valley of Planica: Bloudkova velikanka, which has since been re-established as a ski jumping large hill, and its successor Letalnica bratov Gorišek, dubbed "the monster hill". Since 1997, with very few exceptions, the Ski Jumping World Cup has traditionally held its season finale in Planica. This takes place usually on Letalnica, but is occasionally moved to Bloudkova (most recently in 2014, during renovation at Letalnica).
Slovenian athletes have also been highly successful in Planica, albeit only recently. They have held a near-lockout on the top spot since 2012, when Robert Kranjec won the individual competition (having already won the Ski Flying World Championships in Vikersund a month prior). In 2013, Slovenia won the team competition with Kranjec, Jurij Tepeš, Peter Prevc and Andraž Pograjc; Tepeš also won the individual competition. The Slovenian team repeated their victory in 2015 with Kranjec, Tepeš, Prevc and Anže Semenič, much to the delight of 30,000 fans; both Prevc and Tepeš won the individual competitions, each gaining a highly rare five scores of 20 from the judges.
Due to the extreme speeds and heights involved, coupled with potentially hazardous and unpredictable wind conditions, ski flying has long had a reputation as a dangerous sport. It has been described as an extreme sport, and in terms such as "simply insane" and the "gnarlier, even more dangerous, faceplant-ridden cousin" of ski jumping. Indeed, many spectacular accidents (known as 'falls' or 'crashes') have occurred throughout its history on almost every hill:
|7 Mar 1970||Oberstdorf||International Ski Flying Week||Vinko Bogataj||Lost balance while descending the inrun, causing him to tumble wildly off the side directly in front of a group of shocked spectactors. No head protection was worn during this era.||Concussion for Bogataj, who continued his career for a short while longer. Likely the most famous ski flying accident in history, being broadcast to American audiences on ABC's Wide World of Sports. The international exposure gave Bogataj the unfortunate moniker, "The Agony of Defeat".|||
|Mar 1980||Harrachov||Ski Jumping World Cup||Pavel Ploc||Crashed heavily from a height of 9 metres (30 ft) onto the slope.||Recovered and later set a world record at the same venue in 1983.|||
|1 Jan 1983||Ski Flying World Championships|| Horst Bulau
|All three crashed at various stages of the event, similarly to Ploc in 1980. Inrun speed for Bråten was 115.2 kilometres per hour (71.6 mph).||Concussion for Bulau, who nonetheless finished second in that season's World Cup standings. Bråten recovered well enough to score his lone career win later in the season. Weißflog would go on to become one of the all-time greats in ski jumping.||
|23 Feb 1985||Ski Jumping World Cup||Pavel Ploc||Crashed and somersaulted violently down the hill.||Escaped without major injury. Was able to claim bronze in the 1985 Ski Flying World Championships in Planica, less than a month later.|||
|9 Mar 1986||Kulm||Ski Flying World Championships|| Masahiro Akimoto
Rolf Åge Berg
|All three suffered brutal crashes, from a height of 9 m, on the final day of the event due to dangerous wind conditions.||Fractured ankle, chest and shoulder injuries for Akimoto. Cardiac arrest for Findeisen, who survived and continued a relatively successful career. Concussion and a broken cruciate ligament for Berg, whose injuries were career-ending.||
|13 Mar 1987||Planica||Ski Jumping World Cup||Robert Selbekk-Hansen||Crashed face-first from a height of 9 m after clearing the knoll.|||
|22 Mar 1992||Harrachov||Ski Flying World Championships||Andreas Goldberger||Crashed very hard on the first day of the event due to dangerous wind conditions. Inrun speed was 107.4 kilometres per hour (66.7 mph)||Broken arm and collarbone. Finished second in the event standings (the second day of which was cancelled) and enjoyed much success in a lengthy career.|||
|28 Feb 1998||Vikersund||Ski Jumping World Cup||Tommy Egeberg||Crashed at the top of the hill. Aged just 16, this was his first time at attempting ski flying.||Event was cancelled. Egeberg hospitalised overnight with a broken nose and light concussion, but continued his career until 2006.|||
|18 Mar 1999||Planica||Ski Jumping World Cup||Valery Kobelev||Crashed and landed head-first onto the hill, sliding unconscious down the slope. Inrun speed was 104.7 kilometres per hour (65.1 mph).||Induced coma for several months. Recovered well enough to continue his career until 2006.|||
|14 Feb 2000||Vikersund||Ski Flying World Championships||Arthur Khamidulin||Crashed near the top of the hill and was knocked out, sliding down unconscious the rest of the way.||Concussion. Never competed in the sport again.|||
|19 Mar 2000||Planica||Ski Jumping World Cup||Takanobu Okabe||Crashed similarly to Kobelev in 1999. Inrun speed was 100 kilometres per hour (62 mph).||Returned in the following season and continued in the sport for almost another decade with some success.|||
|16 Mar 2001||Ski Jumping World Cup||Robert Kranjec||Crashed near the top of the hill, somersaulting violently down the slope.||Returned in the following season to continue a successful career and remains active as of 2015.|||
|22 Mar 2002||Ski Jumping World Cup||Tomasz Pochwała||Crashed similarly to Kranjec in 2001. Inrun speed was 105.1 kilometres per hour (65.3 mph).||Returned in the following season. Later switched to Nordic combined.|||
|10 Jan 2014||Kulm||Ski Jumping World Cup||Thomas Morgenstern||Crashed after clearing the table, landing on his head and back. Inrun speed was 100.4 kilometres per hour (62.4 mph).||Recovered well enough to take part in the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, but retired at the end of the season.|||
As jumps have increased in distance, occasionally the absolute hill limit – named the 'critical point' – is exceeded. This is known as "landing on the flat", which occurs when an athlete jumps too far beyond the safety of the slope and lands on flat ground:
|1 Jan 1973||Oberstdorf||Ski Flying World Championships||Walter Steiner||Crashed after landing on near-flat ground at 175 metres (574 ft) and 179 metres (587 ft).||Concussion and a fractured rib. Finished second in the event.|||
|16/17 Mar 1974||Planica||International Ski Flying Week||Crashed after landing on near-flat ground at 177 metres (581 ft).||Walked away with facial cuts. Won the event with a world record set prior to the crash.|
|20 Mar 2005||Planica||Ski Jumping World Cup||Janne Ahonen||Forced to abort his jump due to excessive height and a rapidly flattening hill. From a height of about 4.5 metres (15 ft) he landed hard on his back and head at 240 metres (790 ft), a distance at which virtually no slope remained.||Stretchered away with minor injuries. Was able to attend a podium ceremony later in the event for winning the 2004–05 Ski Jumping World Cup. Continued his career with further success and remains active as of 2015.|||
|2 Feb 2013||Harrachov||Ski Jumping World Cup||Jurij Tepeš||Aborted his jump from a height of about 3 metres (9.8 ft), causing him to crash down well beyond the hill limits and onto near-flat ground at 220 metres (720 ft).||Walked away unhurt. His jump remains unofficially the longest made on the hill as of 2015.|||
|15 Feb 2015||Vikersund||Ski Jumping World Cup||Dmitry Vassiliev||Stretched his jump far beyond the hill size boundary and reached flat ground at 254 metres (833 ft), landing hard on his back and head.||Able to walk away and compete the next day. His jump remains unofficially the longest ever made in the sport as of 2015.|||
As of 2015:
- Austria: ORF
- Finland: MTV3
- Germany: ZDF
- Norway: NRK
- Poland: TVP
- UK: British Eurosport
- US: ABC (1970s–80s)
Ski flying in other media
- From 1970 to 1998, Vinko Bogataj's crash in Oberstdorf was featured prominently on the opening montage of ABC's Wide World of Sports in the United States
- The career of Walter Steiner was documented in the 1974 film, The Great Ecstasy of Woodcarver Steiner, by filmmaker Werner Herzog
Spectators lining the hill at Bloudkova velikanka in Planica, 1960
A marker board indicating Johan Remen Evensen's world record in Vikersund, 2011
- "Die Luft drückte gewaltig gegen meine Brust, ich legte mich richtig drauf und ließ mich von ihr tragen. Ich hatte nur den einen Wunsch: immer so weiterfliegen! ... Viele tausend Augen starrten gespannt hinauf zum Kampfrichterturm. Ich konnte es fast nicht glauben, als neben der normalen Anzeigetafel eine 'Eins' herausgeklappt wurde!"
- Quoted directly from English subtitles.
- Quoted directly from English subtitles.
- Quoted directly from English subtitles.
- "Se oli sellainen hyppy, että vielä keulalle kun tuli laskuasennossa, eikä tiennyt yhtään mitä on vastassa, niin muistan kun jalat tärräsivät. Niin paljon hirvitti. ... Siitä juuri tulee ne parhaat fiilikset, että pystyy voittamaan omat pelot. Lajin luonne on sellainen, että on pakko haastaa itseään. Siksi tämä hyppy on jäänyt uralta kohokohtana mieleen."
- "Mitä kauemmin pysyy ilmassa, sen hauskempaa."
- Recategorised as a ski jumping hill after Letalnica bratov Gorišek came into use.
- Last hill record holder until the venue fell into disuse.
- Not in use since 1994. The organisers have since decided to convert it to a large ski jumping hill with the capability of staging summer events.
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- The Great Ecstasy of Woodcarver Steiner. 1974.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ski jumping.|
- Jahn, Jens; Theiner, Egon (2004). Enzyklopädie des Skispringens (in German). Kassel: Agon Sportverlag. ISBN 3-89784-099-5.
- Thoresen, Arne (2007). Lengst gjennom lufta (in Norwegian). Oslo: Versal. ISBN 978-82-8188-030-6.
- KOP official website (in German)