Ski jumping

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Ski jumping
Magnus Moan (4450277944).jpg
A ski jumper, Magnus Moan, descending the hill at Holmenkollbakken in Oslo
Highest governing body International Ski Federation
First played November 1808
Eidsberg church (Eidsberg, Norway)
Team members Individual or groups
Type Winter sport
Equipment Skis
Venue Worldwide
Olympic Since the first Winter Olympics in 1924

Ski jumping is a form of Nordic skiing in which athletes descend a specially constructed takeoff ramp (known as the inrun), jump from the end of it (the table) with as much power as they can generate, and "fly" as far as possible down a steeply sloped hill.[1] Points are awarded for distance and style by five judges, with competition sanctioned by the International Ski Federation (FIS). To enable the athletes (who are known as ski jumpers) to effectively glide such long distances and land safely, the skis they use are considerably wider and longer than their cross-country and alpine skiing counterparts. Ski jumping is predominantly a winter sport and has been part of the Winter Olympic Games since its inception in 1924,[2] but it can also be performed in the summer on artificial surfaces made from plastic. Along with cross-country skiing, ski jumping is one of two sports which form the Nordic combined discipline.


Eidsberg church in Norway, the site of the first ever known ski jump—a distance of 9.5 metres—set by lieutenant Olaf Rye in 1808

The recorded origins of ski jumping can be traced directly to November 1808, in which Danish-Norwegian lieutenant Olaf Rye launched himself 9.5 metres in the air as a show of courage to his fellow soldiers at Eidsberg church in Eidsberg, Norway.[3] By 1862, ski jumpers were facing much larger jumps and traveling longer. The very first recorded public competition was held at Trysil, Norway, on 22 January 1862. At this first competition, judges already awarded points for style ("elegance and smoothness"), participants had to complete three jumps without falling and rules were agreed upon in advance.[4] It is clear from the news report published in Morgenbladet that the ski jumping in Trysild was entertainment, but also a national, competitive sports event. The first known female ski jumper participated at the Trysil competition in 1863.[5] Norway's Sondre Norheim jumped 30 meters without the benefit of poles.[3] In 1866, the first skiing event held in Christiania near Old Aker Church was a combined cross-country, slalom and jumping competition, and attracted an audience of some 2,000 people. Sondre Norheim won his first competition in Christiania in 1868.[5] The first widely known ski jumping competition was the Husebyrennene, held in Oslo in 1879, with Olaf Haugann of Norway setting the first world record for the longest ski jump at 20 meters.[6] Explorer Fridtjof Nansen was a skilled skier and was number 7 in the 1881 competition at Huseby.[5] Until 1884–1886 jumping and cross-country was a single integrated competition: In 1886 at Huseby cross-country and jumping were held on separate days, and final results were calculated from the combined achievements (similar to present nordic combined).[5] The annual event was moved to Holmenkollen from 1892, and Holmenkollen has remained the pinnacle of ski jumping venues. To distinguish ski jumping competition only from Nordic combined, it is still referred to as "spesielt hopprenn" in Norwegian (ski jumping only).

In 1929, Norwegian instructors arrived in Sapporo to train the Japanese in ski jumping.[4]

The Large Hill competition was included on the Olympic programme for the 1964 Olympic Games in Innsbruck.


Natasha Solovyov in her flight phase at Tramplin Stork in Nizhniy Tagil, 2014
Nykänen's K-100 and smaller K-64 hill in Jyväskylä, Finland.

The FIS Ski Jumping World Cup is the highest level of the sport, and is contested on three types of hills:

  • Normal hill: the calculation line is set at approximately 80–100 metres (260–330 ft). Distances over 110 metres (360 ft) can be reached.
  • Large hill: the calculation line is set at approximately 120–130 metres (390–430 ft). Distances of over 150 metres (490 ft) can be reached, with this being the most commonly contested hill type on the World Cup calendar.
  • Ski flying hill: the calculation line is set at 185–200 metres (607–656 ft). Extremely long distances of over 240 metres (790 ft) can be reached, and it is on these hills where world records are set.

Amateur and junior level competitions are held on hills which are smaller than 80 m. The second level of senior competition, below the World Cup, is the FIS Ski Jumping Continental Cup. In addition to individual competitions on all three hill types, a lesser number of team competitions take place as part of the World Cup. In team events, four ski jumpers are chosen to represent their country. One member of each team participates in an opening round, until all teams have completed their jumps. The lowest-scoring teams (usually two or three) are then eliminated, after which a second round decides the winning team and subsequent order based on accumulated points.

Individual ski jumping at the Winter Olympics consists of a training jump and two scored jumps.

Summer ski jumping[edit]

Ski jumping can also be performed in the summer on an inrun where the tracks are made from porcelain and the grass on the slope is coated with plastic, combined with water. However, not all hills are equipped with these facilities. There are also many competitions during the summer, including the FIS Ski Jumping Grand Prix.

Women's ski jumping[edit]

Women competed at the 2009 Nordic World Ski Championships followed by a women's team event at the 2011 world championships.

In 2006 the FIS proposed that women could compete at the 2010 Winter Olympics,[7] but this was rejected by the IOC because of the low number of athletes and participating countries at the time.[8]

A group of fifteen competitive female ski jumpers later filed a suit against the Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games on the grounds that it violated the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms since men were competing.[9][10] The suit failed, with the judge ruling that the situation was not governed by the charter. Virginia Madsen told the story in the film called Fighting Gravity (2009).

The 2011–12 World Cup season was the very first in which women competed at World Cup level; previously, women had only competed in Continental Cup seasons.[11] The inaugural women's World Cup champion was Sarah Hendrickson. A further milestone was reached when women's ski jumping was included as part of the 2014 Winter Olympics.

Because they are lighter than men, female ski jumpers need a longer inrun and reach a higher landing speed. Injuries have affected a number of the sport's female athletes including Lisa Demetz,[12] Daniela Iraschko,[13] Anja Tepeš,[14] Caroline Espiau,[15] Alexandra Pretorius,[16] Sarah Hendrickson,[17] Jacqueline Seifriedsberger,[18] Svenja Würth,[19] Ema Klinec,[20] Ramona Straub,[21] Anja Tepeš,[22] Daniela Iraschko-Stolz,[23] Bigna Windmüller,[24] Lindsey Van,[25] Carina Vogt,[26] Manuela Malsiner,[27] and Elena Runggaldier.[28]

Mixed team ski jumping[edit]

A number of events took place in 2012:

  • The first mixed pairs event was held at Mostec, Slovenia.[29][30] ski jumping complex located in Šiška District, Ljubljana. On four different hills of size HS14, HS23, HS38 and HS62 mixed teams competed with each other by rules of elimination system. Slovenians Maja Vtič and Tomaž Naglič won.[31]
  • Mixed jumping at the FIS Grand Prix Ski Jumping event and first ever on plastic was held in Courchevel, France. Competition was held on normal La Praz olympic HS96 hill. The first full four member Mixed Team and first ever Grand Prix mixed team winner in history was team of Japan.
  • The first FIS World Cup Mixed Team event took place in Lillehammer, Norway. Competition was held on normal Lysgårdsbakken olympic HS100 hill. Each national mixed team consisted of four ski jumpers, two men and two women. The first World Cup mixed team winner was team of Norway.

Scoring and rules[edit]

Ski jumpers below the minimum safe body mass index are penalized with a shorter maximum ski length, reducing the aerodynamic lift they can achieve. These rules have been credited with stopping the most severe cases of underweight athletes, but some competitors still lose weight to maximize the distance they can jump.[32]

The winner is decided on a scoring system based on distance, style, inrun length and wind conditions.

Aerodynamics has become a factor of increasing importance in modern ski jumping, with recent rules addressing the regulation of ski jumping suits. This follows a period when loopholes in the rules seemed to favour skinny jumpers in stiff, air foil-like suits.

Each hill has a target called the calculation point (or K point or "critical point") which is a par distance to aim for. It is also the place where many jumpers land, in the middle of the landing area. This point is marked by the K line on the landing strip. For K-90 and K-120 competitions, the K line is at 90 metres (300 ft) and 120 metres (390 ft) respectively. Skiers are awarded 60 points if they land on the K Line. Skiers earn extra points for flying beyond the K Line, or lose points for every meter(~3 ft) they land short of the mark. The typical meter value is 2 points in small hills, 1.8 points in large hills and 1.2 points in ski-flying hills. Thus, it is possible for a jumper to get a negative score if the jump is way short of the K line with poor style marks (typically a fall hill where the slope begins to flatten as measured from the take off.

In addition, five judges are based in a tower to the side of the expected landing point. They can award up to 20 points each for style based on keeping the skis steady during flight, balance, good body position, and landing. The highest and lowest style scores are disregarded, with the remaining three scores added to the distance score. Thus, a perfectly scored K-120 jump – with at least four of the judges awarding 20 points each – and the jumper landing on the K-point, is awarded a total of 120 points.

In January 2010, a new scoring factor was introduced to compensate for variable outdoor conditions. Aerodynamics and take-off speed are important variables that determine the value of a jump, and if weather conditions change during a competition, the conditions will not be equal for everyone, which is unfair. The jumper will now receive or lose points if the inrun (or start gate) length is adjusted to provide optimal takeoff speed. An advanced calculation also determines plus/minus points for the actual wind conditions at the time of the jump. These points are added or withdrawn from the original scores from the jump itself.

In the individual event, the scores from each skier's two competition jumps are combined to determine the winner.


The ski jump is divided into four parts: in-run, take-off (jump), flight and landing. In each part the athlete is required to pay attention to and practice a particular technique in order to maximize the outcome of ultimate length and style marks.

Using the V-style, popularised in late 1980s by Jan Boklöv from Sweden and Jiří Malec from Czechoslovakia, skiers are able to exceed the distance of the take-off hill by about 10% compared to the previous technique with parallel skis. Previous techniques first included the Kongsberger technique, the Däescher technique and the Windisch technique.[33] Until the mid-1970s, the ski jumper came down the in-run of the hill with both arms pointing forwards. This changed when the former East German Ski jumper Jochen Danneberg introduced the new in-run technique of directing the arms backwards in a more aerodynamic position.

The landing requires the skiers to touch the ground in the Telemark landing style. This involves the jumper landing with one foot in front of the other, mimicking the style of the Norwegian inventors of Telemark skiing. Failure to comply with this regulation leads to the deduction of style marks (points).

Historic jumps[edit]


First Jump Date Ski Jumper Country Hill Place Meters Yards Feet
In history 1897 Ragna Pettersen  Norway Nydalsbakken Aker, Norway 12.0 13.1 39
Over 50 meters 1932 Johanne Kolstad  Norway Gråkallbakken Trondheim, Norway 62.0 67.8 203
Over 100 meters 29 Mar 1981 Tiina Lehtola  Finland Rukatunturi Kuusamo, Finland 110.0 120.3 361
Over 150 meters 5 Feb 1994 Eva Ganster  Austria Kulm Tauplitz/Bad Mitterndorf, Austria 161.0 176.1 528
Over 200 meters 29 Jan 2003 Daniela Iraschko  Austria Kulm Tauplitz/Bad Mitterndorf, Austria 200.0 218.7 656


First Jump Date Ski Jumper Country Hill Place Meters Yards Feet
In history Nov 1808 Olaf Rye  Norway Eidsberg church Eidsberg, Norway 9.5 10.4 31
Over 50 meters 16 Feb 1913 Ragnar Omtvedt  United States Wolverine Hill Ironwood, United States 51.5 56.3 169
Over 100 meters 15 Mar 1936 Josef Bradl  Austria Bloudkova velikanka Planica, Kingdom of Yugoslavia 101.5 111.0 333
Over 150 meters 11 Feb 1967 Lars Grini  Norway Heini-Klopfer-Skiflugschanze Oberstdorf, West Germany 150.0 164.0 492
Over 200 meters 17 Mar 1994 Toni Nieminen  Finland Velikanka bratov Gorišek Planica, Slovenia 203.0 222.0 666
Over 250 meters 14 Feb 2015 Peter Prevc  Slovenia Vikersundbakken Vikersund, Norway 250.0 273.4 820

Ski flying[edit]

Main article: Ski flying

All-time records[edit]

As of 9 January 2015

Highest attendance[edit]

Single daily events with more than 50,000 people. List is not complete:

Rank Attendance Location Date Hill Competition
1 220,000 Germany Garmisch-Partenkirchen 16 Feb 1936 Große Olympiaschanze 1936 Winter Olympics
2 143,000 Norway Holmenkollen 14 Feb 1952 Holmenkollbakken 1952 Winter Olympics
3 120,000 Poland Zakopane 18 Feb 1962 Wielka Krokiew 1962 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships
4 106,000 Norway Holmenkollen Mar 1946 Holmenkollbakken The Peace Competition
5 100,000 Slovenia Planica 16 Mar 1985 Velikanka bratov Gorišek 1985 FIS Ski-Flying World Championships
6 70,000 Slovenia Planica 22 Mar 1997 Velikanka bratov Gorišek 1996–97 FIS World Cup Final
7 70,000 Norway Holmenkollen 3 Mar 2011 Holmenkollbakken 2011 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships
8 55,000 Slovenia Planica 20 Mar 2010 Letalnica bratov Gorišek 2010 FIS Ski-Flying World Championships
9 50,000 Slovenia Planica 14 Mar 1987 Velikanka bratov Gorišek 1986–87 FIS World Cup Final
10 50,000 Japan Nagano 17 Feb 1998 Hakuba Ski Jumping Stadium 1998 Winter Olympics

Perfect score jumps: 5 x 20[edit]

Those who have managed to show a perfect jump, which means that all five judges attributed the maximum style score of 20 points for their jumps. So far only 7 jumpers are recorded to have achieved this:

No. Date Ski jumper Rank Hill Size Location Round Competition Meters Yards Feet
1 7 Mar 1976 Austria Anton Innauer 1 Heini-Klopfer-Skiflugschanze K-175 FH Oberstdorf, Germany - KOP International Ski Flying Week 176.0 192.5 577
2 25 Jan 1998 Japan Kazuyoshi Funaki 1 Heini-Klopfer-Skiflugschanze K-185 FH Oberstdorf, Germany Final World Cup / Ski Flying World Championships 205.5 224.7 674
3 15 Feb 1998 Japan Kazuyoshi Funaki 1 Hakuba K-120 LH Nagano, Japan Final Olympic Games 132.5 149.9 438
4 17 Jan 1999 Japan Kazuyoshi Funaki 2 Wielka Krokiew K-116 LH Zakopane, Poland First World Cup 119.0 130.1 390
5 8 Feb 2003 Germany Sven Hannawald 1 Mühlenkopfschanze K-130 LH Willingen, Germany First World Cup 142.0 155.3 466
6 8 Feb 2003 Japan Hideharu Miyahira 6 Mühlenkopfschanze K-130 LH Willingen, Germany Final World Cup 135.5 148.2 445
7 6 Jan 2009 Austria Wolfgang Loitzl 1 Paul-Ausserleitner-Schanze HS 140 (night) LH Bischofshofen, Austria First Four Hills Tournament 142.5 155.8 468
8 20 Mar 2015 Slovenia Peter Prevc 1 Letalnica bratov Gorišek HS 225 FH Planica, Slovenia Final World Cup 233.0 254.8 764
9 22 Mar 2015 Slovenia Jurij Tepeš 1 Letalnica bratov Gorišek HS 225 FH Planica, Slovenia Final World Cup 244.0 266.8 801

Sven Hannawald and Wolfgang Loitzl were attributed four times 20 (plus another 19,5) style score points for their second jump, thus receiving nine times the maximum score of 20 points within one competition.

Notable ski jumpers[edit]

Notable ski jumpers can be found in the following lists:


The view from the top of the ski jump in Park City, Utah after the 2002 Salt Lake Olympics
Ski jumping facility in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Letalnica Bratov Gorišek (outrun)
Letalnica Bratov Gorišek (inrun)
Currently active
Country Flag Name
Austria Austria Gregor Schlierenzauer
Andreas Kofler
Michael Hayböck
Manuel Fettner
Thomas Diethart
Wolfgang Loitzl
Stefan Kraft
Bulgaria Bulgaria Vladimir Zografski
Canada Canada Mackenzie Boyd-Clowes
Czech Republic Czech Republic Jakub Janda
Roman Koudelka
Jan Matura
Antonín Hájek
Čestmír Kožíšek
Lukáš Hlava
Finland Finland Janne Happonen
Lauri Asikainen
Ville Larinto
Anssi Koivuranta
Janne Ahonen
Olli Muotka
Sami Niemi
Jarkko Määttä
France France Vincent Descombes Sevoie
Ronan Lamy Chappuis
Germany Germany Michael Neumayer
Marinus Kraus
Richard Freitag
Andreas Wank
Andreas Wellinger
Severin Freund
Markus Eisenbichler
Karl Geiger
Greece Greece Nico Polychronidis
Italy Italy Sebastian Colloredo
Andrea Morassi
Roberto Dellasega
Davide Bresadola
Japan Japan Noriaki Kasai
Taku Takeuchi
Daiki Ito
Shōhei Tochimoto
Reruhi Shimizu
Junshirō Kobayashi
Yūta Watase
Kento Sakuyama
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Ivan Karaulov
Nikolay Karpenko
Alexey Korolev
Radik Zhaparov
Konstantin Sokolenko
Evgeni Levkin
Korea South Korea Choi Heung-Chul
Choi Yong-Jik
Kim Hyun-Ki
Kang Chil-Gu
Norway Norway Tom Hilde
Vegard Haukø Sklett
Bjørn Einar Romøren
Anders Bardal
Ole Marius Ingvaldsen
Anders Fannemel
Rune Velta
Anders Jacobsen
Phillip Sjøen
Daniel-André Tande
Poland Poland Kamil Stoch
Piotr Żyła
Stefan Hula
Krzysztof Miętus
Jan Ziobro
Maciej Kot
Dawid Kubacki
Krzysztof Biegun
Klemens Murańka
Jakub Wolny
Romania Romania Sorin Iulian Pîtea
Russia Russia Denis Kornilov
Dimitry Vassiliev
Ilya Rosliakov
Michail Maksimotschkin
Wladislaw Bojarinzew
Slovakia Slovakia Tomas Zmoray
Slovenia Slovenia Robert Kranjec
Jernej Damjan
Peter Prevc
Tomaž Naglič
Andraž Pograjc
Dejan Judež
Anže Semenič
Mitja Mežnar
Rok Justin
Anže Lanišek
Cene Prevc
Nejc Dežman
Robert Hrgota
Matjaž Pungertar
Jurij Tepeš
Jaka Hvala
Jure Šinkovec
Sweden Sweden Carl Nordin
Switzerland Switzerland Simon Ammann
Gregor Deschwanden
Ukraine Ukraine Vitaliy Shumbarets
USA United States Nicholas Alexander
Peter Frenette
Nicholas Fairall
Anders Johnson



National records[edit]

GDR stamp – Memorial for the Skijumper
Rank Ski jumper Nation Meters Feet Place Year Source
1 Anders Fannemel  Norway 251.5 825 Vikersund 2015 [34]
2 Peter Prevc  Slovenia 250.0 820 Vikersund 2015 [34]
3 Severin Freund  Germany 245.0 803 Vikersund 2015 [34]
4 Gregor Schlierenzauer  Austria 243.5 799 Vikersund 2011 [34]
5 Noriaki Kasai  Japan 240.5 790 Vikersund 2015 [34]
6 Janne Happonen  Finland 240.0 787 Vikersund 2011 [34]
7 Simon Ammann   Switzerland 238.5 782 Vikersund 2011 [34]
8 Kamil Stoch  Poland 238.0 781 Planica 2015 [34]
9 Antonín Hájek  Czech Republic 236.0 774 Planica 2010 [34]
10 Dimitry Vassiliev  Russia 233.5 766 Vikersund 2015 [34]
11 Vincent Descombes Sevoie  France 225.0 738 Vikersund 2012 [34]
12 Alan Alborn  United States 221.5 727 Planica 2002 [34]
13 Andrea Morassi  Italy 216.5 710 Planica 2012 [34]
14 Vladimir Zografski  Bulgaria 213.5 700 Planica 2013 [34]
15 Isak Grimholm  Sweden 207.5 681 Planica 2007 [34]
15 Choi Heung-Chul  South Korea 207.5 681 Planica 2008 [34]
17 Mackenzie Boyd-Clowes  Canada 205.0 673 Harrachov 2013 [34]
18 Kaarel Nurmsalu  Estonia 204.0 669 Vikersund 2012 [34]
19 Petr Chaadaev  Belarus 197.5 648 Kulm 2006 [34]
20 Radik Zhaparov  Kazakhstan 196.5 645 Planica 2007 [34]
21 Martin Mesik  Slovakia 195.5 641 Kulm 2006 [34]
22 Vitaliy Shumbarets  Ukraine 189.5 622 Planica 2009 [34]
23 Nico Polychronidis  Greece 186.0 610 Oberstdorf 2013 [34]
24 Christoph Kreuzer  Netherlands 162.0 531 Planica 2002 [34]
25 Faik Yüksel  Turkey 150.0 492 Oberstdorf 2000's [35]
26 Koba Tsakadze  Georgia 142.0 466 Vikersund 1967 [36]
27 Bernat Sola  Spain 141.0 463 Tauplitz 1986 [34]
28 Gábor Gellér  Hungary 139.0 456 Harrachov 1980 [34]
29 Andreas Bjelke Nygaard  Denmark 137.0 449 Lillehammer 2000's [34]
30 Selver Merdanović  Bosnia and Herzegovina 128.0 420 Zakopane 1989 [37]
31 Sorin Iulian Pîtea  Romania 127.0 417 Sochi 2014 [34]
32 Dmitry Chvykov  Kyrgyzstan 124.0 407 Innsbruck 2002 [38]
33 Tian Zhandong  China 121.5 399 Bischofshofen 2004 [39]
34 Eddie "The Eagle" Edwards  United Kingdom 115.0 377 Lake Placid 1997 [40]
35 Josip Šporer  Croatia 102.0 335 Planica 1940's [34]
35 Kristaps Nežborts  Latvia 102.0 335 Liberec 2012 [41]
37 Zbigniew Kiwert  Lithuania 86.0 282 Nizhny Novgorod 1960 [42]
38 Skarphéðinn Guðmundsson  Iceland 80.0 262 Squaw Valley 1960 [43]
39 Goga Popov junior  Macedonia 62.0 203 Planica 1952 [44]
40 Hal Nerdal  Australia 53.0 174 Squaw Valley 1960 [34]
Chris Hellerud 53.0 174 Falun 1974 [45]
41 Dunstan Odeke  Uganda 50.0 164 Oslo 1990's [45]
42 Božo Čvorović  Montenegro 46.0 151 Žabljak 1960's [46]
43 Vid Černe  Serbia 40.0 131 Jahorina 1949 [47]
44 Rembert Notten  Belgium 35.0 115 Rückershausen 2012 [48][49][50]
44 Richard Brown  Ireland 35.0 115 Göteborg 2002 [34]
46 Hans Holm  Greenland 23.3 76 Nuuk 1949 [51]
47 Brian MacMillan  New Zealand 18.6 61 Mount Cook 1937 [52]

See also[edit]


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  2. ^ "Ski Jumping". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2015-05-13. 
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  4. ^ a b Saur, Lasse (1999): Norske ski – til glede og besvær. Research report, Høgskolen i Finnmark.
  5. ^ a b c d Haarstad, Kjell (1993): Skisportens oppkomst i Norge. Trondheim: Tapir.
  6. ^ Oslo – Huseby (Ski Jumping Hill Archive)
  7. ^ "FIS MEDIA INFO: Decisions of the 45th International Ski Congress in Vilamoura/Algarve (POR)". Fédération Internationale de Ski. 2006-05-26. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  8. ^ IOC approves skicross; rejects women's ski jumping
  9. ^ Cindy Chan (2009-04-29). "Female Ski Jumpers Seem Olympic Inclusion". Epoch Times. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  10. ^ Christa Case Bryant (2009-11-08). "Why women can't ski jump in the Winter Olympics". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  11. ^ Jessica (2011-12-04). "USA's Sarah Hendrickson wins first-ever Women's Ski Jumping World Cup competition". Women's Sports & Entertainment Network. Retrieved 2015-01-28.
  12. ^ See Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  13. ^ See Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  14. ^ See Retrieved 21 August 2013,
  15. ^ See Retrieved 23 August 2013.
  16. ^ See Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  17. ^ See Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  18. ^ See Retrieved 5 January 2014.
  19. ^ See Retrieved 5 January 2014.
  20. ^ See Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  21. ^ See Retrieved 26 February 2014.
  22. ^ See Retrieved 26 February 2014.
  23. ^ See Retrieved 26 February 2014.
  24. ^ See Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  25. ^ See Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  26. ^ See Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  27. ^ See Retrieved 22 March 2014.
  28. ^ See Retrieved 22 March 2014.
  29. ^ "Prvič v zgodovini smučarskih skokov – tekma mešanih parov", Športna zveza Ljubljane, June 16, 2012
  30. ^ ski jumping hills in Mostec
  31. ^ video, (slovene), June 16, 2012
  32. ^ For Ski Jumpers, a Sliding Scale of Weight, Distance and Health
  33. ^ Development of ski jumping technique
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae "Rekordy i statystyki: Loty narciarskie". (in Polish). Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  35. ^ (from 6:28–6:38)
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  38. ^ "Results Training 1 Innsbruck, THU 3 JAN 2002" (PDF). Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  39. ^ "FIS Continental Cup Ski-Jumping 12th COC Competition Bischofshofen Ski-Jumping Individual K125 Official Results" (PDF). Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  40. ^ "Flying high Stuart Jeffries". theguardian. Retrieved 3 September 2007. 
  41. ^ Paweł Borkowski. "Nežborts z nowym rekordem Łotwy! Zobacz, jak skaczą Łotysze (wideo)". (in Polish). Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  42. ^ Henryk Mażul (May 2006). "Ptaki w locie naśladując". (in Polish). Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
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  44. ^ "Пред "Четирите скокалници" имаше четирикатна скокалница на Шапка". (in Macedonian). Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  45. ^ a b Adrian Dworakowski. "Egzotyczne skoki narciarskie". (in Polish). Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  46. ^ "Žabljak". Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  47. ^ "Prva skijaška skakaonica u Palama". (in Bosnian). Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  48. ^ "Neerpeltenaar kroont zich tot Belgisch kampioen schansspringen" (in Dutch). Het Belang van Limburg. 2012-06-13. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 
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