Ski jumping

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Ski jumping
FIS Ski Weltcup Titisee-Neustadt 2016 - Peter Prevc1.jpg
Highest governing body International Ski Federation (FIS)
First played 22 November 1808
Olaf Rye,
Eidsberg church, Eidsberg, Norway
Characteristics
Team members M Individual (50)
L Individual (40)
Team event (4)
Type Nordic skiing
Equipment skis
Venue Asia
Europe
North America
Presence
Olympic 1924 (men)
2014 (women)
World Championships 1925 (men's nordic)
1972 (ski flying)
2009 (women's nordic)

Ski jumping is a winter sport which was first contested in Norway in the late 19th century, and later spread through Europe and North America in the early 20th century.

The ski jumping venue consists of the jumping ramp (in-run), take-off table, and a landing hill. Each jump is evaluated according to the distance traveled and the style performed. The distance score is related to the construction point (also known as the K-point), which is a line drawn in the landing area and serves as a "target" for the competitors to reach.[1] The score of each judge evaluating the style can reach a maximum of 20 points.

The jumping techniques has evolved over the years, from jumps with the parallel skis with both arms pointing forwards, to the "V-style", which is widely used today.

Ski jumping has been included at the Winter Olympics since 1924 and at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships since 1925. Women's participation in the sport began in the 1990s, while the first women's event at the Olympics has been held in 2014. All major ski jumping competitions are organised by the International Ski Federation. Stefan Kraft holds the official record for the world's longest ski jump with 253.5 metres (832 ft), set on the ski flying hill in Vikersund in 2017.[2]

Ski jumping can also be performed in the summer on an in-run where the tracks are made from porcelain and the grass on the slope is covered with plastic, combined with water. The highest level summer competition is the FIS Ski Jumping Grand Prix, contested since 1994.

History[edit]

Like most of the Nordic skiing disciplines, the first ski jumping competitions were held in Norway in the 19th century, although the evidence of ski jumping in the late 18th century exist. The recorded origins of the first ski jump traces back to 1808, when Olaf Rye reached 9,5 metres (31 feet). Sondre Norheim, who is regarded as the "father" of the modern ski jumping, won the first-ever ski jumping competition with prizes, which was held in Høydalsmo in 1866.

The first larger ski jumping competition was held on Husebyrennet hill in Oslo, Norway, in 1875. The event was moved to Holmenkollen in 1892 due to the poor infrastructure and the weather conditions, and is today still one of the main ski jumping events in the season.

In the late 19th century, Sondre Norheim and Nordic skiier Karl Hovelsen emigrated to the United States and started developing the sport in the country. In 1924, ski jumping was featured at the 1924 Winter Olympics in Chamonix, France. The sport has been featured at the every Olympics since then.

Ski jumping was brought to Canada by Norwegian immigrant Nels Nelsen. Starting with his example in 1915 until the late 1960s, annual ski jumping competitions were held on Mount Revelstoke — the ski hill Nelsen designed — the longest period of any Canadian ski jumping venue. Revelstoke's was the biggest natural ski jump hill in Canada and internationally recognized as one of the best in North America. The length and natural grade of its 600 m hill made possible jumps of over 60 metres -- the longest in Canada. It was also the only hill in Canada where world ski jumping records were set, in 1916, 1921, 1925, 1932 and 1933.[3]

In 1935, the origins of the ski flying began in Planica, Slovenia, where Josef Bradl became the first competitor in the history to jump over 100 metres. At the same venue, the first official jump over 200 metres was achieved in 1994, when Toni Nieminen landed at 203 metres.[4]

In 1964 in Zakopane, Poland, the large hill event was introduced at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships. In the same year, the normal hill event was included on the Olympic programme at the 1964 Winter Olympics. The team event was added later, at the 1988 Winter Olympics.

In 1990, qualifiers for the main event were introduced to limit the number of competitors.

Rules[edit]

Hills[edit]

Model of the ski jumping hill. A-B = point of departure ; t = take-off zone; HS = total length of the hill; P-L = landing area; K = K-point.

The slopes are composed of the built-in ramp (or inrun) and the hill (natural or artificial) and are classified according to the distance that the competitors travel in the air, between the end of the table and the landing. Each hill has a construction point (K-point), which serves as a "target" that the competitors must reach. The classification of the hills are as follows:[5]

Class Construction point Hill size
Small hill to 45 metres to 50 metres
Medium hill 45–74 m 50–84 m
Normal hill 75–99 m 85–109 m
Large hill over 100 m over 110 m
Ski flying hill over 170 m over 185 m

Scoring system[edit]

The winner is decided with a scoring system based on distance, style, inrun length, gate factor and wind conditions. In the individual event, the scores from each skier's two competition jumps are combined to determine the winner. Aerodynamics has become a factor of increasing importance in modern ski jumping, with recent rules addressing the regulation of ski jumping suits.[6]

Distance score depends on the hill's K-point. For K-90 and K-120 competitions, the K-point is set at 90 metres (300 ft) and 120 metres (390 ft), respectively. Competitors are awarded 60 points (normal and large hills) and 120 points (flying hills) if they land on the K-point. For every metre beyond the K-point, the competitor is awarded extra points; the typical value is 2 points per metre in small hills, 1.8 points in large hills and 1.2 points in ski flying hills.

Gate factor is a scoring compensation for variable outdoor conditions. Aerodynamics and take-off speed are important variables that determine the value of a jump, and if weather conditions change during a competition, the conditions will not be the same for all competitors. The competitor receive or lose points if the inrun (or start gate) length is adjusted to provide optimal take-off speed. Points are added when the starting gate is moved up, and withdrawn when the gate is lowered.

An advanced calculation also determines compensation points for the actual unequal wind conditions at the time of the jump. These points are added or withdrawn from the original scores of the individual jump according to the wind conditions; when there is back wind, the points are added, and when there is front wind, the points are withdrawn. Wind speed and direction are measured at five different points based on average value, which is determined before every competition.

If two or more competitors finish the competition with the same number of points, they are given the same placing and receive same prizes.[5] Ski jumpers below the minimum safe body mass index are penalized with a shorter maximum ski length, reducing the aerodynamic lift they can achieve. These rules have been credited with stopping the most severe cases of underweight athletes, but some competitors still lose weight to maximize the distance they can achieve.[7]

Telemark landing

Judges[edit]

During the competition, five judges are based in a tower to the side of the expected landing point. They can award up to 20 points each for jumping style, based on keeping the skis steady during flight, balance, optimal body position, and landing. The highest and lowest style scores are disregarded, with the remaining three scores added to the distance score.[8]

Techniques[edit]

Kongsberger technique

Each jump is divided into four parts: in-run, take-off (jump), flight, and landing.

By using the V-style, firstly pioneered by Swedish ski jumper Jan Boklöv in the mid-1980s,[9] skiers are able to exceed the distance of the take-off hill by about 10% compared to the previous technique with parallel skis.[citation needed] Previous techniques included the Kongsberger technique, the Däescher technique and the Windisch technique.[9] Until the mid-1960s, the ski jumper came down the in-run of the hill with both arms pointing forwards. This changed when the Däscher technique was pioneered by Andreas Däscher in the 1950s, as a modification of the Kongsberger and Windisch techniques. A lesser-used technique as of 2017 is the H-style which is essentially a combination of the parallel and V-styles, in which the skis are spread very wide apart and held parallel in an "H" shape. It is prominently used by Domen Prevc.

The landing requires the skiers to touch the ground in the Telemark landing style (Norwegian: telemarksnedslag), named after the Norwegian county of Telemark. This involves the jumper landing with one foot in front of the other, mimicking the style of Telemark skiing. Failure to comply with this regulation leads to the deduction of style points, issued by the judges.[5][10]

Major competitions[edit]

All major ski jumping competitions are organized by the International Ski Federation.

Winter Olympic Games[edit]

The large hill ski jumping event was included at the Winter Olympic Games for the first time in 1924, and has been contested at every Winter Olympics since then.[11] The normal hill event was added in 1964. Since 1992, the normal hill event is contested at the K-90 size hill; previously, it was contested at the K-60 hill.[11] Women's debuted at the Winter Olympics in 2014.[12]

World Ski Championships[edit]

A ski jumper after landing on a hill equipped for summer events

The ski jumping at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships was firstly contested in 1925. The team event was introduced in 1982, while the women's event was firstly held in 2009.

Ski Flying World Championships[edit]

The FIS Ski Flying World Championships was firstly contested in 1972 in Planica.[13]

World Cup[edit]

The FIS Ski Jumping World Cup is contested since the 1979–80 season.[14]

Other competitions[edit]

Other competitions, organised by the International Ski Federation, include the FIS Ski Jumping Grand Prix, Continental Cup, FIS Cup, FIS Race, and Alpen Cup.

Ranked by level[edit]

Rank Competition Since
Men Women
1 Winter Olympic Games 1924 2014
2 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 1925 2009
3 FIS Ski Flying World Championships 1972 N/A
4 World Cup 1979 2011
5 Summer Grand Prix 1994 2012
6 Continental Cup (1991)
1993
2004
7 FIS Cup 2005 2012
8 FIS Race 1953 1999
9 Alpen Cup 1990 2001

Women's participation[edit]

In January 1863 in Trysil, Norway, at that time 16 years old Norwegian Ingrid Olsdatter Vestby, became the first-ever known female ski jumper, who participated in the competition. Her distance is not recorded.[15]

Women began competing at the high level since the 2004–05 Continental Cup season.[16] International Ski Federation organized three women's team events in this competition and so far the only team events in history of women's ski jumping.

Sara Takanashi is the most successful female ski jumper, winning the World Cup title on four occasions.

Women's made a premiere FIS Nordic World Ski Championships performance in 2009 in Liberec.[16] The first world champion became American ski jumper Lindsey Van.[17]

In the 2011–12 season, women's competed for the first time in the World Cup. The first event was held on 3 December 2011 at Lysgårdsbakken at normal hill in Lillehammer, Norway. The first-ever female World Cup winner was Sarah Hendrickson,[18] who also became the inaugural women's World Cup overall champion.[19] Previously, women had only competed in Continental Cup seasons.

2014: Olympic Games[edit]

In 2006, the International Ski Federation proposed that women could compete at the 2010 Winter Olympics,[20] but the proposal was rejected by the IOC because of the low number of athletes and participating countries at the time.[21]

A group of fifteen competitive female ski jumpers later filed a suit against the Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games on the grounds that it violated the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms since men were competing.[22][23] The suit failed, with the judge ruling that the situation was not governed by the charter.

A further milestone was reached when women's ski jumping was included as part of the 2014 Winter Olympics at normal hill event. The first Olympic champion was Carina Vogt.[12]

Historic jumps[edit]

Sepp Bradl became the first ski jumper to surpass 100 metres in 1936.
In 2003, Daniela Iraschko became the only female ski jumper in history to reach 200 metres.

Note: Only official results are listed, invalid jumps are not included.

Men[edit]

First jump Date Country Hill Place Meters Yards Feet
in history 22/11/1808 Olaf Rye Denmark Denmark–Norway Eidsberg church Eidsberg, Norway 9.5 10.4 31
over 50 metres 16/02/1913 Ragnar Omtvedt  United States Wolverine Hill Ironwood, Michigan, United States 51.5 56.3 169
over 100 metres 15/03/1936 Sepp Bradl  Austria Bloudkova velikanka Planica, Kingdom of Yugoslavia 101.5 111.0 340
over 150 metres 11/02/1967 Lars Grini  Norway Heini-Klopfer-Skiflugschanze Oberstdorf, West Germany 150.0 164.0 492
over 200 metres 17/03/1994 Toni Nieminen  Finland Velikanka bratov Gorišek Planica, Slovenia 203.0 222.0 666
over 250 metres 14/02/2015 Peter Prevc  Slovenia Vikersundbakken Vikersund, Norway 250.0 273.4 820

Women[edit]

First jump Date Country Hill Place Meters Yards Feet
in history 1863 Ingrid Olsdatter Vestby  Norway Nordbybakken Trysil, Norway unknown
over 50 meters 1932 Johanne Kolstad  Norway Gråkallbakken Trondheim, Norway 62.0 67.8 203
over 100 meters 29/03/1981 Tiina Lehtola  Finland Rukatunturi Kuusamo, Finland 110.0 120.3 361
over 150 meters 05/02/1994 Eva Ganster  Austria Kulm Tauplitz/Bad Mitterndorf, Austria 161.0 176.1 528
over 200 meters 29/01/2003 Daniela Iraschko  Austria Kulm Tauplitz/Bad Mitterndorf, Austria 200.0 218.7 656

Tandem[edit]

First jump Date Country Hill Place Meters Yards Feet
in history[24] 18/02/2016 Rok Urbanc
Jaka Rus
 Slovenia
 Slovenia
Planica Nordic Center HS45 Planica, Slovenia 35.0 38.3 115

Perfect score jumps: 5 x 20[edit]

Those who have managed to show a perfect jump, which means that all five judges attributed the maximum style score of 20 points for their jumps. Kazuyoshi Funaki, Sven Hannawald and Wolfgang Loitzl were attributed 4x20 (plus another 19.5) style score points for their second jump, thus receiving nine times the maximum score of 20 points within one competition. Kazuyoshi Funaki is the only one in history who achieved this more than once. So far only seven jumpers are recorded to have achieved this score in total of ten times:

No. Date Rank Hill Location Competition Metres Yards Feet
1 07/03/1976 Austria Anton Innauer 1st Heini-Klopfer-Skiflugschanze K175 Oberstdorf KOP International Ski Flying Week 176.0 192.5 577
2 24/01/1998 Japan Kazuyoshi Funaki 2nd Heini-Klopfer-Skiflugschanze K185 Oberstdorf World Cup / Ski Flying World Championships 187.5 205.0 615
3 25/01/1998 Japan Kazuyoshi Funaki 1st Heini-Klopfer-Skiflugschanze K185 Oberstdorf World Cup / Ski Flying World Championships 205.5 224.7 674
4 15/02/1998 Japan Kazuyoshi Funaki 1st Hakuba K120 Nagano Olympic Games 132.5 149.9 438
5 17/01/1999 Japan Kazuyoshi Funaki 2nd Wielka Krokiew K116 Zakopane World Cup 119.0 130.1 390
6 08/02/2003 Germany Sven Hannawald 1st Mühlenkopfschanze K130 Willingen World Cup 142.0 155.3 466
7 08/02/2003 Japan Hideharu Miyahira 6th Mühlenkopfschanze K130 Willingen World Cup 135.5 148.2 445
8 06/01/2009 Austria Wolfgang Loitzl 1st Paul-Ausserleitner-Schanze HS140 (night) Bischofshofen Four Hills Tournament 142.5 155.8 468
9 20/03/2015 Slovenia Peter Prevc 1st Letalnica bratov Gorišek HS225 Planica World Cup 233.0 254.8 764
10 22/03/2015 Slovenia Jurij Tepeš 1st Letalnica bratov Gorišek HS225 Planica World Cup 244.0 266.8 801

List of national records[edit]

The all-time longest jump was achieved in Vikersund in 2017.

Men[edit]

Nation Athlete Metres Feet Place Year Source
 Austria Stefan Kraft (WR) 253.5 831 Vikersund 2017 [2][25]
 Norway Robert Johansson 252.0 826 Vikersund 2017 [2][25]
 Poland Kamil Stoch 251.5 825 Planica 2017 [26][25]
 Slovenia Peter Prevc 250.0 820 Vikersund 2015 [27]
 Germany Markus Eisenbichler 248.0 814 Planica 2017 [25]
 United States Kevin Bickner 244.5 802 Vikersund 2017 [25]
 Japan Daiki Ito 243.0 797 Vikersund 2017 [25]
 Finland Janne Happonen 240.0 787 Vikersund 2011 [25]
  Switzerland Simon Ammann 239.5 785 Vikersund 2017 [25]
 Czech Republic Antonín Hájek 236.0 774 Planica 2010 [25]
 Russia Dimitry Vassiliev 233.5 766 Vikersund 2015 [25]
 Italy Alex Insam 232.5 763 Planica 2017 [25]
 France Vincent Descombes Sevoie 230.5 756 Vikersund 2016
 Canada Mackenzie Boyd-Clowes 224.0 735 Planica 2016 [28]
 Bulgaria Vladimir Zografski 213.5 700 Planica 2013
 Estonia Kaarel Nurmsalu 213.0 698 Planica 2017 [25]
 Sweden Isak Grimholm 207.5 681 Planica 2007 [25]
 South Korea Choi Heung-chul Planica 2008 [25]
 Belarus Petr Chaadaev 197.5 648 Kulm 2006 [25]
 Kazakhstan Radik Zhaparov 196.5 645 Planica 2007 [25]
 Slovakia Martin Mesik 195.5 641 Kulm 2006 [25]
 Ukraine Vitaliy Shumbarets 189.5 622 Planica 2009
 Greece Nico Polychronidis 186.0 610 Oberstdorf 2013 [25]
 Netherlands Christoph Kreuzer 162.0 531 Planica 2002 [25]
 Turkey Muhammed Munir Gungen 145.0 475 Rukatunturi 2016 [25]
 Georgia Koba Tsakadze 142.0 466 Vikersund 1967 [29]
 Spain Bernat Sola 141.0 463 Tauplitz 1986 [25]
 Hungary Gábor Gellér 139.0 456 Harrachov 1980s [25]
 Denmark Andreas Bjelke Nygaard 137.0 449 Lillehammer 2000s [25]
 United Kingdom Robert Lock 130.0 427 Park City 2015 [30]
 Romania Eduard Torok 128.0 420 Engelberg 2013 [25]
 Kyrgyzstan Dmitry Chvykov 124.0 407 Innsbruck 2002 [31]
 China Tian Zhandong 121.5 399 Bischofshofen 2004 [32]
 Croatia[a] Josip Šporer 102.0 335 Planica 1940s [33]
 Latvia Kristaps Nežborts Liberec 2012 [34]
 Lithuania[b] Zbigniew Kiwert 86.0 282 Nizhny Novgorod 1960 [35]
 Iceland Skarphéðinn Guðmundsson 80.0 262 Squaw Valley 1960 [36]
 Macedonia[a] Goga Popov junior 62.0 203 Planica 1952 [37]
 Australia Hal Nerdal 53.0 174 Squaw Valley 1960 [25]
Chris Hellerud Falun 1974 [38]
 Uganda Dunstan Odeke 50.0 164 Oslo 1990s [38]
 Montenegro[a] Božo Čvorović 46.0 151 Žabljak 1960s [39]
 Serbia[a] Vid Černe 40.0 131 Jahorina 1949 [40]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina[a] Džemo Zahirović 36.0 118 Jahorina 1949 [41]
 Belgium Rembert Notten 35.0 115 Rückershausen 2012 [42][43][44]
 Ireland Richard Brown Gothenburg 2002 [25]
 Greenland Hans Holm 23.3 76 Nuuk 1949 [45]
 New Zealand Brian MacMillan 18.6 61 Mount Cook 1937 [46]
  1. ^ a b c d e Part of Yugoslavia at the time.
  2. ^ Part of the Soviet Union at the time.

Women[edit]

Nation Athlete Metres Feet Place Year Source
 Austria Daniela Iraschko-Stolz (WR) 200.0 656 Kulm 2003 [47]
 Norway Anette Sagen 174.5 484 Vikersund 2004 [47]
 Sweden Helena Olsson 174.5 484 Vikersund 2004 [47]
 United States Lindsey Van 171.0 561 Vikersund 2004 [47]
 Germany Ulrike Gräßler 146.0 479 Willingen 2010 [47]
 Japan Sara Takanashi 141.0 463 Sapporo 2011 [47]
 Slovenia Špela Rogelj 140.0 459 Klingenthal 2012 [47]
 Russia Irina Taktayeva 137.0 449 [47]
  Switzerland Bigna Windmüller 133.0 436 Oberstdorf 2008 [47]
 France Julia Clair 131.5 431 Planica 2014 [47]
 Canada Atsuko Tanaka 130.0 426 Courchevel 2013 [47]
 Italy 130.0 426 Oslo 2016 [47]
 Finland Julia Kykkänen 125.0 410 Oslo 2016 [47]
 China Chang Xinyue 125.0 410 Lillehammer 2017 [47]
 Czech Republic Michaela Doleželová 116.5 382 Courchevel 2013 [47]
 Romania Daniela Haralambie 115.0 377 Oslo 2016 [47]
 Poland Kinga Raida 111.0 364 Planica 2016 [47]
 Netherlands Wendy Vuik 107.0 351 Oslo 2013 [47]
 Hungary Virág Vörös 101.0 331 Predazzo 2016 [47]
 Latvia Šarlote Šķēle 85.0 279 Predazzo 2013 [47]
 Estonia Anemarii Bendi 83.0 272 Otepää 2014 [47]
 Kazakhstan Valentina Sderzhikova 80.0 262 Szczyrk 2015 [47]
 South Korea Park Guy-lim 79.5 261 Notodden 2015 [47]
 Ukraine Khrystyna Droniak 77.0 253 Szczyrk 2016 [47]

Notable ski jumpers[edit]

To be included in the list, the male athlete needs to either win at least 20 individual World Cup events, have at least 400 individual starts in the World Cup, or win three or more medals at the Winter Olympics.[48][49] The female athlete needs to either win at least 10 individual World Cup events or win the medal at the Winter Olympics.[50][51]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

General
Specific
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  2. ^ a b c "Kraft Sets World Record in Ski Jumping". U.S. News & World Report. 18 March 2017. Retrieved 18 March 2017. 
  3. ^ https://www.pc.gc.ca/en/pn-np/bc/revelstoke/decouvrir-discover/hist/ski
  4. ^ "Letalnica, Planica". skisprungschanzen.com. Retrieved 13 March 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c "THE INTERNATIONAL SKI COMPETITION RULES (ICR)" (PDF). International Ski Federation. Retrieved 14 March 2017. 
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  7. ^ "For Ski Jumpers, a Sliding Scale of Weight, Distance and Health". New York Times. Retrieved 11 February 2010. 
  8. ^ Jim Pagels (17 February 2014). "Why Does Olympic Ski Jumping Need Judges?". theatlantic.com. Retrieved 14 March 2017. 
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  10. ^ Kunnskapsforlagets idrettsleksikon (Encyclopedia of Sports), Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget, 1990. ISBN 82-573-0408-5
  11. ^ a b John Gettings; Christine Frantz. "Winter Olympics: Ski Jumping". infoplease.com. Retrieved 14 March 2017. 
  12. ^ a b Rob Hodgetts (11 February 2014). "Sochi 2014: Carina Vogt wins women's ski jumping gold". BBC News. Retrieved 14 March 2017. 
  13. ^ "Planica – cradle of Slovenian sport". slovenia.si. Retrieved 14 March 2017. 
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  15. ^ Haarstad, Kjell (1993): Skisportens oppkomst i Norge. Trondheim: Tapir.
  16. ^ a b Matt Slater (2 March 2009). "Why it's time to let ladies fly". BBC News. Retrieved 14 March 2017. 
  17. ^ (sta) (20 February 2009). "Liberec: Svetovna prvakinja v skoki Lindsey Van, Manja Pograjc zasedla 24. mesto" (in Slovenian). dnevnik.si. Retrieved 14 March 2017. 
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  26. ^ Łożyński, Szymon (25 March 2017). "PŚ w Planicy: Polska na podium. Puchar Narodów niemal pewny! Niewiarygodny lot Kamila Stocha!" (in Polish). sportowefakty.wp.pl. Retrieved 25 March 2017. 
  27. ^ "Watch: Peter Prevc sets new ski jumping world record with 'perfect' leap of 250m (820 feet)". Telegraph. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  28. ^ "MacKenzie Boyd-Clowes becomes first Canadian ski jumper to fly past 200 metres". Calgary Harald. Retrieved 4 February 2013. 
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  30. ^ "Brits will compete in the Junior World Championships?". skijumping.pl (in Polish). 29 November 2016. 
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  40. ^ "Prva skijaška skakaonica u Palama". palelive.com (in Bosnian). Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
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  46. ^ "Ski-ing. Americans at Mount Cook. Durrance wins two events". Auckland Star: 15. 1937-07-27. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "List of ladies personals best ski jumps" (PDF). skisprungschanzen.com. Retrieved 2 December 2016. 
  48. ^ "Competitors having more than one victory – World Cup (male)". International Ski Federation. Retrieved 14 March 2017. 
  49. ^ "Competitors having at least one podium – Olympic Winter Games (male)". International Ski Federation. Retrieved 14 March 2017. 
  50. ^ "Competitors having at least one victory – World Cup (female)". International Ski Federation. Retrieved 14 March 2017. 
  51. ^ "Competitors having at least one podium – Olympic Winter Games (female)". International Ski Federation. Retrieved 14 March 2017.