This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Ski touring is skiing in the backcountry on unmarked or unpatrolled areas. Touring is typically done off-piste and outside of ski resorts, and may extend over a period of more than one day. It is similar to backcountry skiing.
Ski touring combines elements of Nordic and alpine skiing and embraces such sub-disciplines as Telemark and randonnée. A defining characteristic is that the skier's heels are "free" – i.e. not bound to the skis – in order to allow a natural gliding motion while traversing and ascending terrain which may range from perfectly flat to extremely steep.
Ski touring has been adopted by skiers seeking new snow, by alpinists, and by those wishing to avoid the high costs of traditional alpine skiing at resorts. Touring requires independent navigation skills and may involve route-finding through potential avalanche terrain. It has parallels with hiking and wilderness backpacking. Ski mountaineering is a form of ski touring which variously combines the sports of Telemark, alpine, and backcountry skiing with that of mountaineering.
Among the pioneers of ski touring is John "Snowshoe" Thompson, perhaps the earliest modern ski mountaineer and a prolific traveler who used skis to deliver the mail at least twice a month over the steep eastern scarp of the Sierra Nevada to remote California mining camps and settlements. His deliveries began in 1855 and continued for at least 20 years. Thompson's route of 90 miles (140 km) took three days in and 48 hours back out with a pack that eventually exceeded 100 pounds (45 kg) of mail.
Cecil Slingsby, one of the earliest European practitioners, crossed the 1,550-metre-high (5,090 ft) Keiser Pass in Norway on skis in 1880. Other pioneers include Adolfo Kind, Arnold Lunn, Ottorino Mezzalama, Patrick Vallençant, and Kilian Jornet Burgada.
Ski touring involves both uphill and downhill travel without needing to remove skis. Various terms have emerged to refer to how the terrain is accessed and how close it is to services.
- Frontcountry refers to terrain that is off-trail but within ski area boundaries where ski lifts and emergency services are close at hand.
- Slackcountry refers to terrain that is outside of marked ski area boundaries and accessed from a lift without having to use skins or bootpack. Usually this also includes terrain with access back to the lift as well. For purists, slackcountry touring may also include touring where people use a car as a shuttle.
- Sidecountry refers to terrain that is outside of ski area boundaries yet still accessible via a ski lift. Typically sidecountry requires the skier to hike, skin, or climb within ski area boundaries to reach or return from the sidecountry area, or both.
- Backcountry refers to terrain in remote areas that is outside of ski area boundaries and not accessible via a ski lift.
Styles of equipment
- Alpine skiing equipment can be used for ski touring with the addition of a removable binding insert that allows for free heel swing on ascents.
- Nordic ski touring is skiing with bindings that leave the heels free all the time. Thus, Nordic skiers do not have to change back and forth between uphill and downhill modes, which can be advantageous in rolling terrain. At the lighter, simpler end of the scale, Nordic skis may be narrow and edgeless cross-country types for groomed trails or ideal snow conditions, used with boots that resemble soft shoes or low boots. Backcountry Nordic uses a heavier setup than a traditional Nordic setup, but not as big and heavy as a full Telemark setup.
- Telemark skiing is at the heavier end of the Nordic skiing equipment spectrum, designed for steep backcountry terrain or ski-area use.
- Alpine Touring (AT) or randonnée equipment is specifically designed for ski touring in steep terrain; a special alpine touring binding, otherwise very similar to a downhill binding, allows the heel to be raised for ease in ascending but locked down for full support when skiing downhill.
Various devices can be used to make ascending easier. "Fish scale" pattern friction aids embossed in the center section of the bottoms of the skis or sticky ski wax in the center pocket are used in lower-angle or rolling terrain. Climbing skins are used when fish scales or ski wax fail to provide sufficient grip for skiing steeply uphill. Ski crampons (also known in German as Harscheisen, in French as couteau, and in Italian as rampant) may be attached when conditions are particularly icy or the grade too steep for skins.
Ski touring regions
Ski touring can take place anywhere that has suitable snow and terrain as well as reasonable means of access to the trailhead, i.e. plowed roads, snowcats, or aircraft.
Touring in Norway has a long tradition. Skiing was originally a practical means of winter transportation, and ski touring formed the basis of the polar expeditions of Norwegian explorers like Fridtjof Nansen and Roald Amundsen. There are thousands of kilometers of marked ski routes in Norway in forested areas and in mountain areas above treeline. The trails are maintained by organizations like Skiforeningen in the Oslomarka area and the Norwegian Trekking Association nationally, including Hardangervidda, Rondane, and Jotunheimen. The Norwegian Trekking Association (Norwegian: Den norske turistforening; DNT) maintains mountain trails and cabins in Norway and has more than 200,000 members.
Ski areas are concentrated around the Rockies and include Jasper National Park, Rogers Pass, Wapta, Revelstoke, and Golden, in southeast British Columbia at the confluence of the Columbia and Kicking Horse Rivers. Surrounded by the Rocky Mountains to the east and the Purcell Mountains and Selkirk Mountains to the west, Kananaskis Country, the Skeena Mountains, Chic-Choc Mountains, and Gros Morne National Park also attract ski tourers.
- Volken, Martin; Schnell, Scott; Wheeler, Margaret (2007). Backcountry Skiing: Skills for Ski Touring and Ski Mountaineering. Mountaineers Books. p. 12. ISBN 978-1594850387.
- A Complete Guide to Alpine Ski Touring Ski Mountaineering and Nordic Ski Touring Including Useful Information for Off Piste Skiers and Snow Boarders. Authorhouse. 2014. p. xvii. ISBN 978-1491888087.
- "Ski Touring". Retrieved 12 July 2014.
- "Ski Touring in Rogers Pass and The Winter Permit System". Parks Canada. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
- "The Wapta Traverse". Yamnuska. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
- "Backcountry Skiing". Retrieved 12 July 2014.
- "Backcountry Huts". Ski Golden. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
- "Kananaskis Country". Retrieved 12 July 2014.
- "Backcountry Ski Huts". Parks Canada. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- "Online guide to backcountry skiing on Teton Pass". Retrieved 2010-04-09.
- "Online guide to backcountry skiing on Loveland Pass". Retrieved 2010-04-09.
- "Online guide to backcountry skiing on Berthoud Pass". Retrieved 2010-04-09.
- "Ski Touring New Zealand". Retrieved 28 September 2015.