Skin care

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Skin care is the range of practices that support skin integrity including nutrition, avoidance of excessive sun exposure, and appropriate use of emollients; that enhance appearance such as use of cosmetics, botulinum, exfoliation, fillers, laser resurfacing, microdermabrasion, peels, retinol therapy; and that remediate skin break down and relieve skin conditions.[1] Skin care is a routine daily procedure in many settings, such as skin that is either too dry or too moist, and prevention of incontinence-associated dermatitis and prevention of skin injuries.[2] Skin care is a component of care in neonatal, elderly, stoma, wound healing, radiation treatment and use of EGFR inhibitors.

Background[edit]

Add from[3][4] [5]

Neonate[edit]

Guidelines for neonatal skin care have been developed. Nevertheless, the pediatric and dermatologic communities have not reached consensus on best cleansing practices, as good quality scientific evidence is scarce. Immersion in water seems superior to washing alone, and use of synthetic detergents or mild liquid baby cleansers seems comparable or superior to water alone.[6] Add from [7][8]

Elderly[edit]

Skin ageing is associated with increased vulnerability.[9] Skin problems including pruritus are common in the elderly but are often inadequately addressed.[10] A literature review of studies that assessed maintenance of skin integrity in the elderly found most to be low levels of evidence[9] but the review concluded that skin-cleansing with synthetic detergents or amphoteric surfactants induced less skin dryness than using soap and water.[9] Moisturizers with humectants helped with skin dryness, and skin barrier occlusives reduced skin injuries.[9]

Pressure sore[edit]

Stoma[edit]

Add from [11]

Wound healing[edit]

wound healing.[12]

Nutrition[edit]

Add from[13]

  • 2001 American Society for Clinical Nutrition Nutritional skin care: health effects of micronutrients and fatty acids Esther Boelsma, Henk FJ Hendriks, and Len Roza FeatherPluma (talk) 22:49, 28 August 2015 (UTC)

Radiation[edit]

Radiation induces skin reactions in the treated area, particularly in the axilla, head and neck, perineum and skin fold regions.[14] Formulations with moisturising, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and wound healing properties are often used, but no preferred approach or individual product has been identified as best practice.[14][15] Soft silicone dressings that act as barriers to friction may be helpful.[14] In breast cancer, calendula cream may reduce the severity of radiation effects on the skin.[15][16] Deodorant use after completing radiation treatment has been controversial but is now recommended for practice.[16] Add from[17][18][19][20]

EGFR[edit]

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Sunscreen[edit]

Sun protection is an important aspect of skin care. Though the sun is beneficial in order for the human body to get it's daily dose of vitamin D, if unprotected the sun can cause extreme damage to the skin, from obvious signs such as sunburn in varying degrees, early occurrences of ageing and particularly life-threatening events such as the onset of skin cancer. This is due to the skin's exposure to UVA and UVB in the sun's rays. Exposure to UVA and UVB radiation can cause patches of uneven skin tone and dry out the skin.

This can reduce the skin's elasticity and encourage sagging and wrinkle formation. It is important to make use of sunscreen to protect the skin from sun damage; sunscreen should be applied at least 20 minutes before exposure, and should be re-applied every four hours. Sunscreen should be applied to all areas of the skin that will be exposed to sunlight, and at least a tablespoon (25 ml) should be applied to each limb, the face, chest, and back, to ensure thorough coverage. Many tinted moisturizers, foundations and primers now contain some form of SPF.

Sunscreens may come in the form of creams, gels or lotions; their SPF number indicates their effectiveness in protecting the skin from the sun's radiation. There are sunscreens available to suit every skin type; in particular, those with oily skin should choose non-comodegenic sunscreens; those with dry skins should choose sunscreens with moisturizers to help keep skin hydrated, and those with sensitive skin should choose unscented, hypoallergenic sunscreen and spot-test in an inconspicuous place (such as the inside of the elbow or behind the ear) to ensure that it does not irritate the skin.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Penzer R, Ersser S. Principles of Skin Care: A Guide for Nurses and Health Care Practitioners. John Wiley & Sons, 2010. ISBN 9781405170871 [1]
  2. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26165590 PMID:26165590 Evidence-Based Skin Care: A Systematic Literature Review and the Development of a Basic Skin Care Algorithm. - PubMed - NCBI
  3. ^ Handbook of Cosmetic Skin Care Second Edition AVI SHAI, HOWARD I. MAIBACH, and ROBERT BARAN Published August 2009 eBook ISBN 9781616310004 ISBN 9780415467186 Edition Second Pages 308 226 http://informahealthcare.com/isbn/9781616310004
  4. ^ Antioxidants and skin care: The essentials Graf J - Plastic and reconstructive surgery, 2010 - journals.lww.com
  5. ^ Active agents in common skin care products Draelos ZD - Plastic and reconstructive surgery, 2010 - journals.lww.com
  6. ^ Blume-Peytavi U, Hauser M, Stamatas GN, Pathirana D, Garcia Bartels N (2012). "Skin care practices for newborns and infants: review of the clinical evidence for best practices". Pediatr Dermatol 29 (1): 1–14. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1470.2011.01594.x. PMID 22011065. 
  7. ^ PMID:10633681 Lund C, Kuller J, Lane A, Lott JW, Raines DA (1999). "Neonatal skin care: the scientific basis for practice". Neonatal Netw 18 (4): 15–27. doi:10.1891/0730-0832.18.4.15. PMID 10633681. 
  8. ^ PMID:22988452
  9. ^ a b c d Kottner J, Lichterfeld A, Blume-Peytavi U (2013). "Maintaining skin integrity in the aged: a systematic review". Br. J. Dermatol. 169 (3): 528–42. doi:10.1111/bjd.12469. PMID 23773110. 
  10. ^ Beauregard S, Gilchrest BA (1987). "A survey of skin problems and skin care regimens in the elderly". Arch Dermatol 123 (12): 1638–43. PMID 3688904. 
  11. ^ Skin care management of gastrointestinal fistulas JL Dearlove - Surgical Clinics of North America, 1996 - Elsevier* Peristomal skin care: an overview of available products P Black - Br J Nurs, 2007 - silesse.com
  12. ^ Flanagan M. Wound Healing and Skin Integrity: Principles and Practice. John Wiley & Sons, 2013. ISBN 9780470659779
  13. ^ PMID:15632457
  14. ^ a b c Herst PM (2014). "Protecting the radiation-damaged skin from friction: a mini review". J Med Radiat Sci 61 (2): 119–25. doi:10.1002/jmrs.46. PMC 4175840. PMID 26229646. 
  15. ^ a b McQuestion M (2006). "Evidence-based skin care management in radiation therapy". Semin Oncol Nurs 22 (3): 163–73. doi:10.1016/j.soncn.2006.04.004. PMID 16893745. 
  16. ^ a b McQuestion M (2011). "Evidence-based skin care management in radiation therapy: clinical update". Semin Oncol Nurs 27 (2): e1–17. doi:10.1016/j.soncn.2011.02.009. PMID 21514477. 
  17. ^ PMID:16927902 The validity of skin care protocols followed by women with breast cancer receiving external radiation J Aistars - Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 2006 - search.proquest.com
  18. ^ Bolderston A, Lloyd NS, Wong RK, Holden L, Robb-Blenderman L (2006). "The prevention and management of acute skin reactions related to radiation therapy: a systematic review and practice guideline". Support Care Cancer 14 (8): 802–17. doi:10.1007/s00520-006-0063-4. PMID 16758176. 
  19. ^ PMID:20598015
  20. ^ PMID:25901591 Trueman E (2015). "Management of radiotherapy-induced skin reactions". Int J Palliat Nurs 21 (4): 187–92. doi:10.12968/ijpn.2015.21.4.187. PMID 25901591. 
  21. ^ PMID:26187773 Califano R, Tariq N, Compton S et al. (2015). "Expert Consensus on the Management of Adverse Events from EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in the UK". Drugs 75 (12): 1335–48. doi:10.1007/s40265-015-0434-6. PMC 4532717. PMID 26187773.