Skin infection

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A skin infection is an infection of the skin in humans and other animals, that can also affect the associated soft tissues such as loose connective tissue and mucous membranes.[citation needed] They comprise a category of infections termed skin and skin structure infections (SSSIs), or skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs),[1] and acute bacterial SSSIs (ABSSSIs).[2] They are distinguished from dermatitis (inflammation of the skin).[3][4] although skin infections can result in skin inflammation.[citation needed][5]

Causes[edit]

Bacterial[edit]

Example of cellulitis showing 3+ edema of left leg

Bacterial skin infections affected about 155 million people and cellulitis occurred in about 600 million people in 2013.[6] Bacterial skin infections include:

Fungal[edit]

Fungal skin infections may present as either a superficial or deep infection of the skin, hair, and/or nails. Mycetoma are a broad group of fungal infections that characteristically originate in the skin and subcutaneous tissues of the foot.[12] If not treated appropriately and in a timely fashion mycetoma infections can extend to deeper tissues like bones and joints causing osteomyelitis.[13] Extensive osteomyelitis can necessitate surgical bone resections and even lower limb amputation.[13] As of 2010, they affect about one billion people globally.[14]

Parasitic[edit]

Parasitic infestations of the skin are caused by several phyla of organisms, including Annelida, Arthropoda, Bryozoa, Chordata, Cnidaria, Cyanobacteria, Echinodermata, Nemathelminthes, Platyhelminthes, and Protozoa.[15]

Viral[edit]

Virus-related cutaneous conditions caused by these obligate intracellular agents derive from both DNA and RNA viruses.[16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stevens, D. L.; Bisno, A. L.; Chambers, H. F.; Dellinger, E. P.; Goldstein, E. J. C.; Gorbach, S. L.; Hirschmann, J. V.; Kaplan, S. L.; Montoya, J. G.; Wade, J. C. (18 June 2014). "Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Skin and Soft Tissue Infections: 2014 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 59 (2): e10–e52. doi:10.1093/cid/ciu296. PMID 24947530.
  2. ^ "Guidance Compliance Regulatory Information" (PDF). www.fda.gov. Retrieved 2019-09-15.
  3. ^ "International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision". apps.who.int. Retrieved 2019-09-15.
  4. ^ In the WHO classification, it is noted that the infection classification "Excludes:... infective dermatitis...". See the WHO classification, op. cit.
  5. ^ Skin inflammation due to skin infection is called "infective dermatitis". See the WHO classifications, op. cit.
  6. ^ Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 Collaborators (22 August 2015). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 386 (9995): 743–800. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(15)60692-4. PMC 4561509. PMID 26063472.
  7. ^ Raff, Adam B.; Kroshinsky, Daniela (2016-07-19). "Cellulitis: A Review". JAMA. 316 (3): 325–337. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.8825. ISSN 0098-7484. PMID 27434444.
  8. ^ a b Stulberg, Daniel L.; Penrod, Marc A.; Blatny, Richard A. (2002-07-01). "Common Bacterial Skin Infections". American Family Physician. 66 (1): 119–24. ISSN 0002-838X. PMID 12126026.
  9. ^ "erysipelas" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary[full citation needed]
  10. ^ "Impetigo". nhs.uk. October 19, 2017.
  11. ^ Kumar, V., Abbas, A.K., Fausto, N. & Mitchell, R.N. (2007). Robbins Basic Pathology (8th ed.). Saunders Elsevier. p. 843. ISBN 978-1-4160-2973-1.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  12. ^ Verma, P.; Jha, A. (March 2019). "Mycetoma: reviewing a neglected disease". Clinical and Experimental Dermatology. 44 (2): 123–129. doi:10.1111/ced.13642. PMID 29808607. S2CID 44123860.
  13. ^ a b EL-Sobky, Tamer Ahmed; Haleem, John Fathy; Samir, Shady (21 September 2015). "Eumycetoma Osteomyelitis of the Calcaneus in a Child: A Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation following Total Calcanectomy". Case Reports in Pathology. 2015: 129020. doi:10.1155/2015/129020. PMC 4592886. PMID 26483983. S2CID 15644051.
  14. ^ Vos, T (Dec 15, 2012). "Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet. 380 (9859): 2163–96. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61729-2. PMC 6350784. PMID 23245607.
  15. ^ Diaz, JH (January 2010). "Mite-transmitted dermatoses and infectious diseases in returning travelers". Journal of Travel Medicine. 17 (1): 21–31. doi:10.1111/j.1708-8305.2009.00352.x. PMID 20074098.
  16. ^ Lebwohl MG, Rosen T, Stockfleth E (November 2010). "The role of human papillomavirus in common skin conditions: current viewpoints and therapeutic options". Cutis. 86 (5): suppl 1–11, quiz suppl 12. PMID 21214125.