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An infection of the skin and skin structure is an infection—generally in humans, but relevant to other animals as well—of the animal's skin and associated soft tissues (such as loose connective tissue and mucous membranes). Historically, they have comprised a category of infections termed skin and skin structure infections (SSSIs) or skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), and more recently, the important bacterial component of them as acute bacterial SSSIs (ABSSSIs). They are distinguished from dermatitis (inflammation of the skin), although skin infections can result in skin inflammation.
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Bacterial skin infections affected about 155 million people and cellulitis occurred in about 600 million people in 2013. Bacterial skin infections include:
- Cellulitis, a diffuse inflammation of connective tissue with severe inflammation of dermal and subcutaneous layers of the skin
- Erysipelas, an acute streptococcus bacterial infection of the deep epidermis with lymphatic spread[verification needed]
- Folliculitis, an infection of the hair follicle[clarification needed]
- Impetigo, a highly contagious ABSSSI common among pre-school children, primarily associated with the pathogens S. aureus and S. pyogenes
Fungal skin infections may present as either a superficial or deep infection of the skin, hair, and/or nails.[page needed][page needed] As of 2010, they affect about one billion people globally.
Parasitic infestations of the skin are caused by several phyla of organisms, including Annelida, Arthropoda, Bryozoa, Chordata, Cnidaria, Cyanobacteria, Echinodermata, Nemathelminthes, Platyhelminthes, and Protozoa.[page needed][non-primary source needed]
- Stevens, D. L.; Bisno, A. L.; Chambers, H. F.; Dellinger, E. P.; Goldstein, E. J. C.; Gorbach, S. L.; Hirschmann, J. V.; Kaplan, S. L.; Montoya, J. G.; Wade, J. C. (18 June 2014). "Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Skin and Soft Tissue Infections: 2014 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 59 (2): e10–e52. doi:10.1093/cid/ciu296. PMID 24947530.
- "Guidance Compliance Regulatory Information" (PDF). www.fda.gov. Retrieved 2019-09-15.
- "International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision". apps.who.int. Retrieved 2019-09-15.
- In the WHO classification, it is noted that the infection classification "Excludes:... infective dermatitis...". See the WHO classification, op. cit.
- Skin inflammation due to skin infection is called "infective dermatitis". See the WHO classifications, op. cit.
- Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 Collaborators (22 August 2015). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 386 (9995): 743–800. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(15)60692-4. PMC 4561509. PMID 26063472.
- "erysipelas" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary[full citation needed]
- "Impetigo". nhs.uk. October 19, 2017.
- Kumar, V., Abbas, A.K., Fausto, N. & Mitchell, R.N. (2007). Robbins Basic Pathology (8th ed.). Saunders Elsevier. p. 843. ISBN 978-1-4160-2973-1.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Habif, Thomas P. (2001). Skin disease: diagnosis and treatment. Mosby. ISBN 978-0-8151-3762-7.[page needed]
- David J. DiCaudo; Dirk Elston MD; Dirk M. Elston; Tammie Ferringer; Christine J. Ko; Christine Ko MD; Steven Peckham; Whitney A. High (2009). Dermatopathology. Philadelphia: Saunders. ISBN 978-0-7020-3023-9.[page needed]
- Vos, T (Dec 15, 2012). "Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet. 380 (9859): 2163–96. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61729-2. PMC 6350784. PMID 23245607.
- Diaz JH (2010). "Mite-transmitted dermatoses and infectious diseases in returning travelers". J Travel Med. 17 (1): 21–31. doi:10.1111/j.1708-8305.2009.00352.x. PMID 20074098.[better source needed]
- Lebwohl MG, Rosen T, Stockfleth E (November 2010). "The role of human papillomavirus in common skin conditions: current viewpoints and therapeutic options". Cutis. 86 (5): suppl 1–11, quiz suppl 12. PMID 21214125.