Acrochordon

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Acrochordon
NeckAcrochordons.jpg
Several acrochordons in the skin of the lower neck. Soft consistency, the bottom acrochordon taking pedunculated shape.
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 L91.8
(congenital Q82.8)
ICD-9 701.9
OMIM 109400
DiseasesDB 33273
MedlinePlus 000848
Patient UK Acrochordon
Acrochordon. Pedunculated, fibrous mass covered with epithelium of varied thickness. H&E stain.

An acrochordon (plural acrochorda, and also known as a (cutaneous) skin tag,[1] or fibroepithelial polyp,[2]) is a small benign tumour that forms primarily in areas where the skin forms creases, such as the neck, armpit, and groin. They may also occur on the face, usually on the eyelids. Acrochorda are harmless, typically painless and usually do not grow or change over time.[citation needed] Though tags up to a half-inch long have been seen,[3] they are typically the size of a grain of rice. The surface of an acrochordon may be smooth or irregular in appearance and is often raised from the surface of the skin on a fleshy stalk called a peduncle. Microscopically, an acrochordon consists of a fibro-vascular core, sometimes also with fat cells, covered by an unremarkable epidermis. However, tags may become irritated by shaving, clothing, jewellery or eczema.

It is believed that skin tags occur from skin rubbing up against skin, since they are so often found in skin creases and folds.[3] Studies have shown existence of low-risk HPV 6 and 11 in skin tags hinting at a possible role in its pathogenesis.[4] Acrochorda have been reported to have a prevalence of 46% in the general population.[5] A causal genetic component is thought to exist.[6] They also are more common in women than in men.[7] Rarely, they can be associated with the Birt–Hogg–Dubé syndrome, acromegaly, and polycystic ovary syndrome.[8]

Skin tags may serve as a marker for those people whose carbohydrate metabolism is impaired and for those who may be at risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.[9] Elevated blood sugar and insulin increase the incidence of skin tags through an unknown mechanism.[citation needed]

Treatment[edit]

Because tags are benign, treatment is unnecessary unless the tags become frequently irritated or present a cosmetic concern. If removal is desired or warranted, then a dermatologist, general practitioner or a similarly trained professional may use cauterisation, cryosurgery, excision, or surgical ligation to remove the acrochorda.[3][10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cutaneous skin tags: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov. Archived from the original on 11 January 2011. Retrieved 18 January 2011. 
  2. ^ Libby Edwards, Peter J. Lynch. Genital Dermatology Atlas. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2010. p. 209. Retrieved 18 January 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c "Cutaneous skin tag". Medline Plus. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  4. ^ Gupta S, Aggarwal R, Gupta S, Arora SK. (2008). "Human papillomavirus and skin tags: Is there any association?". Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 74: 222–5. doi:10.4103/0378-6323.39585. 
  5. ^ "Acrochordon ". Medscape Reference. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  6. ^ "Acrochordons - Symptoms & Treatment". Womens-health-beauty.com. Retrieved 28 November 2011. 
  7. ^ "Acrochordons in women". Skinadvice.org. 30 September 2011. Retrieved 28 November 2011. 
  8. ^ "Acrochordon (Skin Tag, Fibroepithelial Polyp)". Thedoctorsdoctor.com. 1 December 2008. Retrieved 28 November 2011. 
  9. ^ "Skin tags: a cutaneous marker for diabetes mellitus.". Pubmed. 1 December 1987. Retrieved 24 June 2014. 
  10. ^ "How To Remove Skin Tags: 11 Quick & Painless Home Remedies". www.knowledgeweighsnothing.com. Retrieved 21 June 2015.