Stone skipping is the pastime of throwing a flat stone across water in such a way that it bounces off the surface, preferably many times. The object of the game is to see how many times a stone can bounce before sinking.
Championships and records
The North American Stone Skipping Association (NASSA), founded by Coleman-McGhee, in 1989 and based in Driftwood, Texas, sanctioned world championships for four years from 1989 through 1992 in Wimberley, Texas. The next official NASSA World Championships is expected to be held at Platja d'en Ros beach in Cadaqués, Catalonia, Spain.
The world record according to the Guinness Book of Records is 88 skips by Kurt "Mountain Man" Steiner, age 48. The cast was achieved on September 6, 2013 at Red Bridge in the Allegheny National Forest, Pennsylvania. The previous record was 65 skips, by Max Steiner, set at Riverfront Park, Franklin, Pennsylvania. Before him, the record was 51 skips, set by Russell Byars on July 19, 2007, skipping at the same location. Kurt Steiner also held the world record between 2002 and 2007.
A stone skipping championship of a different nature takes place every year in Easdale, Scotland, where distance is measured as opposed to number of skips, as tends to be the case outside the US. Every year since 1997, competitors from all over the world have taken part in the World Stone Skimming Championships in a disused quarry on Easdale Island, using stones made from Easdale slate. Historical results are available on www.stoneskimming.com. Dougie Isaacs won the title in 2010, 2011,2013 and 2014, making him the champion with the most world titles in the competition's history, and in 2014 he also won the Wales Open with a throw of 120m, the longest throw recorded in open competition. Current title holders include Helen Mannion (GB) World Women's Champion; Lucy Wood (England) European Ladies; Paul Crabtree (England), European; Kevin Waltham (England), All England; Emily Ostridge (England), All England Ladies; Tim Wright (England), Welsh Open. There is no official world record for distance.
An early explanation of the physics of stone-skipping was provided by Lazzaro Spallanzani in the 18th century.
The stone generates lift in the same manner as a flying disc, by pushing water down as it moves across the water at an angle. Surface tension has very little to do with it. The stone's rotation acts to stabilize it against the torque of lift being applied to the back.
Research undertaken by a team led by French physicist Lydéric Bocquet discovered that an angle of about 20° between the stone and the water's surface is optimal. Bocquet and his colleagues were surprised to discover that changes in speed and rotation did not change this fact. Work by Hewitt, Balmforth and McElwaine has shown that if the horizontal speed can be maintained skipping can continue indefinitely. Earlier research reported by Bocquet calculated that the world record of 38 rebounds set by Coleman-McGhee, unchallenged for many years, required a speed of 12 m/s (25 mph), with a rotation of 14 revolutions per second.
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- English: "skipping stones" or "skipping rocks" (North America), "stone skimming" or "ducks and drakes" (Britain), "stone skiffing" (Ireland)
- Bengali: "frog jumps" (Bengachi)
- Bosnian/Croatian/Montenegrin/Serbian: "(to throw) little frogs" ((bacati) žabice)
- Bulgarian: "frogs" (жабки)
- Cantonese: "skipping (little) stones" (片石(仔) [pin sek (tzai)])
- Catalan: "making step-stone bridges" (fer passeres), "making furrows" (fer rigalets), "skipping stones" (llençar passanelles)
- Czech language dělat (házet) žabky/žabičky (to make/throw little frogs – countrywide, especially in Central and North Bohemia and Czech Silesia) or kačky/kačeny/kařery/kačenky/káčata/káčery/káčírky (ducks/drakes/ducklings, East Bohemia and parts of Moravia) but there are many other local and dialectal words: rybičky/rybky (little fishes), mističky (saucers), talíře (plates/dishes), podlisky/podlíšky/lyšky (wagtails), potápky (divers), pokličky/pukličky (pot-lids), plisky, plesky (flaps), žbluňky (plops), šipky (darts), bubliny (bubbles), židy (jews), páni/panáky (sirs/figures), babky (gammers/wagtails), panenky (dolls/girls/dragonflies), převážet panenku Mariu (to ferry Virgin Mary) and many others.
- Danish: "slipping" (smut or at smutte), "to make slips" (at slå smut)
- Telugu "frog jumps" (kappa gantulu)
- Estonian: "throwing a burbot" (lutsu viskama)
- Finnish: "throwing bread/a sandwich" (heittää leipiä/voileipiä)
- French: (faire des ricochets)
- Greek: "little frogs" (βατραχάκια)
- Hungarian: "making it to waddle", lit. "making it walk like a duck" (kacsáztatás)
- Italian: rimbalzello
- Japanese: "cutting water" (「水切り」[mizu kiri])
- Korean: Mulsujebi (Hangul: 물수제비; RR: mulsujebi), meaning Water(Hangul: 물; RR: mul) and Korean soup Sujebi.
- Mandarin: (打水漂 [da shui piao])
- Marathi: ([bhakrya kadhne])
- Mongolian: "making the rabbit leap" (tuulai kharailgakh) or "making the dog lick" (nokhoi doloolgokh)
- Norwegian: "flounder" (flyndre)
- Polish: "letting the ducks out" (puszczanie kaczek)
- Portuguese "little fish" (peixinho) or "little seashells" (conchinhas)
- Russian: "baking pancakes" (печь блины [pech blini])
- Spanish: "making white-caps" (hacer cabrillas), "making frogs" (hacer ranitas)
- Swedish: "throwing a sandwich" (kasta smörgås or kasta macka)
- Ukrainian: "letting the frogs out" (zapuskaty zhabky)
- Spinning Flight: Dynamics of Frisbees, Boomerangs, Samaras and Skipping Stones, Ralph Lorenz, Copernicus New York, September 2006 ISBN 0-387-30779-6
- The Secrets of Stone Skipping, Jerry Coleman, Stone Age Sports Publications, January 1996 ISBN 9781883856014
- Silver, Jonathan D. (2007-09-30). "A stone's throw and then some to a Guinness record". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
- Scots dominate in stone skimming. BBC News, 25 September 2005
- World Stone Skimming Championships 2007
- Clanet C, Hersen F, Bocquet L (January 2004). "Secrets of successful stone-skipping". Nature 427 (6969): 29. doi:10.1038/427029a. PMID 14702075.
- I. J. Hewitt, N. J. Balmforth, and J. N. McElwaine (2011). "Continual Skipping on Water". J. Fluid Mech. 669: 328–353. doi:10.1017/S0022112010005057.
- The Secrets of Stone Skipping, Coleman-McGhee, 1996, ISBN 1-883856-01-9
- Český jazykový atlas 1 (Czech Language Atlas 1), Academia, Praha, 2004, p. 110–113, (dělat) žabky
|Look up ducks and drakes in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- John Zehr's Patent, "Skipping stones and method of use thereof",US Patent 4553758
- John "Skippy" Kolar Skipumentary
- NASSA homepage
- Easdale's Stone Skimming World Championships
- World Championships on the BBC
- Wales Open Stone Skimming Championships
- Mackinac Island Stone Skipping & Gerplunking Club
- The Stone Skipping Hall of Fame (virtual)
- European Championships Stone Skimming