Skitube Alpine Railway

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Skitube Alpine Railway
Skitube01Oct06.JPG
A skitube train commences its ascent just west of the Bullocks Flat terminus
Overview
Termini Bullocks Flat
Blue Cow
Stations 3
Services 1
Operation
Opened 29 August 1988
Owner Broadspectrum (49%)
Kumagai Gumi (49%)
Ken Bilston 2%
Technical
Line length 8.5 kilometres
Number of tracks single track with passing loops
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)
Electrification 1.5 kV DC Overhead line
Maximum incline 12.5%
Rack system Lamella
Route map
Skitube Alpine Railway
Bullocks Flat
Workshops
Little Thredbo River
Perisher Valley
Blue Cow

The Skitube Alpine Railway is an Australian standard gauge electric rack railway in the Kosciuszko National Park in New South Wales. It provides access to the snowfields at Blue Cow Mountain and the Perisher Valley.

History[edit]

Comeng Rolling Stock at Blue Cow Mountain terminal in 2014

In the 1980s development of the Thredbo and Perisher Valley skifields was increasing, but the mountain road providing access to them was limited, and road and carparking expansion works were financially and environmentally unacceptable. In 1980 the National Parks & Wildlife Service proposed the establishment of a day visitors resort at Blue Cow Mountain, which would increase the traffic demands. A number of transport modes were examined, including a funicular railway, chairlift, and an aerial gondola, but all were of limited capacity, affected by weather, and would scar the mountainsides.[1][2]

A rack and pinion railway was found to be the best option, running mostly underground. The Perisher Skitube Joint Venture was established, with Transfield and Kumagai Gumi each holding a 49% share. The main proponent of the scheme, Canberra engineer Ken Bilston, held the remaining 2% share and was technical manager for the project.[1] Feasibility studies commenced in 1982 for a double track railway on the assumption that the road would close in winter, but this was altered to a single track line with passing loops when the closure was ruled out.

Construction commenced in October 1984, with tunnelling beginning in June 1985.[3] The 3.3km Bilson Tunnel was constructed using a 5.5-metre (18 ft) tunnel boring machine, while the 2.6 kilometre Blue Cow tunnel was constructed using the traditional "drill and blast" method.[4] A consortium of Swiss and Australian companies provided the rolling stock, overhead wiring, sub-stations, communications and signalling. The 5.9 kilometre line opened from Bullocks Flat to Perisher on 26 July 1987 with the entire line opened through to Blue Cow on 31 March 1988.[5][6][7]

In October 2016, Stadler Rail commenced an upgrade of the line. It will be completed by April 2017.[8][9][10]

Operations[edit]

The Swiss designed railway provides easy access between the Alpine Way at Bullocks Flat and the Perisher Blue ski resort sites of Perisher Valley and Blue Cow Mountain. The Skitube passes through two tunnels and has three stations, two of which are underground. The terminal at Bullocks Flat has parking facilities for 3,500 cars and 250 coaches, as well as passenger, administrative and control facilities.[11]

The line begins at an altitude of 1,125 metres and runs above ground for 2.6 kilometres, crossing a three span 150 metre long steel truss bridge. A passing loop is located before entering the tunnel, which climbs on a 12.5% gradient to the Perisher Valley terminal. A provision for a second 300 metre long passing loop has been made inside the tunnel. To Blue Cow the line first drops downgrade, then climbs 1.3 kilometres on a 3% gradient, then climbs at 12.5% to the terminus.[1] The railway reaches a maximum altitude of 1,905 metres above sea level at Mount Blue Cow station.

An off-peak schedule is run in early to late June and mid to late September, either side of the peak July–September ski season. Trains run between 05:00 and 01:00, allowing for après-ski activities or night skiing. The Bullocks Flat terminus has a large, three-sided station with extensive parking, a pass office, a ski and snowboard school, information desk, kiosk, souvenir shop, and ski and snowboard hire shop. This allows day trippers to get tickets and equipment and be loaded for the 10-minute journey to the Perisher Valley station, and a further 7 minutes to Blue Cow. It is adjacent to the Lake Crackenback Resort.

Technical details[edit]

Skitube railway middle track explained

The majority of the railway is underground, comprising the Bilston and Blue Cow tunnels, 3.3 km (2.1 mi) and 2.6 km (1.6 mi) long respectively. The depth of the tunnels varies from between 4 and 550 m (13 and 1,804 ft), and their diameter between 5 and 5.5 m (16 and 18 ft).[12] 30 kg/m second hand rail from the State Rail Authority was used to build the line, and two electrical substations are fed with 33 kV power, and output 1.5 kV DC for the overhead wiring.[1]

Rolling stock[edit]

To operate the service 11 carriages were built by Comeng, Granville. Each is 16.8 m (55.1 ft) long and 3.8 m (12.5 ft) wide, and can carry 225 passengers. This provides for the movement of around 4,500 people per hour.[12] Eleven passenger cars in total were built, 4 motor cars, 4 driving trailers and 3 non driving trailers. The motor cars each have four 301 kW traction motors, making them perhaps the most powerful rack railcars in the world. The braking system is mixed regenerative and rheostatic.[1] The train is capable of 40 km/h (25 mph), however this is limited during the downhill journey to 21 km/h (13 mph).

Two four-wheel 'S' open wagons were acquired from the State Rail Authority for freight traffic, and have been cut down to flat wagons. These were replaced by a bogie NVMF wagon. A 1958 Tulloch Limited built locomotive was also purchased.[7]

The rack system Skitube operates on the Lamella System, which was developed by the Von Roll company.

Stations[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Geoffrey B Churchman (1995). Railway Electrification in Australia and New Zealand. IPL Books. ISBN 0-646-06893-8. 
  2. ^ Dunn, John (2013). Comeng: A History of Commonwealth Engineering Volume 5, 1985-2012. Kenthurst: Rosenberg Publishing. ISBN 9781922013521. 
  3. ^ "Intelligence" Railway Gazette International August 1984 page 582
  4. ^ Gregory Dower (2002), Perisher Blue Skitube, The World's longest Tunnel Page, retrieved 1 September 2014 
  5. ^ "Intelligence" Railway Gazette International October 1987 page 640
  6. ^ "Ski Tube Opening" Railway Digest September 1987 page 280
  7. ^ a b "Skitube"Railway Digest August 1988 pages 296-298
  8. ^ Upgrade for Perisher Skitube Rail Stadler Rail 1 September 2015
  9. ^ World Rolling Stock Market Railway Gazette International October 2015
  10. ^ "Upgrade for Perisher Skitube Alpine Railway" Railway Digest October 2015 page 6
  11. ^ David Jehan, Rails through the wilderness (PDF), Rail Technical Society of Australia, retrieved 1 March 2015 
  12. ^ a b Gregory Dower. "Perisher Blue Skitube". The World's longest tunnel Page. home.no.net. Retrieved 2008-08-16. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 36°22′S 148°24′E / 36.367°S 148.400°E / -36.367; 148.400