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A skyscraper fire or high-rise fire is a class of structural fire specific to tall buildings. Skyscraper fires are one of the most technical fire suppression challenges posed to modern fire departments, and require a high degree of organization and cooperation among participating units to be successfully contained and extinguished. Skyscraper fires are often multiple-alarm fires.
Typical American fire department response pattern
In the event of a skyscraper fire, the first action that needs to be taken is the activation of the fire alarm system and subsequent evacuation of the building's occupants. The fire department, after responding, will then divide into various teams to accomplish different tasks. For instance, one or more teams will be responsible for searching the building floor by floor (starting at the fire floor) for trapped or unevacuated occupants. Another team will be assigned to attack the fire at the fire floor. A Firefighter Assist and Search Team (FAST) will standby at the floor below the fire ready to assist in case of a mayday. A team will also be assigned to shut off the building's utilities. All these operations may be coordinated and controlled from a central command vehicle mobilized to the scene.
Various roles are required on the exterior as well. A truck or ladder company will be responsible for establishing means of egress on the outside of the building, providing horizontal ventilation by breaking windows if necessary, and possibly assisting in the suppression effort from the exterior with master streams. Various crews, or at minimum individuals, will be responsible for establishing and maintaining the various water supplies. EMTs and paramedics will be responsible for establishing care to victims of the fire and monitoring firefighters who recently exited the building. Last but not least, the officer in command of the incident may establish a team to assist him in his organizational duties.
|Central Tower||San Francisco||United States||April 18, 1906||?||Burned in the aftermath of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake|
|Merchants Exchange Building||San Francisco||April 18, 1906||?||Burned in the aftermath of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake|
|Old Chronicle Building||San Francisco||April 18, 1906||?||Burned in the aftermath of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake|
|Mutual Bank Building||San Francisco||April 18, 1906||?||Burned in the aftermath of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake|
|Asch Building||New York City||March 25, 1911||146||Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire|
|The Sherry-Netherland||New York City||April 12, 1927||0||Occurred during construction|
|Empire State Building||New York City||July 28, 1945||14||Plane crash|
|40 Wall Street||New York City||May 20, 1946||5||Plane crash|
|Winecoff Hotel||Atlanta||December 7, 1946||119||Deadliest hotel fire in U.S. history|
|1 New York Plaza||New York City||August 5, 1970||2|
|Taeyongak Hotel||Seoul||South Korea||December 25, 1971||163||Daeyeonggak Hotel fire, deadliest hotel fire in history|
|Andraus Building||São Paulo||Brazil||February 24, 1972||16|
|Rault Tower||New Orleans||United States||November 29, 1972||6|
|Joelma Building||São Paulo||Brazil||February 1, 1974||179–189||Joelma fire|
|One World Trade Center||New York City||United States||February 13, 1975||0|
|Campbell Shopping Complex||Kuala Lumpur||Malaysia||April 8, 1976||1||Campbell Shopping Complex fire|
|Bank Bumiputra||Kuala Lumpur||November 4, 1980|
|MGM Grand Hotel||Las Vegas||United States||November 21, 1980||84||MGM Grand fire|
|Las Vegas Hilton||Las Vegas||February 10, 1981||8||Arson|
|Torre Santa María||Santiago||Chile||March 21, 1981||11||Occurred when carpet glue ignited during carpet installation.|
|Al Rasheed Hotel||Baghdad||Iraq||July 21, 1982||1||Plane crash-Suicide by F-4 Phantom during Iran-Iraq War|
|Northwestern National Bank||Minneapolis||United States||November 25–26, 1982||0||Minneapolis Thanksgiving Day fire|
|KOMTAR||Penang||Malaysia||January 23, 1983||0|
|Dupont Plaza Hotel||Condado, Puerto Rico||United States||December 31, 1986||97||Dupont Plaza Hotel arson|
|Hotel International||Zurich||Switzerland||February 14, 1988||6||Deadliest high-rise fire in Swiss history|
|First Interstate Tower||Los Angeles||United States||May 4, 1988||1||First Interstate Tower fire|
|Peachtree 25th Building||Atlanta||June 30, 1989||1|
|One Meridian Plaza||Philadelphia||February 23–24, 1991||3|
|UNITIC Twin Towers||Sarajevo||Bosnia and Herzegovina||May 28, 1992||Burned after being repeatedly hit by Serbian incendiary tank shells.|
|Bosnian Parliament Building||Sarajevo||May 28, 1992||Burned after being repeatedly hit by Serbian incendiary tank shells.|
|Bijlmermeer Apartment Complex||Amsterdam||Netherlands||October 4, 1992||43||El Al Flight 1862 plane crash, Partial collapse|
|One World Trade Center||New York City||United States||February 26, 1993||6||Bombing which also resulted in 1,042 smoke related injuries|
|Stratosphere Tower||Las Vegas||August 30, 1993||0||Occurred during construction|
|White House (Moscow)||Moscow||Russia||October 8, 1993||unknown||Caught fire from tank shelling during the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis|
|Tower 42||London||United Kingdom||January 17, 1996||0||Occurred during refurbishment|
|Garley building||Hong Kong||Hong Kong||November 20, 1996||41||1996 Garley Building fire|
|Ušće Tower||Belgrade||Serbia and Montenegro||April 21, 1999||0||Struck by NATO air strikes during the Kosovo War setting the upper floors on fire.|
|Immigration Tower||Hong Kong||Hong Kong||August 2, 2000||2||Arson|
|Ostankino Tower||Moscow||Russia||August 27, 2000||3||Tallest structure in Europe|
|1 and 2 World Trade Center||New York City||United States||September 11, 2001||2312||Plane crashes in the September 11 attacks, causing full structural collapse.|
|7 World Trade Center||New York City||September 11, 2001||0||Full structural collapse caused by debris from the collapse of One World Trade Center during the September 11 attacks.|
|90 West Street||New York City||September 11, 2001||2||Caused by debris from the collapse of Two World Trade Center: September 11 attacks|
|Pirelli Tower||Milan||Italy||April 18, 2002||3||Plane crash|
|Al Rasheed Hotel||Baghdad||Iraq||December 26, 2003||1||twenty-eight 68 mm and 85 mm Katyusha rockets were fired at and struck the hotel|
|Parque Central Complex east tower||Caracas||Venezuela||October 17, 2004||0||Damage to 34th-44th floors|
|Windsor Tower||Madrid||Spain||February 12, 2005||0||Partially collapsed; subsequently demolished|
|Tohid Town Residential||Tehran||Iran||December 6, 2005||106||Plane crash: 2005 Iranian Air Force C-130 crash|
|Transport Tower||Astana||Kazakhstan||May 30, 2006||0||Fire destroyed upper floors of 34-storey government building|
|Belaire Apartments||New York City||United States||October 11, 2006||2||Plane crash|
|Fortune Tower||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||January 18, 2007||4||Occurred during construction, 57 injured|
|Shanghai World Financial Center||Shanghai||China||August 14, 2007||0||Occurred on 40th floor during construction|
|Deutsche Bank Building||New York City||United States||August 18, 2007||2||Occurred during dismantling, demolished due to damage from the September 11 attacks|
|Monte Carlo Resort and Casino||Las Vegas||January 25, 2008||0||Fire affecting top six floors|
|Abraj Al Bait Towers||Mecca||Saudi Arabia||October 28, 2008||0||Occurred during construction; fire consumed nine floors|
|Beijing Television Cultural Center||Beijing||China||February 9, 2009||1||Beijing Television Cultural Center fire|
|Bashundhara City Tower||Dhaka||Bangladesh||March 13, 2009||4|
|Abraj Al Bait Towers||Mecca||Saudi Arabia||May 1, 2009||0||Occurred during construction|
|al buteena fire||Sharjah||United Arab Emirates||June 6, 2010||0|||
|Unnamed high-rise apartment block||Shanghai||China||November 15, 2010||58||Occurred during renovation; 2010 Shanghai fire|
|Dynasty Wanxin building complex Towers A and B (Tower C was unaffected)||Shenyang||February 3, 2011||0||Started from fireworks during Chinese New Year Celebrations.|
|Unnamed Highrise||Hanoi||Vietnam||December 15, 2011||0||Fire occurred during construction, 11 workers injured.|
|Uncompleted high rise block||Kuala Lumpur||Malaysia||January 18, 2012||0|||
|Fico Place||Bangkok||Thailand||March 3, 2012||0||2 firemen injured|
|Federation Tower (East Tower)||Moscow||Russia||April 2, 2012||0||Occurred while the building was under construction|
|Al Tayer Tower||Sharjah||United Arab Emirates||April 28, 2012||0|||
|Polat Tower Residence||Istanbul||Turkey||July 17, 2012||0|||
|Tamweel Tower||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||November 18, 2012||0|||
|Oko Tower 1||Moscow||Russia||January 25, 2013||0||Fire occurred on 24th floor during construction, one worker was injured.|
|Torre Ejecutiva Pemex Tower||Mexico City||Mexico||January 31, 2013||33||Gas explosion affecting the main building's 14 story annex Torre Ejecutiva Pemex explosion|
|Grozny-City Towers||Grozny||Russia||April 3, 2013||0|||
|Jianye Mansion||Guangzhou||China||December 15, 2013||0|||
|The Strand||New York City||United States||January 5, 2014||1|||
|Lotus Park building||Mumbai||India||July 18, 2014||1|||
|Wedgwood Apartments||Castle Hills, Texas||United States||December 28, 2014||5|||
|The Marina Torch||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||February 21, 2015||0||At least 7 people were injured.|
|One57||New York City||United States||March 15, 2015||0||Fire broke out in the loading dock, then spread to the courtyard and a neighboring property.|
|Wisma Kosgoro||Jakarta||Indonesia||March 10, 2015||0||Fire destroyed floor 16-20.|
|Unnamed Highrise||Baku||Azerbaijan||May 19, 2015||16||See 2015 Baku residence building fire|
|Cosmopolitan of Las Vegas||Las Vegas||United States||July 25, 2015||0||Fire occurred on the pool deck fueled by cabanas and artificial trees, two people were treated for smoke inhalation.|
|Unnamed Residential Tower||Sharjah||United Arab Emirates||October 1, 2015||0||Fire burned building facade, 19 treated for smoke inhalation.|
|John Hancock Center||Chicago||United States||November 21, 2015||0||A two-alarm fire broke out on the 50th floor. Five injured.|
|The Address Downtown Dubai||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||December 31, 2015||1||Occurred on New Year's Eve, 14 injured.|
|National Museum of Natural History||New Delhi||India||April 26, 2016||0||A fire broke out on the sixth floor, and destroyed the entire museum and all of its artifacts. Six people suffered minor injuries due to smoke inhalation.|
|Plasco Building||Tehran||Iran||January 19, 2017||21||The 17-story building collapsed after a fire started on the ninth floor. Seventy injured.|
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in 1911
Dupont Plaza Hotel arson in 1986
Aftermath of the El Al Flight 1862 crash in 1992
Aftermath of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing
UNITIC Twin Skyscrapers after the Siege of Sarajevo in 1996
Executive Council Building during the Siege of Sarajevo in 1996
Ostankino Tower fire in 2000
7 World Trade Center burns after the collapse of the Twin Towers
Windsor Tower after the 2005 fire
Aftermath of the 2006 New York City plane crash
Deutsche Bank Building fire in 2007
A video showing 2010 Shanghai fire
Aftermath of the Torre Ejecutiva Pemex explosion in 2013
Fire at One57 in 2014.
Plasco Building on fire prior to collapse in 2017.
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