Slater Mill Historic Site
Old Slater Mill
|Location||Roosevelt Avenue, Pawtucket, Rhode Island|
|Area||4.23 acres (1.71 ha)|
|NRHP Reference #||66000001|
|Added to NRHP||November 13, 1966|
|Designated NHL||November 13, 1966|
The Slater Mill is a historic textile mill complex on the banks of the Blackstone River in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, modeled after cotton spinning mills first established in England. It is the first water-powered cotton spinning mill in North America to utilize the Arkwright system of cotton spinning as developed by Richard Arkwright.
Samuel Slater, the mill's founder, apprenticed as a young man in Belper, England with industrialist Jedediah Strutt. Shortly after immigrating to the United States, Slater was hired by Moses Brown of Providence, Rhode Island to produce a working set of machines necessary to spin cotton yarn using water power. Construction of the machines was completed in 1793, as well as a dam, waterway, waterwheel, and mill. Manufacturing was based on Richard Arkwright's cotton spinning system, which included carding, drawing, and spinning machines. Slater initially hired children and families to work in his mill, establishing a pattern that was replicated throughout the Blackstone Valley and known as the "Rhode Island System". It was later eclipsed by Francis Cabot Lowell's Waltham System.
Slater Mill was added to the National Register of Historic Places and designated a National Historic Landmark on November 13, 1966. In 2014, the mill was added to the newly formed Blackstone River Valley National Historical Park.
The original portion of the Slater Mill built in 1793 was six bays long and two stories tall. Several additions were made beginning in 1801, and a second added in 1835. Between 1869 and 1872, a large addition was made to the north end of the mill, designed by noted Providence architect William R. Walker. Cotton spinning continued until 1895, after which the mill was used for various industrial purposes until 1923. The building had suffered numerous fires in the past, and two fires occurred in 1912 which precipitated awareness of the building and the need for its preservation.
From mill to museum
In 1921, the non-profit Old Slater Mill Association was founded with the purpose of saving the historic Mill. Efforts to restore the mill began in 1923; modern additions to the structure were removed, restoring the mill to its 1835 appearance. In 1955, it opened as a museum. Restoration of the nearby Wilkinson Mill (built 1810-1811) was completed in 1978 as part of the Slater Mill site.
The Slater Mill site now serves as a living history museum, educational center, and community center. It includes five acres of land on both sides of the Blackstone River, a dam on the river, two historic mills (the Slater Mill and Wilkinson Mill), and the Sylvanus Brown House (a house built in 1758 but moved to the site in the 1960s).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Slater Mill Historic Site.|
- Samuel Slater
- David Wilkinson
- Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor
- Derwent Valley Mills
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Pawtucket, Rhode Island
- List of National Historic Landmarks in Rhode Island
- Blanche Higgins Schroer (September 15, 1975) National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Old Slater Mill / Old Slater Mill; Slater Mill Historic Site, National Park Service and Accompanying 6 images, including print from ca. 1812, drawing from 1907, and photos from 1973 and 1974 and undated
- Staff (2007-01-23). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
- "Old Slater Mill". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Retrieved June 29, 2008.
- King, Moses. King's Pocket-Book of Providence, RI. Providence: Tibbitts & Shaw, 1882.
- Creer, Philip D. (April 10, 1942). "Slater's Mill, supplemental information" (PDF). Historic American Buildings Survey. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. p. 1. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Official website
- Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) No. RI-82, "Slater Mill, Off Main Street on Blackstone River, Pawtucket, Providence County, RI", 2 photos, supplemental material
- Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) No. RI-1, "Slater Mill, Pawtucket, Providence County, RI", 64 photos, 6 color transparencies, 24 measured drawings, 53 data pages, 6 photo caption pages
- Providence Journal video of Slater Mill Historic Site
- Providence Journal video of the Blackstone River
- Site about Slater and his mill
- Pawtucket Arts Festival