|2,120, 65% of ethnic population (2016 census)|
Official language in
|North and South Slavey both official in Northwest Territories (Canada)|
Slavey (//; also Slave, Slavé) is an Athabaskan language spoken among the Slavey and Sahtu people of Canada in the Northwest Territories where it also has official status. The language is written using Canadian Aboriginal syllabics or the Latin script.
- 1 North Slavey and South Slavey
- 2 Phonology
- 3 Morphology
- 4 Person, number and gender
- 5 Classification
- 6 Tense and aspect
- 7 Word order
- 8 Case
- 9 Possessives 
- 10 Clauses
- 10.1 Conjunctions
- 10.2 Relative clauses
- 11 Status
- 12 In popular culture
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 Further reading
North Slavey and South Slavey
North Slavey (Sahtúot’ı̨nę Yatı̨́) is spoken by the Sahtu (North Slavey) people in the Mackenzie District along the middle Mackenzie River from Tulita (Fort Norman) north, around Great Bear Lake, and in the Mackenzie Mountains of the Canadian territory of Northwest Territories. The dialect has around 800 speakers.
Northern Slavey is an amalgamation of three separate dialects:
- ᑲᑊᗱᑯᑎᑊᓀ K’áshogot’ıné (Hare, spoken by the Gahwié got’iné - “Rabbitskin People" or K’áshogot’ıne - “Great Hare People", referring to their dependence on the varying hare for food and clothing, also called Peaux de Lievre or Locheaux)
- ᓴᑋᕲᒼᑯᑎᑊᓀ Sahtúgot’ıné (Bear Lake, spoken by the Sahtu Dene or Sahtú got’iné - “Bear Lake People", also known as Gens du Lac d'Ours)
- ᗰᑋᑯᑎᑊᓀ Shıhgot’ıne (Mountain, spoken by the Shıhgot’ıné, Shuhtaot'iné or Shotah Dene - “Mountain People" or Mountain Indians, also called Nahagot’iné, Nahaa or Nahane Dene - “People of the west", so called because they lived in the mountains west of the other Slavey groups, between the Mackenzie Mountains and the Mackenzie River, from the Redstone River to the Mountain River)
South Slavey (ᑌᓀ ᒐ Dene-thah, Dené Dháh or Dene Zhatıé) is spoken by the Slavey people, which were also known as Dehghaot'ine, Deh Cho, Etchareottine - “People Dwelling in the Shelter", in the region of Great Slave Lake, upper Mackenzie River (Deh Cho - “Big River") and its drainage, in the District of Mackenzie, northeast Alberta, northwest British Columbia.
Some communities are bilingual, with the children learning Slavey at home and English when they enter school. Still other communities are monolingual in Slavey  The dialect has around 1000 speakers.
Alternate names: Slavi, Slave, Dené, Mackenzian
The division of Slavey dialects is based largely on the way each one pronounces the old Proto-Athapaskan sounds *dz *ts *ts’ *s and *z.
The consonant inventories in the dialects of Slavey differ considerably. The table above lists the 30 consonants common to most or all varieties. Hare lacks aspirated affricates (on red background), which have lenited into fricatives, whereas Mountain lacks /w/ (on blue). In addition, for some speakers of Hare, an alveolar flap /ɾ/ has developed into a separate phoneme.
The most pronounced difference is however the realization of a series of consonants that varies greatly in their place of articulation:
|Plain stop/affricate||t̪θ||p||kʷ||kʷ, p|
|Voiced fricative / semivowel||ð||v||w||w|
In Slavey proper, these are dental affricates and fricatives; comparative Athabaskan work reveals this to be the oldest sound value. Mountain has labials, with the voiceless stop coinciding with pre-existing /p/. Bearlake has labialized velars, but has lenited the voiced fricative to coincide with pre-existing /w/. The most complicated situation is found in Hare, where the plain stop is a labialized velar, the ejective member is replaced by a /ʔw/ sequence, the aspirated affricate has turned into a fricative /f/, and both the voiceless and voiced fricatives have been lenited to /w/.
The following phonological and phonetic statements apply to all four dialects of Slavey.
- Unaspirated obstruents are either voiceless or weakly voiced, e.g.
- /k/ → [k] or [k̬]
- Aspirated obstruents are strongly aspirated.
- Ejectives are strongly ejective.
- When occurring between vowels, ejectives are often voiced, e.g.
- /kʼ/ → [ɡˀ] or [kʼ]
- /t͡sʰ/ is usually strongly velarized, i.e. [tˣ].
- Velar obstruents are palatalized before front vowels, e.g.
- /kɛ/ → [cɛ]
- /xɛ/ → [çɛ]
- /ɣɛ/ → [ʝɛ]
- Velar fricatives may be labialized before round vowels.
- The voiceless fricative is usually labialized, e.g.
- /xo/ → [xʷo]
- The voiced fricative is optionally labialized and may additionally be defricated e.g.
- /ɣo/ → [ɣo] or [ɣʷo] or [wo]
- The voiceless fricative is usually labialized, e.g.
- Velar stops are also labialized before round vowels. These labialized velars are not as heavily rounded as labial velars (which occur in Bearlake and Hare), e.g.
- /ko/ → [kʷo]
- /kʷo/ → [k̹ʷwo]
- Lateral affricates are generally alveolar, but sometimes velar, i.e.
- /tɬ/ → [tɬ] or [kɬ]
- /tɬʰ/ → [tɬʰ] or [kɬʰ]
- /tɬʼ/ → [tɬʼ] or [kɬʼ]
- /x/ may be velar or glottal, i.e.
- /x/ → [x] or [h]
- a [a]
- e [ɛ]
- ə [e] or [ie]
- i [i]
- o [o]
- u [u]
- nasal vowels are marked with an ogonek accent, e.g. ⟨ą⟩ [ã]
- South Slavey does not have the ⟨ə⟩ vowel.
Slavey has two tones:
In Slavey orthography, high tone is marked with an acute accent, and low tone is unmarked.
Tones are both lexical and grammatical.
Lexical: /ɡáh/ 'along' vs. /ɡàh/ 'rabbit'
Slavey morphemes have underlying syllable structures in the stems: CV, CVC, CVnC, V, and VC. The prefixes of the stem occur as Cv, CVC, VC, CV, and C.
|Stem structure||Example||English gloss|
|Prefix structure||Example||English gloss|
|VC||ah-||second-person singular subject|
|C||h-||classifier (voice element)|
Slavey, like many Athabascan languages, has a very specific morpheme order in the verb in which the stem must come last. The morpheme order is shown in the following chart.
|Position 00||Object of incorporated postposition|
|Position 0||Incorporated postposition|
|Position 2||Distributive (yá-)|
|Position 3||Customary (na-)|
|Position 4||Incorporated stem|
|Position 6||Direct Object|
A Slavey verb must minimally have positions 13 and 14 to be proper. Here are some examples:
Person, number and gender
Slavey marks gender by means of prefixation on the verb theme. There are three different genders, one of which is unmarked; the other two are marked by prefixes [go-] and [de-]. However, only certain verb themes allow gender prefixes.
[go-] is used for nouns which mark location in either time or space. The gender pronoun can be a direct object, an oblique object or a possessor. Here are examples of each:
- kú̜e̒ godetl’e̒h
house 3 paints area
“S/he is painting the house"
- ko̜̒e̒ gocha
house area.in shelter
“in the shelter of the house"
- ko̜̒e̒ godeshi̜te̒ee
“floor of the house"
Some examples of these areal nouns are house (ko̜̒e̒), land (de̒h), river (deh), and winder (xay).
[de-] marks wood, leaves and branches. This gender is optional: some speakers use it and others do not. Examples of its use are as follows:
- Tse de̜la
“wood is located"
- ʔo̜̒k’ay t’oge de̒ʔo̜
Bird nest wooden O is located
“A bird’s nest is located"
- Tse ts’edehdla̒
Wood 3split wood
“S/he is splitting wood"
Slavey marks number in the subject prefixes in position 12. The dual is marked by the prefix łe̒h- (Sl)/łe- (Bl)/le- (Hr).
“They two got stuck in a narrow passage"
The plural is marked with the prefix go-.
“we go for meat"
Slavey has first, second, third, and fourth person. When in position 12, acting as a subject, first-person singular is /h-/, second-person singular is /ne-/, first-person dual/plural is /i̒d-/, and second person plural is marked by /ah-/. Third person is not marked in this position When occurring as a direct or indirect object, the pronoun prefixes change and fourth person becomes relevant. First-person singular takes se-. Second-person singular takes ne- Third person is marked by be-/me- Fourth person is marked by ye-
Like most Athabaskan languages, Slavey has a multitude of classifications. There are five basic categories that describe the nature of an object. Some of these categories are broken up further.
|Class||Description||Locative prefix||Active Prefix||Examples|
|1a||One dimensional slender, rigid and elogated objects||Ø-to||∅-tí͔,-tǫ, -tǫ́||gun,canoe, pencil|
|1b||One directions flexible objects, ropelike; plurals||∅-ɫa||∅-ɫee, -ɫa, -ɫee||thread, snowshoes, rope|
|2a||two dimensional flexible||h-chú||h-chuh, -chú, -chu||open blanket, open tent, paper|
|2b||Two dimensional rigid objects||N/A||N/A||no specific lexical item|
|3||Solid roundish objects; chunky objects||∅-ʔǫ||∅-ʔáh, -ʔǫ, -ʔá||ball, rock, stove, loaf of bread|
|4a||Small containerful||∅-kǫ||∅-káh, -kǫ, -kah||pot of coffee, puppies in a basket, cup of tea|
|4b||Large containerful||h-tǫ||h-tí͔h, -tǫ, tǫ́||full gas tank, bucket of water, bag of flour|
|5||Animate||∅-tí͔||∅-téh, -tí͔, -té, h-téh, -tį||Any living thing|
"A clothlike object is in the water"
Tense and aspect
Slavey has only one structural tense: future. Other tenses can be indicated periphrastically.
An immediate future can be formed by de- inceptive in position 9 plus y-
3 fut.start out
“s/he is just ready to go"
3 fut.start to heal
“it is just starting to heal"
Slavey has two semantic aspects: perfective and imperfective.
Perfective is represented in position 11.
3 pf.start off
"S/he started off."
- whá goyįdee
long 3 pf.talk
"S/he talked for a long time."
The perfective can also be used with a past tense marker to indicate that at the point of reference, which is sometime in the past, the event was completed 
- Kǫ́e gohtsį
hose 3 pf.build area PAST
“He had built a house"
Imperfective indicates that the reference time precedes the end of the event time.
“s/he sing, s/he is singing"
- Kǫ́e gohtsį begháyeyidá
house 3 imp.build area 1sg. pf.see 3
“I saw him building a house"
Slavey is a verb-final language. The basic word order is SOV.
- Dene ʔelá thehtsi̜̒
Man boat made
"The man made the boat"
- tli̜ ts’ǫ̀dani káyi̜̒ta
dog child bit
"The dog bit the child"
Oblique objects precede the Direct object.
- T’eere denǫ gha ʔerákeeʔee wihsi̜
girl mother for parka made.
"The girl made a parka for her mother."
Slavey has no case markings. To differentiate between subject, direct object, and oblique objects, word order is used. The subject will be the first noun phrase, and the direct object will occur right before the verb. The oblique objects are controlled by postpositions.
Possessive pronoun prefixes are found in Slavey. These pronouns have the same forms as the direct and oblique object pronouns. The prefixes are listed below with examples.
se- first-person singular
ne- second-person singular
“your sg. hat"
“your sg. rope"
be-/me- third-person singular
- melįé nátla
3.dog. possessive 3 is fast
“His/her dog is fast."
- bekée whihtsį
3.slippers.possessive 1sg. Made
“I made his/her slippers."
ye- fourth person
- yekée whehtsį
4. slippers.possessive 3 made
“S/he made his/her slippers."
ʔe- unspecified possessor
naxe-/raxe- first-person plural, second-person plural.
“our blanket, your pl. blanket"
ku-/ki-/go- third-person plural
- kulí̜é rała
3pl.dog.possessive 3 is fast
“Their dog is fast."
- goyúé k'enáʔeniihtse
3pl.clothes.possessive 1sg. washed
“I washed their clothes."
There are both coordinating and subordinating conjunctions in Slavey.
gots'éh "and, and then"
- tse tádiihtth į gots'ę goyíi naehddhí
wood 1sg. cut and area.in 1sg. warmed
“I cut some wood and then I warmed myself up inside."
- dene ʔéhdá jíye kanįwę gots'ę ʔéhdá daʔuʔa
people some berry 3 picks and some 3 opt.fish
“Some people will pick berries and some will fish."
kúlú, kólí, kúú, kóó, ékóó, góa “but"
- ʔekó͔ náohtlah nehthę góa nehji
there 1sg. opt.go 1sg. want but 1sg. be afraid
“I want to go there but I'm afraid."
- sine ts'ó͔dane gogháiidá kúlú dedine gołį ʔajá
1sg. child 1sg. saw 3pl. but 3sg. instead 3 became
“I was supposed to watch the children but he did it instead."
ʔenįdé, nįdé, ndé, néh “if, when, whenever"
- ʔįts'é gehk'é nįdé segha máhsi
moose 3pl. shoot if 1sg.for thanks
“If they shoot a moose, I'll be grateful."
- dora bekwí ohts'í nįwę nįdé yehts'í
3. head 1sg.opt.comb 3 wants of 3 combs 4
“Whenever Dora wants to comb my hair, she combs it."
- shuruhté were selejée daderéʔ o͔ ʔagúlá
1sg. opt.go to sleep before woodbox 3 is full 1sg. made area
“Before I went to bed, I filled to woodbox."
-ts'ę “since, from"
- segó͔łį gots'ę jo͔ deneilé
1sg. was born area.from here 1sg. lived
“I lived here since I was born."
-hé “because, so"
- se wehse yihé godihk'o͔ yíle2
wood 3 is wet because 1sg. make fire NEG
“Because the wood is wet, I can't make fire."
There are three important parts to a relative clause. There is the head, which is the noun that is modified or delimited. The second part is the restricting sentence. The sentence modifies the head noun. The last part is the complementizer.
- ʔeyi [dene] goyidee I híshá
The man 1sg. talked COMP 3 is tall
“the man whom I talked to is tall."
- lį gah hedéhfe I gháyeyidá
dog rabbit 3 chased COMP 1sg. saw
“I saw the dog that chased the rabbit."
North and South Slavey are recognized as official languages of the Northwest Territories; they may be used in court and in debates and proceedings of the Northwest Territories legislature. However, unlike English and French, the government only publishes laws and documents in North and South Slavey if the legislature requests it, and these documents are not authoritative.
In 2015, a Slavey woman named Andrea Heron challenged the territorial government over its refusal to permit the ʔ character, representing the Slavey glottal stop, in her daughter's name, Sakaeʔah, despite Slavey languages being official in the NWT. The territory argued that territorial and federal identity documents were unable to accommodate the character. Heron had registered the name with a hyphen instead of the ʔ when her daughter was born, but when Sakaeʔah was 6, Ms. Heron joined a challenge by a Chipewyan woman named Shene Catholique-Valpy regarding the same character in her own daughter's name, Sahaiʔa.
Also in 2015, the University of Victoria launched a language revitalization program in the NWT, pairing learners of indigenous languages including Slavey with fluent speakers. The program requires 100 hours of conversation with the mentor with no English allowed, as well as sessions with instructors in Fort Providence.
In popular culture
Slavey was the native language spoken by the fictional band in the Canadian television series North of 60. Nick Sibbeston, a former Premier of the Northwest Territories, was a Slavey language and culture consultant for the show.
- Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "Language Highlight Tables, 2016 Census - Aboriginal mother tongue, Aboriginal language spoken most often at home and Other Aboriginal language(s) spoken regularly at home for the population excluding institutional residents of Canada, provinces and territories, 2016 Census – 100% Data". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2017-11-17.
- Official Languages of the Northwest Territories Archived 2013-12-06 at the Wayback Machine (map)
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- Browne, Rachel (12 March 2015). "What's in a name? A Chipewyan's battle over her native tongue". Maclean's. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
- Erin Brohman; Garrett Hinchey (16 March 2015). "UVic program aims to revitalize South Slavey language in N.W.T." CBC News. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
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- Monus, Vic, and Isaiah, Stanley. 1977. Slavey Topical Dictionary: A Topical List of Words and Phrases Reflecting the Dialect of the Slavey Language Spoken in the Fort Simpson Area. [Yellowknife: Government of the Northwest Territories, Canada?].
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- Anand, Pranav and Nevins, Andrew. Shifty Operators in Changing Contexts. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. https://web.archive.org/web/20050517022822/http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~lingdept/IndexicalityWorkshop/anandnevins04.pdf
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|Slavey language test of Wiktionary at Wikimedia Incubator|