SlutWalk is a transnational movement calling for an end to rape culture, including victim blaming and slut shaming of sexual assault victims. Specifically, participants protest against explaining or excusing rape by referring to any aspect of a woman's appearance. The rallies began on April 3, 2011, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, after a Toronto Police officer suggested that "women should avoid dressing like sluts" as a precaution against sexual assault. Subsequent rallies have occurred globally.
The protest takes the form of a march, mainly by young women, where some dress as "sluts" in revealing, sexy attire such as short skirts, stockings and scanty tops. In the various Slutwalks around the world, there are usually speaker meetings and workshops, live music, sign-making sessions, leafleting, open microphones, chanting, dances, martial arts, and receptions or after-parties with refreshments. In many of the rallies and online, women speak publicly for the first time about their identity as rape survivors. The movement's ideology has been questioned and its methodology criticized.
- 1 Inception
- 2 First march and consequent growth
- 3 United States
- 4 Australia
- 5 Europe
- 6 Latin America
- 7 Asia
- 8 Responses
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Constable Michael Sanguinetti
On January 24, 2011, Toronto Police Constable Michael Sanguinetti and another officer from 31 Division spoke on crime prevention, addressing the issue of campus rape at a York University safety forum at Osgoode Hall Law School. During the talk, Sanguinetti interrupted the more senior officer and said: "I've been told I'm not supposed to say this – however, women should avoid dressing like sluts in order not to be victimized."
After an article that reported on the situation received international attention, Sanguinetti apologized for the remark saying:
I made a comment which was poorly thought out and did not reflect the commitment of the Toronto Police Service to the victims of sexual assaults. Violent crimes such as sexual assaults can have a traumatizing effect on their victims... My comment was hurtful in this respect. I am embarrassed by the comment I made and it shall not be repeated.
The apology was attached to an email distributed to the Osgoode community by law school dean Lorne Sossin who said they've been told the officer "is being disciplined and will be provided with further professional training." Co-founders Sonya Barnett and Heather Jarvis decided to redefine the word "slut" as someone who is in control of their own sexuality, to reclaim the word slut as a site of power for women. They observe that historically, "slut" has had negative connotations, and that their goal is to reclaim the term. Their website states:
We are tired of being oppressed by slut-shaming; of being judged by our sexuality and feeling unsafe as a result. Being in charge of our sexual lives should not mean that we are opening ourselves to an expectation of violence, regardless if we participate in sex for pleasure or work. No one should equate enjoying sex with attracting sexual assault.
Barnett considered the apology was not enough, since the officer's stereotypical idea still exists in society.
The comment that was made by Officer Sanguinetti comes from a place where sexual profiling and victim blaming is inherent and a large trait and we'd like that changed," Barnett said, "It isn't about just one idea or one police officer who practices victim blaming, it's about changing the system and doing something constructive with anger and frustration.
Toronto Police spokeswoman Meaghan Gray said cautioning women on their state of dress is not part of any police training. "In fact, this is completely contradictory to what officers are taught," she said. "They are taught that nothing a woman does contributes to a sexual assault." Toronto Police Chief Bill Blair also spoke on the matter: "If that type of, frankly, archaic thinking still exists among any of my officers, it highlights for me the need to continue to train my officers and sensitize them to the reality of victimization." Sanguinetti's statement, according to Blair, is meant to "place the blame upon victims, and that's not where the blame should ever be placed."
Rosemary Gartner, a University of Toronto criminologist, said linking style of dress to sexual assault is "ridiculous." "If that were the case, there would be no rapes of women who wear veils and we know there are rapes in those countries," she said. Darshika Selvasivam, vice-president of the York Federation of Students, said she found the use of the word "extremely alarming." Linking provocative clothing to sexual assault "is a huge myth" and all it does is "blame the survivor of a sexual assault while taking the onus away from the perpetrator," she said. A university spokesperson also said the school was "surprised and shocked" by the comment, although it does have a good and collaborative relationship with police.
Justice Robert Dewar
On February 18, 2011 Justice Robert Dewar convicted Thompson resident Kenneth Rhodes, who worked for the city council, of sexual assault and sentenced him to two years house arrest. Dewar described Rhodes as a "clumsy Don Juan" who had the mistaken belief "sex was in the air" and a "heightened expectation" sex would occur. Dewar said the victim and a friend were dressed in tube tops and high heels when they met Rhodes and another man outside a bar "and made it publicly known that they wanted to party." The court in Winnipeg, Manitoba, heard that the victim had willingly gone off with Rhodes and kissed him. But after she rebuffed his further advances three times, he raped her by the side of the road once they were alone. Rhodes admitted telling the woman 'it would only hurt for a little while' during the assault.
He pleaded not guilty at his trial saying he thought the woman had consented to sex. Dewar rejected his defence but said aspects of it could be considered in sentencing. Prosecutors had asked for a three-year sentence, but Dewar gave Rhodes a conditional or suspended sentence, and ordered him to write a letter of apology to his victim. Politicians of all stripes joined student and feminist groups and those who work with sexual assault victims in decrying the comments.
University of Winnipeg politics professor Shannon Sampert said this is the collateral damage that occurs when you have poorly trained judges in the system. "The victim in this case gets to relive her experiences once again in a new trial, hoping that this judge won't require gender sensitivity training," said Sampert. She said surveys repeatedly show one of the primary reasons women do not report being raped is because of a fear of being victimized again by the justice system.
On February 25, nearly 100 people gathered to call for Justice Robert Dewar's resignation. "These statements by Dewar are reinforcing the myth of implied consent and the myth that a victim of sexual assault is ultimately responsible for their own victimisation," said Alanna Makinson of the Canadian Federation of Students, during the protest. Although this was not a part of Slutwalk, the launch of Slutwalk Toronto on April 3 gave the case national diffusion within Canada. On October 16, Slutwalk Winnipeg took place to reiterate the protest against the judge.
On November 9, Justice Dewar formally apologized. According to the judicial council, Dewar said he wished to "express my unequivocal apology to the (victim) for the hurt she must have experienced from my comments. Some of the letters of complaint, from persons who have worked directly with past victims, have pointed out that some of my comments were also traumatic for them. I very much regret that as well." Alberta Chief Justice Neil Wittmann, who reviewed the complaints against Dewar, said Dewar's comments "showed a clear lack of sensitivity towards victims of sexual assault" but do not merit his removal from the bench. According to the judicial council, Dewar has met with a "gender equality" expert and is "pursuing further professional development in this area as part of his commitment to become a better judge."
The Manitoba Court of Appeal later overturned Rhodes' conviction and ordered a new trial be set. The appeal court ruled Dewar did not properly assess the credibility of the accused and the alleged victim in reaching his verdict. Rhodes was sentenced to three years in prison in 2013.
First march and consequent growth
The first Slutwalk was organized in Toronto, Ontario, on April 3, 2011. Although the organizers expected around 200 people to show up, over 3,000 gathered at Queen's Park. "We want Police Services to truly get behind the idea that victim-blaming, slut-shaming, and sexual profiling are never acceptable.[...] The idea that a slut is a lesser person and deserving of sexual assault isn't exclusive to the police. Media also has to get behind this idea." Sonya Barnett explained.
The day began with speeches before moving to the Toronto Police Headquarters. The invitation in Slutwalk Toronto website also warned: "Whether a fellow slut or simply an ally, you don't have to wear your sexual proclivities on your sleeve: we just ask that you come. Singles, couples, parents, sisters, brothers, children, friends." Some women attended the protest wearing jeans and T-shirts, while others turned out in fishnets and stilettos.
On May 25, 2012, a new Slutwalk was organized in Toronto. There were fewer participants than the previous occurrence, although the presence of men was more noticeable. Outfits ranged from sneakers and tank tops to bikinis to costumes. Some attendees went topless. A delegation from the Abbey of the Divine Wood, a Toronto mission of the Sisters of Perpetual Indulgence, manifested in their nuns habits and carried signs including one which read: "Sisters Are Sluts 2".
At Queen's Park, several speakers took the stage—a multi purpose truck—and delivered speeches, some of them spontaneous testimonies. A few paid tribute to the memory of Toronto sex workers' rights activist Wendy Babcock, who took part in the first Slutwalk and died on August 9, 2011, at the age of 32. There were also multiple shows of support for Cece McDonald, a Minneapolis transgender woman facing a 41-month prison sentence for stabbing and killing a man after being harassed and slashed across the face.
On April 4, 2011, a Slutwalk in Sackville, New Brunswick was organized through the Sociology Student Association of Mount Allison University, and was coordinated to follow exactly a day after Toronto's SlutWalk. According to Rebecca Cheff, one of the organizer of the SlutWalk, "the goal is to walk towards the police station and speak to [the police officers] about victim blaming and to raise awareness as they're the frontline worker in sexual assault scenarios." "There is a big misconception that people that dress a certain way ask for sexual assault, and that needs to stop now," said SlutWalk student organizer, Lauren Hutchison. The phrase "still not asking for it" has become a rally cry behind many of these protests and has also been posterized on the bodies of men and women at these walks worldwide.
Dr. Vanessa Oliver, a professor of Sociology and faculty organizer of the SlutWalk, stated, "We have had enough of this slut shaming idea [...] owning our sexual selves should not mean that we are opening ourselves to an expectation of violence," she said. "No one should equate enjoying sex with attracting sexual assault." The protest contained a visible male presence. "While this event is not geared towards myself, it is a worthy cause," said Chris Vizena, a second-year science student. Two protesters dressed in morphsuits participating in the protest also said, "As men we can also create awareness".
According to SlutWalk London, the rallies aim to end a culture of fear and victimisation:
All over the world, women are constantly made to feel like victims, told they should not look a certain way, should not go out at night, should not go into certain areas, should not get drunk, should not wear high heels or make-up, should not be alone with someone they don't know. Not only does this divert attention away from the real cause of the crime – the perpetrator – but it creates a culture where rape is OK, where it's allowed to happen.
Jessica Valenti said: "In just a few months, SlutWalks have become the most successful feminist action of the past 20 years. In a feminist movement that is often fighting simply to hold ground, SlutWalks stand out as a reminder of feminism's more grass-roots past and point to what the future could look like."
It has been compared to the 1970s movement Take Back the Night (also known as Reclaim the Night), which promoted marches to raise awareness and protest against violence against women; although some tension between the two movements has been noted. As with SlutWalk, it asserted women's right to be on the street at night without it being considered an invitation to rape.
To a lesser extent, it has been compared to activist groups like FEMEN, the Ukrainian women's group, and Boobquake, an atheistic and feminist response to Iran's Hojatoleslam Kazem Seddiqi who blamed women who dress immodestly for causing earthquakes. Both integrate nudity and protest.
Amber Rose SlutWalk Festival
Amber Rose is an American socialite famous for her outspokenness concerning feminism and her relationships with other celebrities, such as Kanye West. She notes on her website that she did not start the SlutWalk, though "she is bringing more awareness to this matter by educating the public." The Amber Rose SlutWalk Festival is currently held in Pershing Square in Los Angeles. The SlutWalk holds many activities, including: "live DJs, sign making, educational booths, photo fun, free breast cancer exams, and HIV testing". It is open to volunteers; staff and attendees of the SlutWalk must be at least 18 years of age. The 2016 Amber Rose SlutWalk had sponsors including Subway, T-Mobile, and beats by dre; celebrity attendees included Matt McGorry, Nicki Minaj, and Blac Chyna.
In 2017 the chairpersons of Chicago SlutWalk wrote, "We still stand behind Dyke March Chicago's decision to remove the Zionist contingent from their event, & we won't allow Zionist displays at ours", referring to a then-upcoming demonstration of the Chicago SlutWalk. The Chicago SlutWalk declared of the Star of David, "its connections to the oppression enacted by Israel is too strong for it to be neutral & IN CONTEXT [at the Dyke March Chicago event] it was used as a Zionist symbol."
In 2017 Slutwalk Detroit was held in Palmer Park by Metro-Detroit Political Action Network (MDPAN). The event was also named "The March for Consent" the event was held in Detroit's "Gayboorhood" due to the high violence rate against Transgender Women in the area. Key speakers included Transgender Chair for MDPAN Brianna Kingsley and Jennifer Kurland who ran for Michigan Governor 2018 as the Green Party candidate.
The first SlutWalk in Melbourne took place on May 28, 2011. An estimated 2500 people rallied in front of the Victorian State Library and marched through Melbourne defending how women, men, and children should dress without fear of being sexually assaulted. Protesters held signs that said, "Stop Policing Our Wardrobe and Start Policing Our Streets, Stop Victim Blaming, No Victim is To Blame, I Love Sluts, Sluts Pay Taxes and Stop Whorephobia", to name a few. Supporters of the SlutWalk dressed in drag, casual and sports attire, as well as other types of clothing celebrating who they are. The organizers advised to wear whatever they chose to convey one message: Who's a slut? We all are. Or none of us are. And who cares? It's a stupid, meaningless concept anyway.
SlutWalk Melbourne was organized by Karen Pickering, Lauren Clair, Clementine Bastow, and Natasha Smith. Pickering hosts Cherchez La Femme, talk show of current affairs and pop culture with a feminist flair. Natasha Smith specializes in queer rights and mental health organizations. Clair is a retail sex toy and sexual health consultant. She has run fundraisers in Melbourne for women services. Bastow is a feminist author, music critic, and radio host. Before SlutWalk Melbourne, Clair had second thoughts on redefining the word slut. In an interview with Fairfax newspapers she said, "I've spent my entire life being judged for my appearance and sexuality. I'm sexual, I have sex, I enjoy sex. I'm not going to be ashamed." Clair stated the most memorable chant recited by all genders during the protest was, "However we dress, wherever we go, yes means yes and no means no." The event included five empowering speeches from five speakers: Dr Leslie Cannold, Monica Dux, Ursula Benstead, Elena Jeffreys and Cody Smith.
Feminist writer Dr Cannold started her speech with the greeting, "Hey you sluts". Throughout her speech, Dr. Cannold described the origin and meaning of the word slut stemming from the Middle Ages and its effect in the twenty-first century. "The word slut actually dates back to the middle ages. Those who throw it at us are trying to take us back to the Middle Ages. A time where women were what men said they could be. A slut is used by some boys and some men and even some ecologist women to put women down. When those who use the word slut, what they mean is the same." Cody Smith shared his rape encounter with a transgender man and the effect it had on him. "My rape was not my fault!" he choked back tears as he described his guilt. "I spent so many years blaming myself for my state of intoxication . . . for what I was wearing . . . for not being strong enough to keep the rapist off me." Because of the positive outcome of SlutWalk Melbourne 2011, four SlutWalks in Melbourne have been taken place: SlutWalk Melbourne 2012, Slutfest 2013, SlutWalk Melbourne 2014, SlutTea 2015, and Slutfest 2016.
The Swiss movement was created in August 2012, by women from Geneva and Lausanne. Since then, the collective organised four marches and other events. Swiss SlutWalk, 6 October 2012, 12 October 2013, 13 September 2014, 6 June 2015. The Swiss Slutwalk is an association by law since May 2014.
Researchers Jessica Ringrose and Emma Renold interviewed members of a self-organized 'girl power' group in a school in Cardiff, Wales. The aims of the group of Year 8 (age 13) and above students had evolved to the delivery of personal social health and economic education (PHSE) lessons to younger students in the school. When asked about the 'SlutWalk', planned for Cardiff in a few weeks time, it led to "an uncomfortable silence, uneasy smiles and raised eyebrows from the two women teachers leading the group." Ringrose and Renold concluded that there was a paradox between teachers that "were incredibly supportive of the general message of the SlutWalk," but who "were simultaneously faced with the ongoing struggle of confronting the sexual regulation experienced by girls in a sanitised school space where 'slut' is a banished and punishable sexual swearword." The teachers went on to say that the girls, "probably can't go, we'll go on the march for them". On the day of the march (4 June 2011), however, a number of the girls did turn up with their mothers and met up with their teachers. Similar marches were also held around this time in a number of UK cities including London, Edinburgh, Newcastle upon Tyne, Bristol and Oxford.
As of 2018, SlutWalk Newcastle is the longest running UK satellite event. The first march was held on 4 June 2011, attended by approximately 200 people. After a five-year hiatus the next Newcastle SlutWalk is due to take place on 28 July 2018.
Slutwalks in Latin America were renamed "Marcha das Vadias" in Brazil and "La Marcha de las Putas" in most Spanish-speaking countries, sometimes using PUTAS as an acronym for "Por una transformación Auténtica y Social (For an Authentic Social Transformation)" Countries like Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia  were known to host simultaneous Slutwalks in different cities. In all countries, Slutwalks were repeated annually at least once, although not always in the same cities. Some protests selected their dates to match significant events such as the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women and the World Youth Day.
There were interactions noted between the organizers in different countries. Organizers from Argentina had previously contacted their counterparts in Mexico and Venezuela through social networks, and artist Adriana Minolitti participated in Mexican Slutwalks before becoming an organizer herself at Buenos Aires.They were, in turn, contacted by organizers in Bolivia and Uruguay to get assistance. Also, the organizer of the national Slutwalk at Colombia had some previous interaction with organizers in Peru, and Argentine activist Leonor Silvestri travelled to Chile to help organize La Marcha de las Maracas in Santiago. There was also an active participation of the LGBT community, and there was a common presence of sex workers, or expressions of solidarity with them. There was also a common regional chant: "¡Alerta, alerta, alerta que camina la Marcha de las Putas por América Latina!" (Alert! Alert! Alert, the sluts are walking down Latin America!).
All protests shared the rejection of Sanguinetti's sayings, and some of them were also directed to local state authorities and Catholic church representatives whose public comments reinforced gender stereotypes and violence against women. Costumes representing Catholic characters were also found across different countries, and many protests demanded a secular State and pointed at the Catholic church as the reason for women's rights to be held back. There were some exceptions like Colombia, in which Catholics marched among people of all other religions, under the banner of La Marcha de las Putas, and the Marcha das Vadias against the public spending for the visit of Pope Francis in Copacabana, Brazil, featured dissident Catholic groups marching among the protesters.
Some protests evolved into permanent organizations, which kept working throughout the whole year to fight violence against women, and participated or organized events other than the typical Slutwalks to raise awareness on sexual assault.
The first Slutwalk campaign in Asia was held on July 16, 2011 in Seoul, Korea. It was planned to be held on the 9th of July, but due to another important event called "Hope Bus to Hanjin Heavy Industries", Slutwalk Korea postponed the event until the next week. The date of the event is same in India, but because of the time difference, the first slutwalk in Asia was held in Seoul. Korean name of the slutwalk is 잡년행진 (Jap Nyun Haengjin). "Jap" means difference. "Nyun" is an abusive term for women. "Haengjin" means parade or march. The second slutwalk in South Korea was held on July 28, 2012.
On July 16, 2011, about 50 people rallied for India's first Slutwalk in Bhopal, called Slutwalk arthaat Besharmi Morcha. Rita Banerji, Indian feminist and author reports that SlutWalk was criticised as irrelevant in the face of female feticide, infanticide, dowry murders and honor killings. She argues: "The issue at the crux of the SlutWalk is one and the same as for all the other above mentioned afflictions. It is about the recognition of women as individuals with certain fundamental rights, including that of safety and personal choices, which no one, not even the family, can violate."
On July 31, 2011, Besharmi Morcha took place at New Delhi, sometimes referred to as "The Rape Capital of India" for having the highest numbers of such crime. The estimated number of protesters was around 500. To ensure that no untoward incident took place, police personnel were deployed all around the area. "No one can ever be safe in Delhi. When we leave our homes, even we are not sure whether we will return safely or not," said a police constable on the condition of anonymity. Actress and social activist Nafisa Ali was present. "Basically, we need to work towards the safety of women on streets. It's an issue of mindset. If a boy can go out at two in the morning, so can a girl," she said. Trishala Singh, one of the organisers, said in reference to the number of participants: "I am not at all disappointed with the walk. A good number of people turned up to support the cause and I am happy with it. I know one walk can't change the mindset of people but it will at least be a beginning."
Another Slutwalk was held in Kolkata on May 24, 2012, gathering around 300 people. As described by the Times of India, young girls walked in all kinds of dresses right from sari and salwar kameez to jeans and skirts. "We want to bring forth the point that one can be sexually harassed even while being clothed from head to toe," stated Film Studies student Sulakshana Biswas, one of the organizers. At the end of the rally, artists from Fourth Bell Theatre group performed short plays and recited poetries on sexual abuse written by famous Urdu poet Saadat Hassan Manto and Bengali writer Mahasweta Devi.
A new Slutwalk took place at Kolkata on June 7, 2013. The walk started at Jadavpur University and continued until Triangular Park. Many participants had 'slut' painted on their bodies in bright colors. Sulakshana, Jadavpur University student and organizer over two consecutive years, said that she intended Slutwalks to be an annual affair in the city. Sayan, another of the organizers said, "We are under no political banner. This is a gender inclusion movement, catering to all."
Previous to the first Slutwalk, a public exchange between the organisers and the local authorities took place, regarding the particularly strict laws on streets demonstrations. Organizers stated there was no need for a permission to hold the protest, while the police sustained the global nature of the movement and expected presence of foreigners made it necessary. Finally, on November 30, a permit was approved for the Slutwalk to take place at a free-speech park called Speakers' Corner. Social critic and gay rights activist Alex Au commented on the issue: "maybe our senior civil servants can't get past the word 'slut' and have begun to hyperventilate". The Slutwalk finally took place on December 3, 2011. None of the mostly female crowd attended in revealing clothing, though some did wear skirts above the knee.Others wore T-shirts protesting against blaming rape victims on the grounds of their outfits or because they had been drunk or flirting. A new Slutwalk was held in Singapore on December 15, 2012.
SlutWalks have occurred in cities around the world.
When taking up the idea of SlutWalk in Israel, the Hebrew name adopted was "Tza'adat HaSharmutot" (צעדת השרמוטות), i.e. "SharmutaWalk". The word "sharmuta" (عاهرة), originally an Arabic word meaning "prostitute", has entered spoken Israeli Hebrew, carrying connotations similar to "slut" in English. In 2012 the Jerusalem-based Feminist activist Or Levy was the first to raise the idea of holding a SlutWalk in Israel. The first actual SlutWalk took place in Tel Aviv on March 22, attended by several hundred women and a few sympathizing men. The idea was then taken up by activists in other cities, including Jerusalem, Haifa and Beersheba.
In 2013 events took place in the same four cities. The number of both women and men participants has increased greatly, apparently due to increased media coverage, as well as an Internet campaign which went viral via Facebook. The marches were not without obstacles: In Jerusalem, the police initially refused to give a permit for the march, providing it only after an intervention by Knesset Member Tamar Zandberg. The Tel Aviv march was organized by a new group of activists, initiated by Feminist activist Tzipi Eran. That year's march also involved a fierce dispute with the "Socialist Struggle" movement (Ma'avak Socilisti - מאבק סוציאליסטי) which organised its own SlutWalk but objected to the term "sharmuta" on the grounds that it was an originally Arabic word, and thus using it could be considered offensive to women from a minority group.
The rival march organizers, conversely, held that avoiding the term would be an act of "Slut-shaming" - precisely what the march was supposed to oppose - and they also objected to the Socialist Struggle march being led by men who spoke on behalf of women victims of sexual violence. Moreover, though originally an Arabic word, the term as presently used by Hebrew speakers in Israel carries a crude disparaging sexist implication of "blaming the victim" but no specific ethnic connotation. In the end, although two separate events were publicized on the Internet, in actuality they merged into a single march of over a thousand marchers, and the use of "sharmuta" no longer disputed.
In 2014 the organizers of the marches in various cities united into an umbrella organizational frame. Although each of the cities had a separate organizing group that ran its march in its own way, the joint organization established a comprehensive branding for the march and held campaigns and advertising in collaboration, to consolidate messages and expand distribution. In 2015, a march took place in Jerusalem on May 29 with the participation of about 1,000 women and men, with a conspicuous involvement of teenage girls. A march in Tel Aviv took place on Friday, May 14.
In 2016, a march took place in Tel Aviv on July 8 with some 500 participants. Among them was Inbal Bibi, a former X Factor Israel celebrity, who revealed that she had herself been raped in the past. In 2017, a march took place in Tel Aviv on May 12, with some 1500 participants. The march attracted high public attention when well known artists such as Gadi Wilczhersky and Satik promoted it on the social networks. Satik got some negative reactions from fans who objected to his using "dirty words". He then set to his hundreds of thousands of followers on Instagram a detailed explanation of the idea behind the SlutWalk and the effort to confront and reverse the sexist connotations of "sharmuta".
The Tel Aviv 2018 SlutWalk, held on May 4, had more than 2000 participants and got sympathetic coverage in the mainstream media. Taking up themes from the Me Too movement, signs were carried mentioning by name and photo various Israeli men in prominent public positions - including politicians, senior military and police officers, business people, artists and actors as well as rabbis - who were implicated in rape or sexual harassment cases.
Australian commentator Andrew Bolt observed that guidance on how to dress in any given context is simply risk management, and such advice need not exclude opposition to victim-blaming. Rod Liddle agrees, saying "I have a perfect right to leave my windows open when I nip to the shops for some fags, without being burgled. It doesn't lessen the guilt of the burglar that I've left my window open, or even remotely suggest that I was deserving of being burgled. Just that it was more likely to happen." Mike Strobel even suggests that the approach SlutWalk is advocating is dangerous, and he would not advise a daughter to dress "provocatively in iffy circumstances."
Lindsay Herriot, a women's studies scholar, disagreed with these arguments, stating that risk management can be seen as a direct case of victim-blaming and creates a problematic rhetoric in tackling the issue of sexual violence. As an example, she cited a 2010 Toronto news story covering a series of recent attempted and completed sexual assault cases against teenage girls walking home from school. In the news story, Pearl Rimer, a safety advocate with Boost Child Abuse Prevention, stated: "[children and young adults] should be aware of their surroundings while in public by limiting the use of cell phones and music players. Whenever possible, teenagers should walk with at least one friend." Herriot criticized this advice as restricting young people's basic freedoms in public spaces, as opposed to taking an approach targeted at offenders.
SlutWalk has focused on being able to choose what to wear without being harassed, rather than the larger and broader discussion of consent concerning sexual assault. It has been accused of "[fixating] solely around liberal questions of individual choice – the palatable 'I can wear what I want' feminism that is intentionally devoid of an analysis of power dynamics." But Jessica Valenti says: "The idea that women's clothing has some bearing on whether they will be raped is a dangerous myth feminists have tried to debunk for decades. Despite all the activism and research, however, the cultural misconception prevails."
Some popular responses have also questioned the wisdom of using the word "slut". Sophie Jones wrote on The F-Word regarding this criticism:
This is a clear case of these writers simply misinterpreting the mission of SlutWalk, which is not a protest for the right to be called 'slut' but a protest for the right to dress however you want free of the presumption you are "asking for it". I have been called a slut while wearing long sleeves and thick black tights.[...]The assumption that rapists target women who look sexually available drastically misreads the nature of the crime. I will be marching in London not for the right to be called a slut, but for the right to be there.
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In the United States, black feminists have accused the SlutWalk of being exclusionary to women of color. In an open letter to the SlutWalk organizers, the Black Women's Blueprint state that "As Black women and girls we find no space in SlutWalk, no space for participation and to unequivocally denounce rape and sexual assault as we have experienced it." They assert that the term "slut" means something different when it is attached to a black body due to their history of slavery. They further state "For us the trivialization of rape and the absence of justice are viciously intertwined with narratives of sexual surveillance, legal access and availability to our personhood. It is tied to institutionalized ideology about our bodies as sexualized objects of property, as spectacles of sexuality and deviant sexual desire." They also find the use of the word to be counterproductive to getting rid of the word ho which has been used to dehumanize them. In their closing remarks, they give the SlutWalk organizers a tip for organizing future movements. They state, "Women in the United States are racially and ethnically diverse. Every tactic to gain civil and human rights must not only consult and consider women of color, but it must equally center all our experiences and our communities in the construction, launching, delivery and sustainment of that movement."
There is a racial divide between white feminists and black feminists when it comes to the SlutWalk. In "An Open Letter from Black Women to SlutWalk Organizers," it was expressed that although black women stand by the message for the SlutWalk movement, they can not participate in the activities that some women partake in. For example, some women march near naked to exemplify that no matter what they wear, they should never be victims of rape. Black women do not have the same liberties as these women to march without clothing because they represent a standard of what black women should be. The authors of "An Open Letter from Black Women to Slutwalk Organizers" wrote, "Even if only in name, we cannot afford to label ourselves, to claim identity, to chant dehumanizing rhetoric against ourselves in any movement." Black women are idolized by the children and can not identify as sluts because that sends a message to young girls that it is acceptable to call themselves words made by society to punish women for sexual promiscuity. Young boys are also affected because then they are conditioned to believe that all women are sluts and that it is justified to call every female they encounter a slut being that it is acceptable to call themselves sluts. The SlutWalk is not a representative movement for black women because it can cause the mental destruction in the community by setting a basis for how women are treated and the words used to describe them.
Change comes in larger numbers and general inclusion would help the greater issue at hand. Black women want to be a part of the larger movement because bringing awareness to the present rape culture and ending it will make a larger impact. Black women want to tweak some aspects about the movement so that they feel included in a movement focused on women. It is a struggle for some black women to feel included into a movement when a white woman who participated in a SlutWalk in New York City was holding a sign that read, "Woman Is the Nigger of the World." History has shown that people of African descent in the Americas have struggled with reclaiming their rights as human beings. Current events have shown that people of color continually struggle with overcoming the racial divide between white and black.
Organizers of the Slutwalk have also seen that there is no equality in the movement in which white and black women can come together in solidarity to break down the societal, racial divide. In response to the white woman's sign, in an open apology letter, The organizers of SlutWalkNYC wrote, We apologize that this space was not safer for black women, black people, and their allies."  A movement that desires to embrace the word slut sends a crooked message to participants when organizers prohibit the use of other hostile terminology. Embracing the hostile word is one of the major and problematic things that black women have with SlutWalk.
They are not alone in their skepticism of the SlutWalk. Andrea Plaid too is skeptic and describes the SlutWalk as coming "...off as another word-reclamation project that seemed to recenter white cisgender women's sexual agency and bodies. (Sort of the way 'feminist issues' tends to reincarnate a little too often as 'white (cis) women's issues.')". Bogado critiques the movement for the "privileged position inherent in a political movement whose goal is focused on 'regaining' a trustworthy relationship with the police while immigrant women, black and brown women, poor women, and transgender women whether born in the U.S. or not, are presumed to be sex workers, targeted as 'sex offenders,' and are routinely abused by police with impunity, and their deaths ignored." Bogado continues her critique and states that "Despite decades of work from women of color on the margins to assert an equitable space, SlutWalk has grown into an international movement that has effectively silenced the voices of women of color and re-centered the conversation to consist of a topic by, of, and for white women only."
Not all black feminist stand against slut walks though. In response to the Black Women's Blueprint letter, the Global Women's Strike retorted "Women of colour are among the most likely to be put down as "sluts", which is why we rejoice at SlutWalk embracing the word "slut" to remove the stigma; if we're all identified as sluts, that's the end of the insult which can divide us." They further state that the Black Women's Blueprint letter brings division not only between white women and women of color but between women them and the women of color who support this movement.
Use of the word "slut"
Others have noted that the use of the word "slut" raises the hackles of those anxious about the "'pornification' of everything and the pressure on young girls to look like Barbie dolls". Melinda Tankard Reist, notable for her stance against sexualisation of children in modern pop culture, said: "I believe the name will marginalise women and girls who want to be active in violence prevention campaigns but who don't feel comfortable with personally owning the word slut." Feminists Gail Dines and Wendy J Murphy have suggested that the word slut is inherently indivisible from the madonna/whore binary opposition and thus "beyond redemption." They say: "Women need to find ways to create their own authentic sexuality, outside of male-defined terms like slut."
Sophie Jones answered to Dines and Murphy that reclaiming a word does not mean celebrating that word in its current form. "Reclaiming "slut" should not be about celebrating the male-defined word as something 'positive', but celebrating the indeterminacy of the word when detached from its meaning. We want this word in our court, but only so we can keep it in the air and over the heads of everyone who would use it against us."
Recently the debate about using the word slut has emerged within the SlutWalk movement itself. Organisers of SlutWalk New York City "have made the decision to withdraw from the movement because of the name." In Vancouver, the organisers decided to cancel the march and have a discussion instead, and a debate was held to determine a different name. Of the four names suggested (Slutwalk, End the Shame, Yes Means Yes and Shame Stop), SlutWalk remained the favourite, though half the voters had voted against the old name. SlutWalk Philadelphia renamed the protest "A March to End Rape Culture" in order to take into account concerns about inclusivity.
Promotion of sex culture
Former British Conservative MP Louise Mensch has objected to SlutWalk "on the grounds that it 'lionises promiscuity', which she says is harmful." She also added "promiscuity is not equality." Indeed, the inclusion of "Sex Party branding" has been criticised in Brisbane, where it was said by a rape survivor "they are promoting sex positivity, which I personally have no problem with, but a lot of survivors of rape are at different stages." Guy Rundle has contrasted SlutWalk with Reclaim the Night protests, saying they "resisted the deep cultural pull to make women into objects rather than subjects, to be constituted by the male gaze... there was no way to watch Reclaim The Night and feel like, or be, a voyeur." At worst, it has been said that "SlutWalkers have internalised their abuse" and SlutWalk is "the pornification of protest."
It was noticed that, by taking aim at rape while expressly promoting the virtues of female sexuality, SlutWalk situates itself where anti-rape and pro-sex norms converge. However, the protest targets rape culture alone, leaving law and legal theory outside the specific claims. This omission is seen to underestimate the role of the law, since the crime of rape traditionally constructs female sexuality in ways incompatible with a pro-agency agenda. A scholar summarized "Women cannot 'reclaim' sexuality, as SlutWalk professes to do, without regard for rape law."
In 2014, artist Wendy Coburn presented Slut Nation: Anatomy of a Protest, a video documentary of the first Slutwalk, as part of her exhibition Anatomy of a Protest in Toronto. The documentary showed involvement by police provocateurs at the initial protest, and examined the role of props as tools for and against protestors.
- Post-assault treatment of sexual assault victims
- Slutwalk in Latin America
- Victim blaming
- Women's March
- Me Too movement
- Ele Não movement
- Spasime movement
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As was noted at a recent panel discussion at the University of Manitoba, SlutWalk has been criticized as "the pornification of protest" — no doubt because every march inevitably features at least a few participants wearing very little clothing, much to the delight of male spectators who inevitably show up to take pictures from the sidelines.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
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- including Austin , Boston , Chicago, SlutWalk Chicago Turns Out Hundreds (PHOTOS), Philadelphia Philadelphia's SlutWalk takes up the fight against sexual assault, and Seattle 2012 Seattle SlutWalk sends a message in the United States; Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo Scantily-clad women protest in mass Slut Walk in Brazil in Brazil; Melbourne Thousands turn out for Melbourne SlutWalk in Australia; Bhopal Bhopal Besharmi Morcha gets lukewarm response and Kolkata Kolkata organises 'SlutWalk' in India; London Slutwalk London: 'Yes means yes and no means no' in Britain; Jerusalem Dozens of Israeli ‘Slutwalk’ protesters hit streets of Jerusalem in Israel; and Gdańsk and Warsaw in Poland. Marsz Puszczalskich w obronie ofiar w Gdańsku
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