|Small monomeric GTPase|
|PDB structures||RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum|
Small GTPases (EC 184.108.40.206) are a family of hydrolase enzymes that can bind and hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate (GTP). They are a type of G-protein found in the cytosol that are homologous to the alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins, but unlike the alpha subunit of G proteins, a small GTPase can function independently as a hydrolase enzyme to bind to and hydrolyze a guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to form guanosine diphosphate (GDP). The most well-known members are the Ras GTPases and hence they are sometimes called Ras superfamily GTPases.
A typical G-protein is active when bound to GTP and inactive when bound to GDP (i.e. when the GTP is hydrolyzed to GDP). The GDP can be then replaced by free GTP. Therefore, a G-protein can be switched on and off. GTP hydrolysis is accelerated by GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), while GTP exchange is catalyzed by Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Activation of a GEF typically activates its cognate G-protein, while activation of a GAP results in inactivation of the cognate G-protein. Guanosine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDI) maintain small GTP-ases in the inactive state.
The Ras superfamily
There are more than a hundred proteins in the Ras superfamily. Based on structure, sequence and function, the Ras superfamily is divided into five main families, (Ras, Rho, Ran, Rab and Arf GTPases). The Ras family itself is further divided into 6 subfamilies: Ras, Ral, Rit, Rap, Rheb, and Rad. Miro is a recent contributor to the superfamily.
Each subfamily shares the common core G domain, which provides essential GTPase and nucleotide exchange activity.
The surrounding sequence helps determine the functional specificity of the small GTPase, for example the 'Insert Loop', common to the Rho subfamily, specifically contributes to binding to effector proteins such as IQGAP and WASP.
The Ras family is generally responsible for cell proliferation, Rho for cell morphology, Ran for nuclear transport and Rab and Arf for vesicle transport.
- Wennerberg K, Rossman KL, Der CJ (March 2005). "The Ras superfamily at a glance". J. Cell. Sci. 118 (Pt 5): 843–6. doi:10.1242/jcs.01660. PMID 15731001.
- Goitre, L; Trapani, E; Trabalzini, L; Retta, SF (26 December 2013). "The Ras superfamily of small GTPases: the unlocked secrets.". 1120: 1–18. doi:10.1007/978-1-62703-791-4_1. PMID 24470015. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
- Munemitsu S, Innis M, Clark R, McCormick F, Ullrich A, Polakis P (1990). "Molecular cloning and expression of a G25K cDNA, the human homolog of the yeast cell cycle gene CDC42". Mol Cell Biol. 10 (11): 5977–82. ISSN 0270-7306. PMC . PMID 2122236.