A smart bullet is a bullet that is able to do something other than simply follow its given trajectory, such as turning, changing speed or sending data.
Types of smart bullets
First efforts in this area were the 1980 NATO 'Copperhead' 155mm artillery shell project using mid flight adjustment onto target reflected laser guidance. This was shelved.
In 2008 the EXACTO program began under DARPA to develop a "fire and forget" smart sniper rifle system including a guided smart bullet and improved scope. The exact technologies of this smart bullet have not been released. EXACTO was test fired in 2014 and 2015 and results showing the bullet alter course to correct its path to its target were released.
In 2012 Sandia National Laboratories announced a self-guided bullet prototype that could track a target illuminated with a laser designator. The bullet is capable of updating its position 30 times a second and hitting targets over a mile away.
In mid-2016, Russia revealed it was developing a similar "smart bullet" weapon designed to hit targets at a distance of up to 10 kilometres (6.2 mi). At the end of 2018 Russia postponed the development of a smart bullet.
One kind of smart bullet is a projectile that is capable of changing its course during flight. One use of this would be to enable soldiers to stay behind protective cover and shoot around corners. One implementation uses a spoiler and micro gyro to control the bullet.
Another smart bullet is one that can transmit data about the location into which it has been fired. A prototype has been created by researchers at the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida, USA with funding from Lockheed Martin. The bullet (projectile) has a sensor inside of it that can send wireless data up to 70 meters.
Another smart bullet is one that self-destructs within a limited range. This would be used to minimize collateral damage of a bullet in case of a miss. For example, hunting near a populated area. This would involve either change in course into the ground, or near vaporization.
- "EXACTO Guided Bullet Demonstrates Repeatable Performance against Moving Targets". www.darpa.mil. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Sandia’s self-guided bullet prototype can hit target a mile away
- Russians Launch Smart Bullet Effort in the Wake of U.S. Program - Kitup.Military.com, 20 July 2016
- Russia launches ‘smart bullet’ testing in guided flight regime
- Dec 9, 2018, in Army, News, Russia postponed the development of a smart bullet, defence-blog.com
- "Smart Bullet Patent #6422507
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-07-08. Retrieved 2010-05-19.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Smart bullet reports back wirelessly" by Will Knight in NewScientist, May 2004