Smart products

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Recent innovations in mobile and sensor technologies allow for creating a digital representation of almost any physical entity and its parameters over time at any place. RFID technologies, for instance, are used to ground digital representations, which are used to track and geo-reference physical entities. In general, physical worlds and digital representations become tightly interconnected, so that manipulations in either would have effect on the other.

Integration of information and communication technologies into products anywhere and anytime enable new forms of mobile marketing in respect to situated marketing communication, dynamic pricing models and dynamic product differentiation models. As Fano and Gershman state: "Technology enables service providers to make the location of their customers the location of their business".[1]

Smart products are specializations of hybrid products with physical realizations of product categories and digital product descriptions that provide the following characteristics:

  • Situated: recognition and processing of situational and community contexts
  • Personalized: tailoring to buyer's and consumer's needs and affects
  • Adaptive: change according to buyer's and consumer's responses and tasks
  • Pro-active: attempt to anticipate buyer's and consumer's plans and intentions
  • Business aware: considering business and legal constraints
  • Location aware: considering functional performing and restricted location choice
  • Network capable: ability to communicate and bundle (product bundling) with another product (business) or product sets

The vision of smart products poses questions relevant to various research areas, including marketing, product engineering, computer science, artificial intelligence, economics, communication science, media economics, cognitive science, consumer psychology, innovation management and many more.

Since smart products combine a physical product with additional services, they are a form of product service system.

Research groups[edit]

  • Institute for Virtual Product Engineering, Technical University of Kaiserslautern[2]
  • Chair in Information and Service Systems, Saarland University[3]
  • Center for Ambient Business, University of Cologne[4]
  • Telecooperation Group, Technical University Darmstadt[5]


  • Model-based Development Process of Cybertronic Products and Productionsystems, mecPro² (BMBF-Project)[6]
  • Interactive Knowledge Stack, IKS (EU-Project FP7)[7]
  • Smart Products (EU-Project FP7)[8]
  • Design for Smart Products (BE-Vlaio TETRA-Project) [9]


  • Fano, A., Gershman, A. (2002): The Future of Business Services in the Age of Ubiquitous Computing. Communications of the ACM, 45 (12), 2002, pp. 83 – 87.
  • Gershenfeld, N., Krikorian, R., Cohen, D. (2004): The Internet of Things. Scientific American 291(4), 2004, pp. 76 – 81.
  • Maass, W. & Filler, A. (2007): Tip 'n Tell: Product-Centered Mobile Reasoning Support for Tangible Shopping, Proc. of MSWFB 2007: Making Semantics Work For Business, part of 1st European Semantic Technology Conference, Vienna, Austria, 2007.
  • Schmitt, C.; Fischbach, K.; Schoder, D. (2006): Towards Ambient Business - Value-added Services through an Open Object Information Infrastructure, in: Proceedings of the CollECTeR Europe 2006, pp 141 –148.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Fano, A.E.; Gershman, A. (2002). "The future of business services in the age of ubiquitous computing". Communications of the ACM. 45 (12): 83–87. CiteSeerX doi:10.1145/585597.585620.
  2. ^ "Home".
  3. ^ "Lehrstuhl für Betriebswirtschaftslehre, insbesondere Wirtschaftsinformatik im Dienstleistungsbereich — Willkommen".
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ "Smart Products".
  6. ^ "mecPro ² – Modellbasierter Entwicklungsprozess cybertronischer Produkte und Produktionssysteme".
  7. ^ "IKS Project - Semantic Community".
  8. ^ [2]
  9. ^ [3]