Smartphone

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Smartphones)
Jump to: navigation, search
"Smartphones" redirects here. For the song by Trey Songz, see SmartPhones (song).
iPhone 5s running iOS

A smartphone or smart phone is a mobile phone with an advanced mobile operating system which combines features of a personal computer operating system with other features useful for mobile or handheld use.[1][2][3] They typically combine the features of a cell phone with those of other popular mobile devices, such as personal digital assistant (PDA), media player and GPS navigation unit. Most smartphones can access the Internet, have a touchscreen user interface, can run third-party apps, music players and are camera phones. Most Smartphones produced from 2012 onwards also have high-speed mobile broadband 4G LTE internet, motion sensors, and mobile payment mechanisms.

In 2014, sales of smartphones worldwide topped 1.2 billion, which was up 28% from 2013.[4]

History[edit]

Early years[edit]

The first caller identification receiver (1971)

Devices that combined telephony and computing were first conceptualized by Theodore Paraskevakos in 1971 and patented in 1974, and were offered for sale beginning in 1993. He was the first to introduce the concepts of intelligence, data processing and visual display screens into telephones. In 1971, Paraskevakos, working with Boeing in Huntsville, Alabama, demonstrated a transmitter and receiver that provided additional ways to communicate with remote equipment, however it did not yet have general purpose PDA applications in a wireless device typical of smartphones. They were installed at Peoples' Telephone Company in Leesburg, Alabama and were demonstrated to several telephone companies. The original and historic working models are still in the possession of Paraskevakos.[5]

Forerunner[edit]

IBM Simon and charging base (1994)[6]

The first mobile phone to incorporate PDA features was an IBM prototype developed in 1992 and demonstrated that year at the COMDEX computer industry trade show. A refined version of the product was marketed to consumers in 1994 by BellSouth under the name Simon Personal Communicator. The Simon was the first cellular device that can be properly referred to as a "smartphone", although it was not called that in 1994.[7][8][9] In addition to its ability to make and receive cellular phone calls, Simon was able to send and receive faxes and emails and included several other apps like address book, calendar, appointment scheduler, calculator, world time clock, and note pad through its touch screen display. Simon is the first smartphone to be incorporated with the features of a PDA.[10]

The term "smart phone" first appeared in print in 1995, for describing AT&T's "PhoneWriter Communicator" as a "smart phone".[11]

PDAs[edit]

In the late 1990s, many mobile phone users carried a separate dedicated PDA device, running early versions of operating systems such as Palm OS, BlackBerry OS or Windows CE/Pocket PC.[1] These operating systems would later evolve into mobile operating systems.

In March 1996, Hewlett-Packard released the OmniGo 700LX, which was a modified 200LX PDA that supported a Nokia 2110-compatible phone and had integrated software built in ROM to support it. The device featured a 640x200 resolution CGA compatible 4-shade gray-scale LCD screen and could be used to make and receive calls, text messages, emails and faxes. It was also 100% DOS 5.0 compatible, allowing it to run thousands of existing software titles including early versions of Windows.

In August 1996, Nokia released the Nokia 9000 Communicator which combined a PDA based on the GEOS V3.0 operating system from Geoworks with a digital cellular phone based on the Nokia 2110. The two devices were fixed together via a hinge in what became known as a clamshell design. When opened, the display was on the inside top surface and with a physical QWERTY keyboard on the bottom. The personal organizer provided e-mail, calendar, address book, calculator and notebook with text-based web browsing, and the ability to send and receive faxes. When the personal organizer was closed, it could be used as a digital cellular phone.

In June 1999, Qualcomm released a "CDMA Digital PCS Smartphone" with integrated Palm PDA and Internet connectivity, known as the "pdQ Smartphone".[12]

In early 2000, the Ericsson R380 was released by Ericsson Mobile Communications,[13] and was the first device marketed as a "smartphone".[14] It combined the functions of a mobile phone and a PDA, supported limited web browsing with a resistive touchscreen utilizing a stylus.[15]

In early 2001, Palm, Inc. introduced the Kyocera 6035, which combined a PDA with a mobile phone and operated on Verizon. It also supported limited web browsing.[16][17]

Smartphones before Android, iOS and BlackBerry, typically ran on Symbian, which was originally developed by Psion. It was the world's most widely used smartphone operating system until the last quarter of 2010.

Mass adoption[edit]

In 1999, the Japanese firm NTT DoCoMo released the first smartphones to achieve mass adoption within a country. These phones ran on i-mode, which provided data transmission speeds up to 9.6 kbit/s.[18] Unlike future generations of wireless services, NTT DoCoMo's i-mode used cHTML, a language which restricted some aspects of traditional HTML in favor of increasing data speed for the devices. Limited functionality, small screens and limited bandwidth allowed for phones to use the slower data speeds available.[19]

The rise of i-mode helped NTT DoCoMo accumulate an estimated 40 million subscribers by the end of 2001. It was also ranked first in market capitalization in Japan and second globally. This power would wane in the face of the rise of 3G and new phones with advanced wireless network capabilities.[20]

Outside of Japan smartphones were still rare, although throughout the mid-2000s, devices based on Microsoft's Windows Mobile started to gain popularity among business users in the U.S. The BlackBerry later gained mass adoption in the U.S., and American users popularized the term "CrackBerry" in 2006 due to its addictive nature.[21] The company first released its GSM BlackBerry 6210, BlackBerry 6220, and BlackBerry 6230 devices in 2003.[22]

Symbian was the most popular smartphone OS in Europe during the middle to late 2000s. Initially, Nokia's Symbian devices were focused on business, similar to Windows Mobile and BlackBerry devices at the time. From 2006 onwards, Nokia started producing entertainment-focused smartphones, popularized by the Nseries. In Asia, with the exception of Japan, the trend was similar to that of Europe.[citation needed]

Android and iOS[edit]

In 2007, Apple Inc. introduced the iPhone, one of the first smartphones to use a multi-touch interface. The iPhone was notable for its use of a large touchscreen for direct finger input as its main means of interaction, instead of a stylus, keyboard, or keypad typical for smartphones at the time.[23]

2008 saw the release of the first phone to use Android called the HTC Dream (also known as the T-Mobile G1).[24][25] Android is an open-source platform founded by Andy Rubin and now owned by Google.[26][27] Although Android's adoption was relatively slow at first, it started to gain widespread popularity in 2010, and now dominates the market.

These new platforms led to the decline of earlier ones. Microsoft, for instance, started a new OS from scratch, called Windows Phone. Nokia abandoned Symbian and partnered with MS to use Windows Phone on its smartphones. Windows Phone then became the third-most-popular OS. Palm's webOS was bought by Hewlett-Packard and later sold to LG Electronics for use on LG smart TVs. BlackBerry Limited, formerly known as Research In Motion, also made a new platform from scratch, BlackBerry 10.

The capacitive touchscreen also had a knock-on effect on smartphone form factors. Before 2007 it was common for devices to have a physical numeric keypad or physical QWERTY keyboard in either a candybar or sliding form factor. However, by 2010, there were no top-selling smartphones with physical keypads.

Recent technological developments[edit]

  • In 2013, the Fairphone company launched its first "socially ethical" smartphone at the London Design Festival to address concerns regarding the sourcing of materials in the manufacturing.[28]
  • In late 2013, QSAlpha commenced production of a smartphone designed entirely around security, encryption and identity protection.[29]
  • In December 2013, the world's first curved OLED technology smartphones were introduced to the retail market with the sale of the Samsung Galaxy Round and LG G Flex models.[30] Samsung phones with more bends and folds in the screens were expected in 2014.[31]
  • In early 2014, smartphones were beginning to use Quad HD (2K) 2560x1440 on 5.5" screens with up to 534 PPI on devices such as the LG G3 which is a significant improvement over Apple's Retina Display. Quad HD is used in advanced televisions and computer monitors, but with 110 ppi or less on such larger displays.[32]
  • As of 2014, Wi-Fi networks were much used for smartphones. As Wi-Fi becomes more prevalent and easier to connect to, Wi-Fi phone services will start to take off.[33][34][35]
  • Smartphones are increasingly integrated with everyday uses. For instance, credit cards and mobile payments are integrated into smartphones where users can send cash payments through smartphone applications and SaaS platforms.[36] Recently, Apple Pay has picked up 34 new banks to the roster supporting their mobile payment platform, where merchants are rapidly adopting it.[37] Additionally, recent technological innovations are causing keys to be fused into the smartphones, where the smartphone act as a digital key and access badge for its users.[38]
  • Since 2013, water and dustproofing have made their way into mainstream high end smartphones instead of specialty models with the Sony Xperia Z continuing through the Sony Xperia Z3 and with the Samsung Galaxy S5.[39]
  • One problem with smartphone cameras is focusing on subject, but the LG G3 has lasers to help focus.[40]
  • Some smartphones can be categorized as high-end point-and-shoot cameras with large sensors up to 1" with 20 megapixels and 4K video. Some can store their pictures in proprietary raw image format, but the Android (operating system) 5.0 lollipop serves open source RAW images.[41][42]

Future possible developments[edit]

  • A clear thin layer of crystal glass can be added to small screens like watches and smartphones that make them solar powered. Smartphones could gain 15% more battery life during a typical day. The first smartphones using this technology should arrive in 2015. This screen can also work to receive Li-Fi signals and so can the smartphone camera.[43] The cost of these screens per smartphone is between $2 and $3, much cheaper than most new technology.[44]
  • Foldable OLED smartphones could be as much as a decade away because of the cost of producing them. There is a relatively high failure rate when producing these screens. As little as a speck of dust can ruin a screen during production. Creating a battery that can be folded is another hurdle.[45]
  • Modular smartphones are projected, in which users can remove and replace parts.
  • Near future smartphones might not have a traditional battery as their sole source of power. Instead, they may pull energy from radio, television, cellular or Wi-Fi signals.[46]

Mobile operating systems[edit]

Android[edit]

Android 5.0 "Lollipop" home screen (2014)

Android is an open-source platform founded in October 2003 by Andy Rubin and backed by Google, along with major hardware and software developers (such as Intel, HTC, ARM, Motorola and Samsung) that form the Open Handset Alliance.[26][27] In October 2008, HTC released the HTC Dream, the e execution of native applications and third-party apps which are available via Google Play, which launched in October 2008 as Android Market. By Q4 2010, Android became the best-selling smartphone platform.[47]

iOS[edit]

Main article: iOS
iOS 8.3 home screen (2015)

iOS is a mobile operating system developed by Apple Inc. and distributed exclusively for Apple hardware. It is the operating system that powers the company's iDevices. In 2007, Apple introduced the iPhone, the first device to use iOS and one of the first smartphones to use a multi-touch interface. The iPhone was notable for its use of a large touchscreen for direct finger input as its main means of interaction, instead of a stylus, keyboard, or keypad as typical for smartphones at the time.[23] In 2008, Apple introduced the App Store, which allowed any iPhone to install third-party native applications. Featuring over 500 applications at launch,[48] the App Store eventually achieved 1 billion downloads in the first year, and 75 billion by mid-2014.[49][50] In January 2015, Apple announced that they have now sold one billion iOS devices.[51]

Windows Phone[edit]

Main article: Windows Phone
Windows Phone 8.1 home screen (2014)

In 2010, Microsoft unveiled Windows Phone 7 with a User Interface inspired by Microsoft's "Metro Design Language", to replace Windows Mobile. Windows Phone 7 integrates with Microsoft services such as Microsoft SkyDrive, Office, Xbox and Bing, as well as non-Microsoft services such as Facebook, Twitter and Google accounts. This software platform runs the Microsoft Mobile smartphones, and has received some positive reception from the technology press and been praised for its uniqueness and differentiation.[52][53][54] In 2012, Microsoft released Windows Phone 8, replacing its previously Windows CE-based architecture with one based on the Windows NT kernel with many components shared with Windows 8, allowing applications to be ported between the two platforms.

BlackBerry[edit]

Main article: BlackBerry

In 1999, RIM released its first BlackBerry devices, providing secure real-time push-email communications on wireless devices. Services such as BlackBerry Messenger provide the integration of all communications into a single inbox. In September 2012, RIM announced that the 200 millionth BlackBerry smartphone was shipped. As of September 2014, there are around 46 million active BlackBerry service subscribers.[55] Most recently, RIM has undergone a platform transition, changing its name to BlackBerry and making new devices on a new platform named "BlackBerry 10."[56]

Firefox OS[edit]

Main article: Firefox OS

Firefox OS (originally called the boot to gecko project) was demonstrated by Mozilla in February 2012. It was designed to have a complete community based alternative system for mobile devices, using open standards and HTML5 applications. The first commercially available Firefox OS phones were ZTE Open and Alcatel One Touch Fire. As of 2014 more companies have partnered with Mozilla including Panasonic (which is making a smart TV with Firefox OS) and Sony.[57]

Sailfish OS[edit]

Main article: Sailfish OS

The Sailfish OS is based on the Linux kernel and Mer.[58] Additionally Sailfish OS includes a partially or completely proprietary multi-tasking user interface programmed by Jolla. This user interface differentiate Jolla smartphones from others.[59] Sailfish OS is intended to be a system made by many of the MeeGo team, which left Nokia to form Jolla, utilizing funding from Nokia's "Bridge" program which helps establish and support start-up companies formed by ex-Nokia employees.[60][61][62]

Tizen[edit]

Main article: Tizen

Tizen is a Linux-based operating system for devices, including smartphones, tablets, in-vehicle infotainment (IVI) devices, smart TVs, laptops and smart cameras. Tizen is a project within the Linux Foundation and is governed by a Technical Steering Group (TSG) composed of Samsung and Intel among others. In April 2014, Samsung released the Samsung Gear 2 and the Gear 2 Neo, running Tizen.[63] The Samsung Z1 is the first smartphone produced by Samsung; it was released in the Indian market on 14 January 2015.[64]

Ubuntu Touch[edit]

Main article: Ubuntu Touch

Ubuntu Touch (also known as Ubuntu Phone) is a mobile version of the Ubuntu operating system developed by Canonical UK Ltd and Ubuntu Community.[65] It is designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers.

Discontinued mobile operating systems[edit]

Symbian[edit]

Main article: Symbian

Symbian was originally developed by Psion as EPOC32. It was the world's most widely used smartphone operating system until Q4 2010, though the platform never gained popularity or widespread awareness in the U.S., as it did in Europe and Asia. The first Symbian phone, the touchscreen Ericsson R380 Smartphone, was released in 2000,[66][67] and was the first device marketed as a "smartphone".[68] It combined a PDA with a mobile phone.[69] In February 2011, Nokia announced that it would replace Symbian with Windows Phone as the operating system on all of its future smartphones, with the platform getting abandoned throughout the following few years.[70]

Windows Mobile[edit]

Main article: Windows Mobile

Windows Mobile was based on the Windows CE kernel and first appeared as the Pocket PC 2000 operating system. Throughout its lifespan, the operating system was available in both touchscreen and non-touchscreen formats. It was supplied with a suite of applications developed with the Microsoft Windows API and was designed to have features and appearance somewhat similar to desktop versions of Windows. Third parties could develop software for Windows Mobile with no restrictions imposed by Microsoft. Software applications were eventually purchasable from Windows Marketplace for Mobile during the service's brief lifespan. Windows mobile was phased out in favor of Windows Phone.

Bada[edit]

Main article: Bada

The Bada operating system for smartphones was announced by Samsung in November 2009.[71][72] The first Bada-based phone was the Samsung Wave S8500, released in June 2010.[73][74][75] Samsung shipped 4.5 million phones running Bada in Q2 of 2011.[76] In 2013, Bada merged with a similar platform called Tizen.

Palm OS[edit]

Main article: Palm OS

In late 2001, Handspring launched the Springboard GSM phone module with limited success. In May 2002, Handspring released the Palm OS Treo 270 smartphone, that did not support Springboard, with both a touchscreen and a full keyboard. The Treo had wireless web browsing, email, calendar, a contact organizer and mobile third-party applications that could be downloaded or synced with a computer.[77] Handspring was purchased by Palm, Inc which released the Treo 600 and continued releasing Treo devices with a few Treo devices using Windows Mobile. After buying Palm in 2011, Hewlett-Packard (HP) discontinued its webOS smartphone and tablet production.[78]

webOS[edit]

webOS was from LG, although some parts are open source. webOS is a proprietary mobile operating system running on the Linux kernel, initially developed by Palm, which launched with the Palm Pre. After being acquired by HP, two phones (the Veer and the Pre 3) and a tablet (the TouchPad) running webOS were introduced in 2011. On August 18, 2011, HP announced that webOS hardware was to be discontinued[79] but would continue to support and update webOS software and develop the webOS ecosystem.[80] HP released webOS as open source under the name Open webOS, and plans to update it with additional features.[81] On February 25, 2013 HP announced the sale of WebOS to LG Electronics, who planned to use the operating system for its "smart" or Internet-connected TVs.

Application stores[edit]

The introduction of Apple's App Store for the iPhone and iPod Touch in July 2008 popularized manufacturer-hosted online distribution for third-party applications (software, computer programs) focused on a single platform. Up until that point, smartphone application distribution depended on third-party sources providing applications for multiple platforms, such as GetJar, Handango, Handmark, and PocketGear.

Following the success of the App Store, other smartphone manufacturers launched application stores, such as Google's Android Market in October 2008 and RIM's BlackBerry App World in April 2009. In February 2014, 93% of mobile developers were targeting smartphones first for mobile app development.[82]

Display[edit]

Main article: Display device

One of the main characteristics of smartphones is their screen. It usually fills virtually almost the entire phone surface (about 70%); screen size usually defines the size of a smartphone. Usually have aspect ratio 4:3 or 16:9.

They are measured in diagonal inches, starting from 2.45 inches.[83] Phones with screens larger than 5.2 inches are called "phablets". Smartphones with screens over 4.5 inches commonly are moved around in the hand or used with both hands, since the average thumb cannot reach the entire screen surface. Types of screen include LCD, LED, OLED, AMOLED, IPS and others.

Market share[edit]

Smartphone usage[edit]

In the third quarter of 2012, one billion smartphones were in use worldwide.[84] Global smartphone sales surpassed the sales figures for features phones in early 2013.[85] As of 2013, 65 percent of U.S. mobile consumers own smartphones.[86] The European mobile device market as of 2013 is 860 million.[87] In China, smartphones represented more than half of all handset shipments in the second quarter of 2012[88] and in 2014 there were 519.7 million smartphone users, with the number estimated to grow to 700 million by 2018.[89]

As of November 2011, 27% of all photographs were taken with camera-equipped smartphones.[90] A study conducted in September 2012 concluded that 4 out of 5 smartphone owners use the device to shop.[91] Another study conducted in June 2013 concluded that 56% of American adults now owned a smartphone of some kind. Android and iPhone owners account for half of the cell phone user population. Higher income adults and those under age 35 lead the way when it comes to smartphone ownership.[92]

Worldwide shipments of smartphones topped 1 billion units in 2013 (up 38% from 2012's 725 million) while comprising a 55% share of the mobile phone market in 2013 (up from 42% in 2012).[93]

By manufacturer[edit]

Samsung Galaxy Note smartphones running Android
Worldwide Smartphones Vendor Market Share
Source Date Samsung Apple Inc. Huawei Xiaomi Lenovo LG Others Reference
Gartner Q3 2014 24.4% 12.7% 5.3% 5.2% 5.0% N/A 47.5% [94]
IDC Q3 2014 23.7% 11.7% N/A 5.2% 5.1% 5.0% 49.3% [95]
IDC Q2 2014 24.9% 11.7% 6.7% N/A 5.2% 4.8% 46.7% [95]
Gartner Q4 2013 29.5% 17.8% 5.7% N/A 4.6% 4.5% 37.9% [96]
US Smartphones Vendor Market Share
Source Date Apple Inc. Samsung LG Motorola HTC Others Reference
comScore January 2015 41.3% 29.3% 8.0% 5.2% 3.8% 12.4% [97]
comScore October 2014 41.9% 29.3% 7.4% 5.2% 4.1% 12.1% [97]
comScore March 2014 41.4% 27.0% 6.7% 6.4% 5.4% 13.1% [98]
comScore March 2013 39.0% 21.7% 6.8% 8.5% 9.0% 15.0% [99]

In 2011, Apple had the highest shipment market share worldwide. In 2013, Samsung had 31.3% market share, a slight increase from 30.3% in 2012, while Apple was at 15.3%, a decrease from 18.7% in 2012. Huawei, LG and Lenovo were at about 5% each, significantly better than 2012 figures, while others had about 40%, the same as the previous years figure. Only Apple lost market share, although their shipment volume still increased by 12.9 percent; the rest had significant increases in shipment volumes of 36 to 92 percent.[100] In Q1 2014, Samsung had a 31% share and Apple had 16%.[101] In Q4 2014, Apple had a 20.4% share and Samsung had 19.9%.[4]

In Q1 2015 in the US, Android market share was 53.2%; Apple's iPhone had a 41.3% share and Samsung's Android smartphones had 29.3%.[97]

By operating system[edit]

The market has been dominated by the Android operating system since 2010. Android's market share (measured by units shipment) rose from 33.2% in Q4 2011 to 78.1% of the market in Q4 2013. Apple's market share oscillated between 15% to 20.9% during the same period. BlackBerry's market share fell from 14.3% in Q4 2011 to 0.6% in Q4 2013. Windows Mobile market share rose from 1.5% to 3% during the same time frame.[102]

As of the end of Q3 2014, Android was the most popular operating system, with a 84.4% market share, followed by iOS with 11.7%, Windows Phone with 2.9%, BlackBerry with 0.5% and all others with 0.6%.[103]

Historical sales figures, in millions[edit]

Year Android (Google) iOS (Apple) Windows Mobile/Phone (Microsoft) BlackBerry (formerly RIM) Symbian (Nokia) Palm/WebOS (Palm/HP) Bada (Samsung) Other
2007[104] 3.3 14.7 11.77 77.68 1.76
2008[104] 11.42 16.5 23.15 72.93 2.51
2009[105] 6.8 24.89 15.03 34.35 80.88 1.19
2010[106] 67.22 46.6 12.38 47.45 111.58
2011[107] 219.52 89.26 8.77 51.54 93.41 9.6 14.24
2012[108] 451.62 130.13 16.94 34.21 15.9 47.20
2013[108] 758.72 150.79 30.84 18.61 8.82
2014[109] 1,004.68 191.43 35.13 7.91 5.75

Issues[edit]

Smartphones have issues besides those affecting other mobile telephones.

Battery life[edit]

A high-capacity portable battery charger

Compared to earlier non-smartphones, smartphone battery life has generally been poor and a significant drain on customer satisfaction.[110][111][112]

Social[edit]

Main article: Smartphone addiction

A 2012 University of Southern California study found that unprotected adolescent sexual activity was more common amongst owners of smartphones.[113] A study conducted by the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute's (RPI) Lighting Research Center (LRC) concluded that smartphones, or any backlit devices, can seriously affect sleep cycles.[114] Some persons might become psychologically attached to cellphones resulting in anxiety when separated from the devices.[115]

Legal[edit]

Main article: Smartphone wars

A "patent war" between Samsung and Apple started when the latter claimed that the original Galaxy S Android phone copied the interface—and possibly the hardware—of Apple's iOS for the iPhone 3GS.

Medical[edit]

Main article: Mobile app

With the rise in number of mobile medical apps in the market place, government regulatory agencies raised concerns on the safety of the use of such applications. These concerns were transformed into regulation initiatives worldwide with the aim of safeguarding users from untrusted medical advice.[116]

Security[edit]

Smartphone malware is easily distributed through an insecure app store.[117][118] Often malware is hidden in pirated versions of legitimate apps, which are then distributed through third-party app stores.[119][120] Malware risk also comes from what's known as an "update attack", where a legitimate application is later changed to include a malware component, which users then install when they are notified that the app has been updated.[121]

One out of three robberies in 2012 in the United States involved the theft of a mobile phone. An online petition has urged smartphone makers to install kill switches in their devices.[122] In 2014, Apple's "Find my iPhone" and Google's "Android Device Manager" can disable phones that have been lost/stolen. With BlackBerry Protect in OS version 10.3.2, devices can be rendered unrecoverable to even BlackBerry's own Operating System recovery tools if incorrectly authenticated or dissociated from their account.[123]

Sleep[edit]

Main article: Sleep § Stages

Using smartphones late at night can disturb sleep, due to the brightly lit screen affecting melatonin levels and sleep cycles.[124][125][126][127]

Devices[edit]

The following table compares the screen sizes of all Apple smartphones and a selected number of Samsung, Google, Microsoft, HTC, Asus and Motorola smartphones that were available worldwide.

Brand Name Diagonal screen size.
Inches (cm)
Note
Apple iPhone (1st generation) 3.5 (8.9)
iPhone 3G 3.5 (8.9)
iPhone 3GS 3.5 (8.9)
iPhone 4 3.5 (8.9)
iPhone 4S 3.5 (8.9)
iPhone 5 4 (10) [128]
iPhone 5C 4 (10) [129]
iPhone 5S 4 (10) [130]
iPhone 6 4.7 (12) [131]
iPhone 6 Plus 5.5 (14) [131]
Asus ZenFone 5 5.05 (12.8)
ZenFone 4 4.0 (10)
ZenFone 6 6.0 (15)
ZenFone 2 5.5 (14)
Samsung Galaxy Spica 3.2 (8.1)
Galaxy S 4 (10)
Galaxy S II 4.3 (11)
Galaxy S III 4.8 (12)
Galaxy S III Mini 4 (10)
Galaxy S4 5 (13)
Galaxy S4 Mini 4.27 (10.8)
Galaxy S5 5.1 (13)
Galaxy S5 Mini 4.5 (11)
Galaxy S6 5.1 (13)
Galaxy Note (original) 5.3 (13)
Galaxy Note II 5.5 (14)
Galaxy Note 3 Neo 5.5 (14)
Galaxy Note 3 5.7 (14)
Galaxy Note 4 5.7 (14)
Galaxy Note Edge 5.6 (14)
Galaxy Alpha 4.7 (12)
Galaxy Mega 6.3 (16)
Galaxy Mega 2 6 (15)
Google Nexus S 4 (10)
Galaxy Nexus 4.65 (11.8)
Nexus One 3.7 (9.4)
Nexus 4 4.7 (12)
Nexus 5 4.95 (12.6)
Nexus 6 5.96 (15.1)
Microsoft Nokia N8 3.8 (9.7)
Nokia Lumia 510 4 (10)
Nokia Lumia 520 4 (10)
Nokia Lumia 525 4 (10)
Nokia Lumia 530 4 (10)
Microsoft Lumia 535 5 (13)
Nokia Lumia 1320 6 (15)
Microsoft Lumia 535 5 (13)
Nokia Lumia 1520 6 (15)
HTC HTC One V 3.7 (9.4)
HTC One X 4.7 (12)
HTC Evo 4G 4.3 (11)
HTC Evo 4G LTE 4.7 (12)
HTC One (2013) 4.7 (12)
HTC One (M8) 5 (13)
HTC One Mini 4.3 (11)
HTC One M9 5 (13)
HTC One Mini 2 4.5 (11)
Motorola Moto X (1st generation) 4.7 (12)]
Moto G (1st generation) 4.5 (11)
Moto E (1st generation) 4.3 (11)
Moto X (2nd generation) 5.2 (13)
Moto G (2nd generation) 5 (13)
Moto E (2nd generation) 4.5 (11)
Sony Xperia S 4.3 (11)
Xperia ion 4.55 (11.6)
Xperia acro S 4.3 (11)
Xperia sola 3.7 (9.4)
Xperia T2 Ultra 6 (15)
Xperia Z2 5.2 (13)
Xperia M2 4.3 (11) OR 4.4 (11)
Xperia T 4.4 (11)
Xperia C3 4.4 (11)
Xperia E1 4.0 (10)
Xperia Z3 4.4 (11) OR 5.1 (13)
Micromax Micromax Unite 2 A106 4.7 (12)
Micromax Canvas Fire 4 4.5 (11)
Micromax Canvas Prep 4.5 (11)
Micromax Canvas Prep Q371 4.5 (11)
Micromax Canvas Xpress A99 4.5 (11)
Micromax Canvas Fire A093 4 (10)
Micromax Canvas A1 4.57 (11.6)
Micromax Bolt AD4500 4.5 (11)
Micromax Canvas Nitro 2 5 (13)
Micromax Canvas Knight 2 5 (13)
Micromax Canvas 4 Plus A315 5 (13)
Micromax Canvas Sliver 5 4.8 (12)
Micromax Canvas 2 A110 5 (13)
Micromax Canvas HD A116 5 (13)
Micromax Canvas Hue 5 (13)
Micromax Canvas 2 Plus A110Q 5 (13)
Yu (Micromax) Yuphoria 5 (13)
Spice (Spice Digital) Spice Mi-498 4.5 (11)

Other terms[edit]

"Phablet", a portmanteau of the words phone and tablet, describes smartphones with larger screens.[132][133]

"Superphone" is also used by some companies to market phones with unusually large screens and other expensive features.[134][135]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Smartphone". Phone Scoop. Retrieved 2011-12-15. 
  2. ^ "Feature Phone". Phone Scoop. Retrieved 2011-12-15. 
  3. ^ Andrew Nusca (20 August 2009). "Smartphone vs. feature phone arms race heats up; which did you buy?". ZDNet. Retrieved 2011-12-15. 
  4. ^ a b Brett Molina and Marco della Cava, USA TODAY (3 March 2015). "Apple beats Samsung in Q4 smartphone sales". USA TODAY. 
  5. ^ U.S. Patent #3,812,296/5-21-1974 (Apparatus for Generating and Transmitting Digital Information), U.S. Patent #3,727,003/4-10-1973 (Decoding and Display Apparatus for Groups of Pulse Trains), U.S. Patent #3,842,208/10-15-1974 (Sensor Monitoring Device)
  6. ^ "Watch The Incredible 70-Year Evolution Of The Cell Phone". Wonder How To. Retrieved 5 March 2015. 
  7. ^ Sager, Ira (2012-06-29). "Before IPhone and Android Came Simon, the First Smartphones". Bloomberg Businessweek. Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 2012-06-30. Simon was the first smartphone. Twenty years ago, it envisioned our app-happy mobile lives, squeezing the features of a cell phone, pager, fax machine, and computer into an 18-ounce black brick. 
  8. ^ Schneidawind, John (1992-11-23). "Poindexter putting finger on PC bugs; Big Blue unveiling". USA Today. p. 2B. 
  9. ^ Connelly, Charlotte. "World's first 'smartphone' celebrates 20 years". BBC News. BBC News. Retrieved 16 August 2014. 
  10. ^ History of first touchscreen smartphone Spinfold.com
  11. ^ Savage, Pamela (January 1995). "Designing a GUI for Business Telephone users". Association of Computing Machinery. Retrieved 2014-09-13. ...It is at this point that early usability test participants met impasse. The switch connected to our "smart phone" is expecting the typical "dumb end-point"... AT&T's PhoneWriter was demonstrated at the 1993 Comdex Computer Show... 
  12. ^ "Qualcomm s pdQ Smartphone". qualcomm.com. 
  13. ^ "PDA Review: Ericsson R380 Smartphone". Geek.com. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
  14. ^ "Ericsson Introduces The New R380e". Mobile Magazine. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
  15. ^ Brown, Bruce. "Ericsson R380 World Review & Rating". PCMag.com. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 
  16. ^ "Kyocera QCP 6035 Smartphone Review". Palminfocenter.com. 2001-03-16. Retrieved 2011-09-07. 
  17. ^ Segan, Sascha (2010-03-23). "Kyocera Launches First Smartphone In Years | News & Opinion". PCmag.com. Retrieved 2011-09-07. 
  18. ^ Rose, Frank (Sep 2001). "Pocket Monster: How DoCoMo's wireless Internet service went from fad to phenom - and turned Japan into the first post-PC nation". Wired 9 (9). Retrieved 24 January 2014. 
  19. ^ Barnes, Stuart J, Huff, Sid L. (1 November 2003). Rising Sun: iMode and the Wireless Internet, Vol. 46, No. 1. Communications of the ACM. pp. 79–84. 
  20. ^ Anwar, Sayid Tariq. "NTT DoCoMo and M-Commerce: A Case Study in Market Expansion and Global Strategy" (PDF). The American Graduate School of International Management. Retrieved 16 February 2014. 
  21. ^ "Info Addicts Are All Thumbs: Crackberry Is the 2006 Word of the Year". PR Newswire. Nov 1, 2006. Retrieved 24 January 2014. 
  22. ^ Halevy, Ron. "The History of RIM & the BlackBerry Smartphone, Part 3: The Evolution Of Color". Retrieved 16 February 2014. 
  23. ^ a b "The iPhone is not a smartphone". Engadget.com. 9 January 2007. Retrieved 11 July 2010. 
  24. ^ "T-Mobile G1 Hits the UK" (Press release). T-Mobile UK. 30 October 2008. 
  25. ^ "T-Mobile G1 Event Round-up" (Press release). Talk Media Inc. US. 22 October 2008. 
  26. ^ a b "Alliance Members". Open Handset Alliance. Retrieved 16 January 2011. 
  27. ^ a b The Android Atlas Cnet.com. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  28. ^ George Monbiot (23 September 2013). "Why is Apple so shifty about how it makes the iPhone?". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 
  29. ^ Darrell Etherington (10 October 2013). "Quasar IV Encrypted Ninja Smartphone Goes Into Production, Despite Indiegogo Failure". TechCrunch. AOL Inc. Retrieved 10 October 2013. 
  30. ^ Ian King (16 December 2013). "Bendable smartphones aren't coming anytime soon". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 26 December 2013. 
  31. ^ Samsung Phone With Bended Display May Come This Year, LAPTOP, 11 February 2014, Lisa Eadicicco
  32. ^ Steve Dent (February 18, 2014). "Do you really need a 4K smartphone screen?". 
  33. ^ [1], Wired, 8 January 2014, Alan Berrey
  34. ^ [2], LightReading, 30 December 2013, Sarah Reddy
  35. ^ [3], PC Mag, 16 October 2013, Stephanie Mlot
  36. ^ Fiegerman, Seth. "Square introduces $Cashtags, clickable payments for businesses". Mashable. Mashable. Retrieved 19 May 2015. 
  37. ^ Jones, Michelle. "Apple Pay Still Growing While Icahn Professes Love For Apple Inc.". ValueWalk. Retrieved 19 May 2015. 
  38. ^ Musafer, Shanaz. "Digital doorkeys and more: Meet New York's latest start-ups". BBC News. BBC News. Retrieved 19 May 2015. 
  39. ^ Rindu P Hestya (March 1, 2014). "Sony Xperia Z2 Ready to Compete With Samsung Galaxy S5". 
  40. ^ "Kamera LG G3 Beat Dibekali Delapan Titik Fokus". November 25, 2014. 
  41. ^ Paul Monckton. "Android 5.0 Camera Tests Show Update Instantly Improves Every Smartphone". Forbes. Retrieved December 27, 2014. 
  42. ^ Lars Rehm. "Panasonic announces Lumix DMC-CM1 smartphone with 1-inch sensor". Retrieved December 27, 2014. 
  43. ^ An Internet of Light: Going Online with LEDs and the First Li-Fi Smartphone, Motherboard Beta, Brian Merchant
  44. ^ Your next phone may charge and receive data through this incredible screen, Digital Trends, 19 January 2014, Jeffrey Van Camp
  45. ^ Bendable smartphones aren't coming anytime soon, The Sydney Morning Herald, Ian King, 16 December 2013
  46. ^ Building a Better Battery, NY Times, 2 February 2014, BRIAN X. CHEN and NICK BILTON
  47. ^ "Android sales overtake iPhone in the US". Gigaom. 2 August 2010. 
  48. ^ "iPhone 3G on Sale Tomorrow". Press Release. Apple Inc. 2008-07-10. Retrieved 2009-01-17. 
  49. ^ "Apple’s App Store Downloads Top 1.5 Billion in First Year". Press Release. Apple Inc. July 14, 2009. Retrieved 2011-12-15. 
  50. ^ Sarah Perez (June 2, 2014). "iTunes App Store Now Has 1.2 Million Apps, Has Seen 75 Billion Downloads To Date". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2015-04-09. 
  51. ^ "Apple has sold one billion iOS devices, company claims". Computerworld. Retrieved April 15, 2015. 
  52. ^ "Windows Phone 7 Series is official, and Microsoft is playing to win". Engadget. 2010-02-15. Retrieved 2011-09-07. 
  53. ^ Matt Buchanan (2010-02-15). "Windows Phone 7 Series: Everything Is Different Now". Gizmodo.com. Retrieved 2011-09-07. 
  54. ^ Devin Coldewey (2010-02-15). "Windows Phone 7 Series: Our Take | TechCrunch". Crunchgear.com. Retrieved 2011-09-07. 
  55. ^ Arthur, Charles (29 September 2014). "Ten things to know about BlackBerry -- and how much trouble it is (or isn't) in". TheGuardian.com. The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-04-19. 
  56. ^ Kevin McLaughlin (December 17, 2009). "BlackBerry Users Call For RIM To Rethink Service". CRN.com. Retrieved 2011-12-15. 
  57. ^ Feb 26 2013 (2013-02-25). "Sony Mobile Plans to Release Firefox OS Devices by 2014". Mozilla Philippines. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
  58. ^ "The Sailfish OS Wiki". The Sailfish OS Wiki. Retrieved 14 March 2013. 
  59. ^ "Jolla OS Will Run Android Apps Says CEO Jussi Hurmola". 
  60. ^ "Many former Nokia employees start businesses of their own", Helsingin Sanomat 
  61. ^ Lunden, Ingrid. "Nokia Bridge: Nokia’s Incubator Gives Departing Employees €25k And More To Pursue Ideas That Nokia Has Not". techcrunch.com. techcrunch.com. Retrieved 7 June 2013. 
  62. ^ Tung, Liam. "Inside Nokia Bridge: How Nokia funds ex-employees' new start-ups". zdnet.com. © 2013 CBS Interactive. Retrieved 7 June 2013. 
  63. ^ Techradar (2014-02-23). "Samsung's wrist reboot: Gear 2 and Gear 2 Neo unveiled". Techradar. Retrieved 2014-02-23. 
  64. ^ Jon Russell. "Samsung Launches Its First Tizen-Powered Phone, The Z1, In India For $92". Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  65. ^ Canonical. "Ubuntu on phones - Ubuntu". ubuntu.com. 
  66. ^ "PDA Review: Ericsson R380 Smartphone". Geek.com. Retrieved 2011-12-15. 
  67. ^ "Symbian Device – The OS Evolution" (PDF). Independent Symbian Blog. Retrieved 2011-12-15. 
  68. ^ "Ericsson Introduces The New R380e". Mobile Magazine. Retrieved 2011-12-15. 
  69. ^ Brown, Bruce. "Ericsson R380 World, Review & Rating". PCMag.com. Retrieved 2011-12-15. 
  70. ^ "Nokia, Microsoft in pact to rival Apple, Google – Technology & Science". CBC.ca. Associated Press. 2011-02-11. Retrieved 2011-12-15. 
  71. ^ Ed Hansberry (11 November 2009). "Samsung Bailing on Windows Mobile". InformationWeek. 
  72. ^ "Samsung to Discard Windows Phone". Telecoms Korea. 9 November 2009. 
  73. ^ "Samsung Wave, first Bada smartphone hits the market". Bada. 24 May 2010. Retrieved 3 February 2011. 
  74. ^ "BadaWave". BadaWave. Retrieved 2012-01-05. 
  75. ^ "Samsung Waves away a million". The Inquirer. 13 July 2010. 
  76. ^ "Samsung Bada shipments up 355% to 4.5 million units in Q2 2011 | asymco news | PG.Biz". Pocket Gamer. Retrieved 2011-09-07. 
  77. ^ Stephen H. Wildstrom (November 30, 2001). "Handspring's Breakthrough Hybrid". Businessweek.com. Retrieved 2011-12-15. 
  78. ^ "HP To Stop Making webOS Smartphones, Might License the OS to Others". Retrieved November 26, 2013. 
  79. ^ "HP Confirms Discussions with Autonomy Corporation plc Regarding Possible Business Combination; Makes Other Announcements". HP. 2010-08-18. Retrieved 2011-09-13. 
  80. ^ "The next chapter for webOS". HP webOS Developer Blog. 2010-08-19. Retrieved 2011-09-13. 
  81. ^ "Open webOS::Roadmap". Open webOS Project. September 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-24. 
  82. ^ W3C Interview: Vision Mobile on the App Developer Economy with Matos Kapetanakis and Dimitris Michalakos. 18 February 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  83. ^ "Save Big 2.45 " IPS Touch Screen the World's Smallest Android Smartphone Dual Sim Quadband - USA Store". USA Store. 
  84. ^ Don Reisinger (17 October 2012). "Worldwide smartphone user base hits 1 billion". CNet. CBS Interactive, Inc. Retrieved 26 July 2013. 
  85. ^ "Smartphones now outsell 'dumb' phones". 3 News NZ. April 29, 2013. 
  86. ^ Jon Fingas (February 11, 2014). "Two-thirds of Americans now have smartphones". 
  87. ^ "European Mobile Market". telecoms market research. CMSinfo. 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2013. 
  88. ^ beyondbrics (2012-08-24). "Apple in China: not as cool as before". ft.com. Retrieved 2012-08-30. 
  89. ^ Steven Millward (2014-12-22). "China now has 520M smartphone users, will top 700M by 2018". Tech in Asia. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  90. ^ Erica Ogg (22 December 2011). "Smartphones killing point-and-shoots, now take almost 1/3 of photos". GIGAOM. GIGAOM. Retrieved 27 June 2013. 
  91. ^ Leena Rao (19 September 2012). "comScore: 4 Out Of 5 Smartphone Owners Use Device To Shop; Amazon Is The Most Popular Mobile Retailer". TechCrunch. AOL Inc. Retrieved 27 June 2013. 
  92. ^ http://boletines.prisadigital.com/PIP_Smartphone_adoption_2013.pdf
  93. ^ "Worldwide Smartphone Shipments Top One Billion Units for the First Time, According to IDC". IDC. January 2014. Retrieved 2014-01-27. 
  94. ^ "Gartner Says Sales of Smartphones Grew 20 Percent in Third Quarter of 2014". Gartner. 
  95. ^ a b "Smartphone Vendor Market Share, Q3 2014". International Data Corporation. 
  96. ^ "Worldwide Smartphone Sales to End Users by Vendor in 4Q13 (Thousands of Units)". Gartner. 
  97. ^ a b c "comScore Reports January 2015 U.S. Smartphone Subscriber Market Share". comScore. 
  98. ^ "comScore Reports March 2014 U.S. Smartphone Subscriber Market Share". comScore. 
  99. ^ "comScore Reports March 2013 U.S. Smartphone Subscriber Market Share". comScore. 
  100. ^ Jon Fingas (January 28, 2014). "Smartphone sales may have topped 1 billion in 2013, depending on who you ask". Engadget. 
  101. ^ Steven Millward (May 13, 2014). "Xiaomi breaks into global top 10 for smartphone shipments, kicks out HTC". Tech In Asia. Retrieved September 9, 2014. 
  102. ^ "IDC: Smartphone OS Market Share". Retrieved March 26, 2014. 
  103. ^ "Smartphone OS Market Share, Q3 2014". Retrieved December 21, 2014. 
  104. ^ a b Gartner Says Worldwide Smartphone Sales Reached Its Lowest Growth Rate With 3.7 Per Cent Increase in Fourth Quarter of 2008. Gartner.com. Retrieved on 2012-08-09.
  105. ^ Gartner Says Worldwide Mobile Phone Sales to End Users Grew 8 Per Cent in Fourth Quarter 2009; Market Remained Flat in 2009. Gartner.com. Retrieved on 2012-08-09.
  106. ^ Gartner Says Worldwide Mobile Device Sales to End Users Reached 1.6 Billion Units in 2010; Smartphone Sales Grew 72 Percent in 2010. Gartner.com. Retrieved on 2012-08-09.
  107. ^ "Quarterly Device Sales In 2011" (Infographic). Mobile Statistics. Mobile Statistics. 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2013. 
  108. ^ a b Gartner Says Annual Smartphone Sales Surpassed Sales of Feature Phones for the First Time in 2013. Gartner.com. Retrieved on 2014-07-24.
  109. ^ "Gartner Says Smartphone Sales Surpassed One Billion Units in 2014". Gartner. March 3, 2015. Retrieved June 28, 2015. 
  110. ^ "J.D. Power and Associates Reports: Smartphone Battery Life has Become a Significant Drain on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty". Retrieved 11 September 2014. 
  111. ^ "The secret behind poor smartphone battery life". ZDNet. 
  112. ^ "Peak Battery: Why Smartphone Battery Life Still Stinks, and Will for Years". TIME.com. 1 April 2013. 
  113. ^ "SMARTPHONES make TEENS have SEX with STRANGERS". theregister.co.uk. 
  114. ^ Colaner, Seth (27 August 2012). "Your Tablet and Smartphone Could Be Ruining Your Sleep". Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  115. ^ Cheever, N. A., Rosen, L. D., Carrier, L. M., & Chavez, A. (2014). Out of sight is not out of mind: The impact of restricting wireless mobile device use on anxiety levels among low, moderate and high users. Computers in Human Behavior, 37, 290-297.
  116. ^ Yetisen, A. K.; Martinez-Hurtado, J. L. et al. (2014). "The regulation of mobile medical applications". Lab on a Chip 14 (5): 833–840. doi:10.1039/C3LC51235E. 
  117. ^ Mobile Malware Development Continues To Rise, Android Leads The Way.
  118. ^ Mylonas Alexios; Tsoumas Bill; Dritsas Stelios; Gritzalis Dimitris (2011). 8th International Conference on Trust, Privacy & Security in Digital Business (TRUSTBUS-2011). Springer Berlin / Heidelberg. pp. 49–61. 
  119. ^ "The Mother Of All Android Malware Has Arrived". Android Police. March 6, 2011. 
  120. ^ Perez, Sarah (2009-02-12). "Android Vulnerability So Dangerous, Owners Warned Not to Use Phone's Web Browser". Readwriteweb.com. Retrieved 2011-08-08. 
  121. ^ "Lookout, Retrevo warn of growing Android malware epidemic, note Apple's iOS is far safer". Appleinsider.com. 2011-08-03. Retrieved 2012-01-05. 
  122. ^ Template:Cite p
  123. ^ "Getting started with Anti-Theft Protection in BlackBerry 10 OS version 10. - Inside BlackBerry Help Blog". blackberry.com. 
  124. ^ Kalsbeek, Andries (2012). The Neurobiology of Circadian Timing Elsevier. pp. 382.
  125. ^ Luisa Dillner. "Should I keep my smartphone and tablet out of my bedroom? | Life and style". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
  126. ^ "Are smartphones disrupting your sleep?". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
  127. ^ Mahesh Sharma. "Switching off your smartphone at night makes you more productive". Smh.com.au. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
  128. ^ "Apple - iPhone 5 - Technical Specifications". Apple. 
  129. ^ "Apple - iPhone 5c - Technical Specifications". apple.com. 
  130. ^ "Apple - iPhone 5s - Technical Specifications". apple.com. 
  131. ^ a b "Apple - iPhone 6 - Technical Specifications". Apple. 
  132. ^ Kay, Roger (7 February 2012), "Is the Market Ready for a Phablet?", Forbes, retrieved 2012-08-15 
  133. ^ Enter the Phablet: A History of Phone-Tablet Hybrids, pcmag.com, Sasha Segan, February 13, 2012, 13 February 2012 
  134. ^ What Makes a Smartphone a Superphone? Mashable.com
  135. ^ Superphone vs smartphone: what's the difference? Techradar.com

External links[edit]