Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) in Panama, the only bureau of the Smithsonian Institution based outside of the United States, is dedicated to understanding biological diversity. What began in 1923 as a small field station on Barro Colorado Island in the Panama Canal Zone has developed into one of the world's leading tropical research institutions. STRI’s facilities provide a unique opportunity for long-term ecological studies in the tropics, and are used extensively by some 600 visiting scientists from academic and research institutions in the United States and around the world every year. The work of resident scientists has allowed STRI to better understand tropical habitats and has trained hundreds of tropical biologists.
The history of STRI began with the construction of the Panama Canal from 1904 to 1914. Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Charles Doolittle Walcott reached an agreement with Federico Boyd to conduct a biological inventory of the new Canal Zone in 1910, and this survey was subsequently extended to include all of Panama. Thanks largely to their efforts, the Governor of the Canal Zone declared Barro Colorado Island (BCI) a biological reserve in 1923, making it one of the earliest biological reserves in the Americas. During the 1920s and 1930s BCI, in Gatun Lake, became an outdoor laboratory for scientists from US universities and the Smithsonian Institution. At this time it was referred as the Canal Zone Biological Area (CZBA). By 1940, more than 300 scientific publications described the biota of BCI, and in the "Government Reorganization Act of 1946", BCI became a bureau of the Smithsonian Institution. BCI was renamed the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) in 1966.
After the name change, permanent staff scientists were hired and fellowship programs were initiated to support aspiring tropical biologists. The first director after the name change was Martin Humphrey Moynihan. A strong relationship with the Republic of Panama, STRI's host nation, was formalized in the Panama Canal Treaties of 1977. This relationship was renewed and extended in 1985 when Panama granted STRI the status of International Mission, and again in 1997 when the country offered custodianship of STRI facilities beyond the termination of the Panama Canal Treaties. STRI's relationship with the Republic of Panama continues to be of central importance.
A large collection of papers done by STRI researchers at Barro Colorado Island was published as an anthology in 1982, The Ecology of a Tropical Rainforest.
STRI aims to offer research facilities that allow staff scientists, fellows, and visiting scientists to achieve their research objectives. The 38 staff scientists reside in the tropics and are encouraged to pursue their own research priorities without geographic limitations. The continuity of their long-term programs enables in-depth investigations that attract an elite group of fellows and visitors. Active support for fellows and visitors leverages resources further and attracts more than 600 scientists to STRI each year.
With an unparalleled store of background information reflecting 80 years of increasingly intense research in a protected setting, as well as accommodations and modern laboratories, Barro Colorado Island has become a major center for tropical research.
People of the STRI
The first director after the 1966 name change was Martin Humphrey Moynihan. Geographer and scientist Charles F. Bennett, along with his wife, Anna Carole Bennett, participated in STRI during the 1960s, assisting in the organizing of the library, researching and collecting microclimate data, and studying neotropical forests. In 1966, Bennett became an honorary Research Associate of STRI.
A range of programs supports fellows and visiting scientists. In 2002, STRI hosted eight university field courses (Princeton, McGill, University of Florida, Michigan State, Florida Atlantic, University of Panama, Organization for Tropical Studies and Union College). There were 406 research fellows at STRI between 1995 and 2001. Junior fellows often work closely with a senior scientist, while advanced fellows pursue their own research. Visiting investigators bring their own funding from sources other than STRI to pursue their research interests at STRI facilities. Staff and fellows are drawn from all nations in an open, global competition, while visiting scientists are drawn from leading research universities.
Barro Colorado Nature Monument
The Barro Colorado Nature Monument includes the 16 km² Barro Colorado Island, which is covered with tropical forest and boasts a nearly intact mammal fauna. It also includes 40 km² of surrounding mainland peninsulas covered by forests in various stages of succession, serving as a site for manipulative field experiments. The monument adjoins Panama's 220 km² Soberania National Park.
Other terrestrial research sites
Although STRI is based in Panama, research is conducted throughout the tropics. STRI's Center for Tropical Forest Science uses large, fully enumerated forest plots to monitor tree demography in 23 countries located in Africa, Asia Europe and the Americas. More than 4.5 million individual trees representing 8,500 species are being studied. STRI's Biological Diversity of Forest Fragments project created experimental forest fragments of 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 km² to study the consequences of landscape transformation on forest integrity in the central Amazon region. STRI marine scientists are conducting a global survey of levels of genetic isolation in coral reef organisms.
STRI has marine laboratories on both coasts of Panama including a new Caribbean laboratory at the Bocas del Toro Research Station and a modern research vessel, giving access to two very different oceans that are only 80 kilometres (50 mi) apart. The Atlantic and Pacific oceans were divided by the Isthmus of Panama about three million years ago, creating a superb "natural experiment" in evolution.
The Bocas del Toro Research Station ( ) is a modern marine laboratory and research facility located on Isla Colón within one mile of downtown Bocas del Toro. The Research Station occupies beach front land. Researchers and visitors can reach the station easily from Bocas del Toro "Isla Colón" International Airport or the ferries to Almirante, Changuinola, and Chiriquí Grande. Accommodations and restaurants are plentiful around Bocas del Toro.
- Offices, laboratories, and The Earl S. Tupper Research and Conference Center in Ancón, Panama City.
- Biological and archaeological laboratories and boat dock on Isla Naos in Panama Bay.
- Accommodations and laboratory facilities in Gamboa, near the 220 km² Soberania National Park.
- A field station in western Panama at Fortuna, providing access to tropical montane forest.
- A sustainable energies research field station on Isla Falta Calzado in Lake Gatun.
- A resident international staff of over 35 scientists.
- Fellowship support for students and visiting scientists for stays ranging from ten weeks to three years.
- A network of collaborating individuals and institutions distributed throughout the tropics.
- "Oral history interview with Charles F. Bennett, Jr., and Anna Carole Bennett, 1975". Smithsonian Institution Archives. 1975. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
- Eric Jackson (August 5, 2010). "100 years of the Smithsonian's relationship with Panama". The Panama News. Retrieved August 8, 2010.
- P. J. Edwards (1985). "Leigh, E.G., Jr., Rand, A. S. & Windsor D. M. (Eds) The Ecology of a Tropical Forest (review)". Journal of Ecology 73 (1): 368. doi:10.2307/2259799. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
- "Visit Us at Barro Colorado - The visit". stri.si.edu. Retrieved 2010-08-08.
- "A Visit to Barro Colorado Nature Monument" STRI
- "Isla Barro Colorado Review | The Canal and Central Panama | Fodor's Travel Guides". Fodors.com. Retrieved 2010-08-08.
- Bocas del Toro Research Station Retrieved: 5 June 2009.
- Moon Panama (2nd ed.). Avalon Travel. November 2008. ISBN 978-1-59880-085-2.
- "Facilities :: Earl S. Tupper Research and Conference Center". Stri.org. Retrieved 2010-08-08.
- Renewable Energy in Panama
The Tapir's Morning Bath: Mysteries of the Tropical Rain Forest and the Scientists Who Are Trying to Solve Them, Houghton Mifflin, 2001. 328 pp. A popular-science book by Elizabeth Royte which describes the researchers' life on Barro Colorado Island.
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- Bocas del Toro Research Station
- Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute from the Smithsonian Institution Archives