Smoke point

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The smoke point of an oil or fat is the temperature at which, under defined conditions, enough volatile compounds emerge when a bluish smoke becomes clearly visible from the oil. At this temperature, volatile compounds, such as free fatty acids, and short-chain degradation products of oxidation come up from the oil. These volatile compounds degrade in air to give soot. The smoke point indicates the temperature limit up to which that cooking oil can be used.[1]

The smoke point correlates with the amount of free fatty acid in an oil.[1] It varies widely, depending on origin and refinement.[2] The smoke point of an oil does tend to increase as free fatty acid content decreases and degree of refinement increases.[3][4] Heating the oil produces free fatty acid and as this heating time increases, more free fatty acids are produced, thereby decreasing smoke point. It is one reason not to use the same oil to deep fry more than twice.[2] Intermittent frying has a markedly greater effect on oil deterioration than continuous frying.[5]

Considerably above the temperature of the smoke point is the flash point, the point at which the vapours from the oil can first ignite when mixed with air.

The following table presents smoke points of various fats:

Fat Quality Smoke Point
Almond oil 216°C[citation needed] 420°F
Avocado oil 270°C 520°F[6][7]
Butter 150°C 302°F[8]
Canola oil (Rapeseed) Expeller Press 190-232°C 375-450°F[9]
Canola oil (Rapeseed) High Oleic 246°C[citation needed] 475°F
Canola oil (Rapeseed) Refined 204°C[2] 400°F
Canola oil (Rapeseed) Unrefined 107°C[2] 225°F
Castor oil Refined 200°C[10] 392°F
Coconut oil Dry Expeller Pressed Virgin (Unrefined) 177°C 350°F[11]
Coconut oil Dry Refined 204°C 400°F[12]
Corn oil Unrefined 178°C[10] 352°F
Corn oil Refined 232°C[2] 450°F
Cottonseed oil 216°C[2] 420°F
Flaxseed oil Unrefined 107°C 225°F[13]
Ghee (Indian Clarified Butter) 252°C[citation needed] 485°F
Grapeseed oil 216°C[citation needed] 420°F
Hazelnut oil 221°C[citation needed] 430°F
Hemp oil 165°C[citation needed] 330°F
Lard 190°C 374°F[8]
Macadamia oil 210°C[citation needed] 413°F
Mustard oil 254°C[citation needed] 489°F
Olive oil Extra virgin 160°C 320°F[6][7]
Olive oil Virgin 199°C[10] 391°F
Olive oil, high quality (low acidity) Extra virgin 207°C[citation needed] 405°F
Olive Pomace Oil 238°C[2] 460°F
Palm oil Difractionated 235°C[14] 455°F
Peanut oil Unrefined 160°C[citation needed] 320°F
Peanut oil Refined 232°C[2] 450°F
Rice bran oil 254°C[citation needed] 490°F
Safflower oil Unrefined 107°C[citation needed] 225°F
Safflower oil Semirefined 160°C[citation needed] 320°F
Safflower oil Refined 266°C[2] 510°F
Sesame oil Unrefined 177°C 350°F[15]
Sesame oil Semirefined 232°C 450°F[16]
Soybean oil Unrefined 160°C[citation needed] 320°F
Soybean oil Semirefined 177°C[citation needed] 350°F
Soybean oil Refined 238°C[2] 460°F
Sunflower oil Unrefined 107°C[citation needed] 225°F
Sunflower oil Semirefined 232°C[citation needed] 450°F
Sunflower oil Refined 227°C[2] 440°F
Sunflower oil, high oleic Unrefined 160°C[citation needed] 320°F
Tallow (Beef) 215°C[citation needed] 420°F
Tea seed oil 252°C[citation needed] 485°F
Vegetable shortening 182°C[citation needed] 360°F
Walnut oil Unrefined 160°C[citation needed] 320°F
Walnut oil Semirefined 204°C[citation needed] 400°F

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Alfred Thomas (2002). "Fats and Fatty Oils". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a10_173. ISBN 3-527-30673-0. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Wolke, Robert L. (May 16, 2007). "Where There's Smoke, There's a Fryer". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 5, 2011. 
  3. ^ Morgan, D. A. (1942). "Smoke, fire, and flash points of cottonseed, peanut, and other vegetable oils". Oil & Soap 19 (11): 193. doi:10.1007/BF02545481. 
  4. ^ Bockisch, Michael (1998). Fats and Oils Handbook. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press. pp. 95–6. ISBN 0-935315-82-9. 
  5. ^ Amit K. Das, et al,
  6. ^ a b "Smoking Points of Fats and Oils."
  7. ^ a b
  8. ^ a b The Culinary Institute of America (2011). The Professional Chef (9th ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-42135-2. OCLC 707248142.
  9. ^ Spectrum Organics, Canola Oil Manufacturer,
  10. ^ a b c Detwiler, S. B.; Markley, K. S. (1940). "Smoke, flash, and fire points of soybean and other vegetable oils". Oil & Soap 17 (2): 39–40. doi:10.1007/BF02543003. 
  11. ^ Nutiva, Coconut Oil Manufacturer,
  12. ^ Nutiva, Coconut Oil Manufacturer,
  13. ^ "Healthiest Cooking Oil Chart with Smoke Points."
  14. ^ (Italian) Scheda tecnica dell'olio di palma bifrazionato PO 64.
  15. ^
  16. ^