Smoking and pregnancy
Tobacco smoking and pregnancy is related to many effects on health and reproduction, in addition to the general health effects of tobacco. A number of studies have shown that tobacco use is a significant factor in miscarriages among pregnant smokers, and that it contributes to a number of other threats to the health of the fetus.
Ideally, women should not smoke before, during or after pregnancy. If this is not the case, however, the daily number of cigarettes can be reduced to minimize the risks for both the mother and child. This is particularly important for women in developing countries where breastfeeding is essential for the child’s overall nutritional status.
- 1 Smoking before pregnancy
- 2 Smoking during pregnancy
- 2.1 Effects on ongoing pregnancy
- 2.2 Effects of smoking during pregnancy on the child after birth
- 2.3 Quitting during pregnancy
- 3 Smoking after pregnancy
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Smoking before pregnancy
It is important to examine these effects because smoking before, during and after pregnancy is not an unusual behavior among the general population and can have detrimental health impacts, especially among both mother and child as a result. In 2011, approximately 10% of pregnant women in data collected from 24 states reported smoking during the last three months of their pregnancy.
Smoking during pregnancy
In the United States today, approximately 10% of women smoke during pregnancy. Of women who smoked during the last 3 months of pregnancy, 52% reported smoking 5 or fewer cigarettes per day, 27% reported smoking 6 to 10 cigarettes per day, and 21% reported smoking 11 or more cigarettes per day. In the United States, women whose pregnancies were unintended are 30% more likely to smoke during pregnancy than those whose pregnancies were intended.
Effects on ongoing pregnancy
Smoking during pregnancy can lead to a plethora of health risks to both the mother and the fetus.
- premature rupture of membranes, which means that the amniotic sac will rupture prematurely, and will induce labour before the baby is fully developed. Although this complication has a good prognosis (in Western countries), it causes severe economic stress as the premature child may have to stay in the hospital to gain health and strength to be able to sustain life on their own.
- placental abruption, wherein there is premature separation of the placenta from the attachment site. The fetus can be put in distress, and can even die. The mother can lose blood and can have a haemorrhage; she may need a blood transfusion.
- placenta previa, where in the placenta grows in the lowest part of the uterus and covers all or part of the opening to the cervix. Having placenta previa is an economic stress as well because it requires having a caesarean section delivery, which is more expensive and requires a longer recovery period in the hospital. There can also be complications, such as maternal hemorrhage.
Some studies show that the probability of premature birth is roughly 1% higher for women who smoke during pregnancy going from around -1% to 1%.
Implications for the umbilical cord
Smoking can also impair the general development of the placenta, which is problematic because it reduces blood flow to the foetus. When the placenta does not develop fully, the umbilical cord which transfers oxygen and nutrients from the mother's blood to the placenta, cannot transfer enough oxygen and nutrients to the foetus, which will not be able to fully grow and develop. These conditions can result in heavy bleeding during delivery that can endanger mother and baby, although cesarean delivery can prevent most deaths.
Effects of smoking during pregnancy on the child after birth
Sudden infant death syndrome
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden death of an infant that is unexplainable by the infant’s history. The death also remains unexplainable upon autopsy. Infants exposed to smoke, both during pregnancy and after birth, are found to be more at risk of SIDS due to the increased levels of nicotine often found in SIDS cases. Infants exposed to smoke during pregnancy are up to three times more likely to die of SIDS that children born to non-smoking mothers.[quantify]
Other birth defects
|limb reduction defects||1.26|
|All defects combined||1.01|
Smoking can also cause other birth defects, reduced birth circumference, altered brainstem development, altered lung structure, and cerebral palsy. citation needed][
A recent study has proposed that maternal smoking during pregnancy can lead to future teenage obesity. While no significant differences could be found between young teenagers with smoking mothers as compared to young teenagers with nonsmoking mothers, older teenagers with smoking mothers were found to have on average 26 percent more body fat and 33 percent more abdominal fat than similar aged teenagers with non-smoking mothers. This increase in body fat may result from the effect smoking during pregnancy, which is thought to impact fetal genetic programming in relation to obesity. While the exact mechanism for this difference is currently unknown, studies conducted on animals have indicated that nicotine may affect brain functions that deal with eating impulses and energy metabolism. These differences appear to have a significant effect on the maintenance of a healthy, normal weight. As a result of this alteration to brain functions, teenage obesity can in turn lead to a variety of health problems including diabetes (a condition in which the affected individual’s blood glucose level is too high and the body is unable to regulate it), hypertension (high blood pressure), and cardiovascular disease (any affliction related to the heart but most commonly the thickening of arteries due to excess fat build-up).
Future smoking habits
Studies indicate that smoking during pregnancy increases the likelihood of offspring beginning to smoke at an early age.
Quitting during pregnancy
Quitting smoking at any point during pregnancy is more beneficial than continuing to smoke throughout the entire 9 months of pregnancy, especially if it is done within the first trimester (within the first 12 weeks of pregnancy). A recent study suggests, however, that women who smoke anytime during the first trimester put their fetus at a higher risk for birth defects, particularly congenital heart defects (structural defects in the heart of an infant that can hinder blood flow) than women who have never smoked. That risk only continues to increase the longer into the pregnancy a woman smokes, as well as the larger number of cigarettes she is smoking. This continued increase in risk throughout pregnancy means that it can still be beneficial for a pregnant woman to quit smoking for the remainder of her gestation period. There are many resources to help pregnant women quit smoking such as counseling and drug therapies. For non-pregnant smokers, an often-recommended aid to quitting smoking is through the use of Nicotine replacement therapy in the form of patches, gum, inhalers, lozenges, sprays or sublingual tablets (tablets which you place under the tongue). However, it is important to note that the use of Nicotine Replacement Therapies (NRTs) is questionable for pregnant women as these treatments still deliver nicotine to the child. For some pregnant smokers, NRT might still be the most beneficial and helpful solution to quit smoking. It is important to talk to your doctor to determine the best course of action on an individual basis.
Smoking after pregnancy
If one does continue to smoke after giving birth, however, it is still more beneficial to breastfeed than to completely avoid this practice altogether. There is evidence that breastfeeding offers protection against many infectious diseases, especially diarrhea. Even in babies exposed to the harmful effects of nicotine through breast milk, the likelihood of acute respiratory illness is significantly diminished when compared to infants whose mothers smoked but were formula fed. Regardless, the benefits of breastfeeding outweigh the risks of nicotine exposure.
Passive smoking is associated with many risks to children, including, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), asthma, lung infections, impaired respiratory function and slowed lung growth, Crohn's disease, learning difficulties and neurobehavioral effects, an increase in tooth decay, and an increased risk of middle ear infections.
- Ness RB, Grisso JA, Hirschinger N et al. (February 1999). "Cocaine and tobacco use and the risk of spontaneous abortion". N. Engl. J. Med. 340 (5): 333–9. doi:10.1056/NEJM199902043400501. PMID 9929522.
- Oncken C, Kranzler H, O'Malley P, Gendreau P, Campbell WA (May 2002). "The effect of cigarette smoking on fetal heart rate characteristics". Obstet Gynecol 99 (5 Pt 1): 751–5. doi:10.1016/S0029-7844(02)01948-8. PMID 11978283.
- Najdawi, F. and Faouri, M. 1999. Maternal smoking and breastfeeding. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 5(3): 450-456
- Eisenberg, Leon; Brown, Sarah Hart (1995). The best intentions: unintended pregnancy and the well-being of children and families. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press. pp. 68–70. ISBN 0-309-05230-0.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2007. Preventing Smoking and Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Before, During, and After Pregnancy.
- Anderka, Marlene, Paul A. Romitti, Lixian Sun, Charlotte Druschel, Suzan Carmichael, and Gary Shaw. "Patterns of Tobacco Exposure Before and During Pregnancy." Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica 89.4 (2010): 505-14. Academic Search Premier. Web. 26 April 2010. <http://informahealthcare.com/doi/full/10.3109/00016341003692261>
- Vardavas, Constantine I., Leda Chatzi, Evrikidi Patelarou, Estel Plana, Katerina Sarri, Anthony Kafatos, Antonis D. Koutis, and Manolis Kogevinas. "Smoking and Smoking Cessation During Early Pregnancy and Its Effect on Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes and Fetal Growth." European Journal of Pediatrics 169 (2010): 741-48. Print.
- Zhang J, Zeisler J, Hatch MC, Berkowitz G (1997). "Epidemiology of pregnancy-induced hypertension". Epidemiol Rev 19 (2): 218–32. PMID 9494784.
- Krotz S, Fajardo J, Gandhi S, Patel A, Keith LG (February 2002). "Hypertensive disease in twin pregnancies: a review". Twin Res 5 (1): 8–14. doi:10.1375/1369052022848. PMID 11893276.
- Bajanowski, T.; Brinkmann, B.; Mitchell, E.; Vennemann, M.; Leukel, H.; Larsch, K.; Beike, J.; Gesid, G. (2008). "Nicotine and cotinine in infants dying from sudden infant death syndrome". International journal of legal medicine 122 (1): 23–28. doi:10.1007/s00414-007-0155-9. PMID 17285322
- Unless else specified in table, then reference is: Hackshaw, A.; Rodeck, C.; Boniface, S. (2011). "Maternal smoking in pregnancy and birth defects: A systematic review based on 173 687 malformed cases and 11.7 million controls". Human Reproduction Update 17 (5): 589–604. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmr022. PMC 3156888. PMID 21747128.
- Nguyen, Linda. "Teen Obesity Linked to Pre-birth Tobacco Exposure: Study." The Gazette. Canwest News Service, 27 April 2010. Web. 27 April 2010. <http://www.montrealgazette.com/health/Teen+obesity+linked+birth+tobacco+exposure+Study/2956850/story.html>
- March, Penny D., and Carita Caple. "Smoking Cessation and Pregnancy." Ed. Diane Pravikoff. Cinahl Information Systems (2010). Print.
- Mennella J. A. et al. (2007). "Breastfeeding and Smoking: Short-term Effects on Infant Feeding and Sleep". Pediatrics 120: 497–502. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-0488. PMC 2277470. PMID 17766521.
- McMartin KI, Platt MS, Hackman R, Klein J, Smialek JE, Vigorito R, Koren G (2002). "Lung tissue concentrations of nicotine in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)". J. Pediatr. 140 (2): 205–9. doi:10.1067/mpd.2002.121937. PMID 11865272.
- Milerad J, Vege A, Opdal SH, Rognum TO (1999). "Objective measurements of nicotine exposure in victims of sudden infant death syndrome and in other unexpected child deaths". J. Pediatr. 133 (2): 232–6. doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(98)70225-2. PMID 9709711.
- Surgeon General 2006, pp. 311–9
- Vork KL, Broadwin RL, Blaisdell RJ (2007). "Developing asthma in childhood from exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke: insights from a meta-regression". Environ. Health Perspect. 115 (10): 1394–400. doi:10.1289/ehp.10155. PMC 2022647. PMID 17938726.
- Spencer N, Coe C (2003). "Parent reported longstanding health problems in early childhood: a cohort study". Arch. Dis. Child. 88 (7): 570–3. doi:10.1136/adc.88.7.570. PMC 1763148. PMID 12818898.
- de Jongste JC, Shields MD (2003). "Cough . 2: Chronic cough in children". Thorax 58 (11): 998–1003. doi:10.1136/thorax.58.11.998. PMC 1746521. PMID 14586058.
- Dybing E, Sanner T (1999). "Passive smoking, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and childhood infections". Hum Exp Toxicol 18 (4): 202–5. doi:10.1191/096032799678839914. PMID 10333302.
- DiFranza JR, Aligne CA, Weitzman M (2004). "Prenatal and postnatal environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children's health". Pediatrics 113 (4 Suppl): 1007–15. doi:10.1542/peds.113.4.S1.1007. PMID 15060193.
- Preventing Smoking and Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Before, During, and After Pregnancy. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. July 2007.
- Mahid SS, Minor KS, Stromberg AJ, Galandiuk S (2007). "Active and passive smoking in childhood is related to the development of inflammatory bowel disease". Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 13 (4): 431–8. doi:10.1002/ibd.20070. PMID 17206676.
- Richards GA, Terblanche AP, Theron AJ et al. (1996). "Health effects of passive smoking in adolescent children". S. Afr. Med. J. 86 (2): 143–7. PMID 8619139.
- Scientific Consensus Statement on Environmental Agents Associated with Neurodevelopmental Disorders, The Collaborative on Health and the Environment’s Learning and Developmental Disabilities Initiative, November 7, 2007
- Avşar A, Darka O, Topaloğlu B, Bek Y (October 2008). "Association of passive smoking with caries and related salivary biomarkers in young children". Arch. Oral Biol. 53 (10): 969–74. doi:10.1016/j.archoralbio.2008.05.007. PMID 18672230.
- Surgeon General 2006, pp. 293–309
- Jacoby PA, Coates HL, Arumugaswamy A, et. al (2008). "The effect of passive smoking on the risk of otitis media in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in the Kalgoorlie–Boulder region of Western Australia" (PDF). Med J Aust 188 (10): 599–603. PMID 18484936.