Smoking in Germany
Under federal law manufacturing, importation, distribution and advertisement is regulated whilst the 16 federal states of Germany each have their own smokefree laws for public places, which range from relatively weak bans to full smoking bans in all licensed premises, childcare facilities, schools and governmental institutions. As of December 2014, nearly 40% of the German population lives in a state with a strict smoking ban including all restaurants, pubs, cafés and discos; other states will probably introduce similar strict laws in the future.
- 1 Statistics
- 2 Political measures against smoking
- 3 See also
- 4 References
Current cigarette smoking among adults
According to the microcensus 2009 one in four (25.7%) of total population aged 15 and over is a smoker. The rate of ex-smokers is 19.7%. The average age at which smokers begin is 17.8 years of age (in the age group of 15 to 20 year olds the average age is 15.4 years)
|15–20||19,9 %||15,0 %|
|20–25||39,9 %||32,8 %|
|25–30||44,3 %||32,2 %|
|30–35||42,5 %||28,3 %|
|35–40||39,0 %||27,9 %|
|40–45||38,3 %||30,3 %|
|45–50||38,9 %||31,1 %|
|50–55||36,7 %||28,3 %|
|55–60||30,7 %||22,2 %|
|60–65||24,9 %||16,8 %|
|65–70||17,0 %||11,0 %|
|70–75||12,5 %||6,7 %|
|over 75||8,0 %||3,6 %|
Cigarettes annual consumption per capita
In 2010 each day day an average of 229 million cigarettes was consumed. This corresponds to an average of 1,021 cigarettes consumed per capita every year.
|Smoking behaviour||Women, 18 to 29||Women, 30 to 44||Women, 45 to 64||Women, 65 and older||Women, total||Men, 18 to 29||Men, 30 to 44||Men, 45 to 64||Men, 65 and older||Men, total|
|Daily smokers||33,6 %||29,3 %||22,0 %||5,1 %||21,9 %||39,3 %||36,0 %||26,1 %||11,8 %||29,2 %|
|Occasional smokers||11,0 %||7,4 %||5,3 %||2,4 %||6,1 %||14,4 %||8,3 %||6,9 %||3,8 %||8,1 %|
|Ex-smokers||14,6 %||24,1 %||25,5 %||21,2 %||22,3 %||14,7 %||23,9 %||38,2 %||52,1 %||31,8 %|
|Never smoked||40,8 %||39,2 %||47,2 %||71,3 %||49,7 %||31,5 %||31,8 %||28,8 %||32,4 %||30,9 %|
Cigarette consumption per day
Amount of smoked cigarettes per day.
|40 and more||4%|
Tobacco consumption from 1991 until 2013
Amount of averagely daily consumed cigarettes per year.
Political measures against smoking
Since 2003 it is illegal to label a tobacco product as "light", "mild", "low-tar” or any other misleading form of advertisement which could cause the impression that the product causes less damage than other tobacco products.
All radio and television advertisement was banned in 1975. This regulation was extended by the "Rundfunkstaatsvertrag" on August 1, 1999, banning any kind of sponsoring of television and radio shows. In 2002 the "Protection of Young Persons Act" banned advertisement of tobacco products in cinemas before 6 p.m. On January 1, 2007, the European Tobacco advertisement directive got effective banning advertisement of tobacco products on the internet, in newspapers and magazines. The regulation also banned sponsorship of any event which is broadcast internationally.
Since October 1, 2003 all member states of the European Union and Switzerland have to require cigarette and tobacco manufacturers to print a clearly legible warning notice on every broadside of the package. In Germany the European standard was introduced by the "Tobacco Product Regulation" which became effective as of November 20, 2002. The "general warning labels" have to cover at least 30% of the entire packaging whilst supplementary information have to cover at least 40%.
|The packaging of any tobacco product must contain at least one of the following "general warning labels"|
|and an additional warning label has to be attached from the following list:|
In Germany the amount of tobacco as well as the value of the product is used to calculate the tax (§ 3 TabakStG). In order to calculate the tobacco tax for each package in addition to the quantity of item(s) (in cigarettes, cigars and cigarillos) or in grams (smoking tobacco) the retail selling price is required. The information is printed on the "Steuerbanderole" (tax strip) of each tobacco package in full Euro and cent values.
The tobacco tax rate is as of 2015 for each cigarette 9.82 cents and 21.69 percent of the retail price, which makes a minimum sum of 19.636 cents per cigarette minus the sales tax of the retail selling price.
|Example calculation for a package containing 19 cigarettes with a retail price of 5,00 Euro:|
|19 * 0,0982 Euro + 5,00 Euro * 21,69% = 1,8658 Euro + 1,0845 Euro = 2,95 Euro.|
After tobacco tax was increased in 2002 and 2003 to finance anti-terrorist measures three raises followed in 2004 and 2005 to provide financial support for the health insurance and finally in 2010 another five tobacco tax increases were decided:
- May 1, 2011
- January 1, 2012
- January 1, 2013
- January 1, 2014 and the latest one in
- January 1, 2015.
Under Germany's "Protection of Young Persons Act" it is unlawful to sell or supply any tobacco product to a person under the age of eighteen years. It is also illegal to permit minors to smoke in any public place. Although minors do not commit a crime if they purchase, attempt to purchase or consume tobacco products it is unlawful for any retailer or other responsible person to sell, supply or tolerate the consumption of tobacco by a person underage. If a minor is found consuming a tobacco product in public, the police has the duty to seize the tobacco products.
Protection of Young Persons Act - § 10 Smoking in the public, tobacco products
(1) Tobacco products must not be sold to children and to adolescents nor must the latter be permitted/tolerated to smoke in restaurants, stores and other public places.
(2) Tobacco products must not be available from selling machines unless the following conditions are satisfied:
- The selling machine has been installed at a location not accessible for children and for adolescents.
- The selling machine has been furnished with mechanical devices or is permanently guarded to ensure that children and adolescents cannot take tobacco products out of them.
Prior to September 1, 2007 the minimum age to purchase and consume tobacco products was 16 years of age. Until January 1, 2009 all tobacco vending machines had to be removed or refitted to ensure that minors can not purchase tobacco products from those machines. Today all vending machines need some form of identification before dispensing tobacco, usually a Electronic cash-Card, German identity card or European driving licence is used to verify that the buyer is at least 18 years of age.
Selling loose cigarettes
It is unlawful to sell any tobacco product in a package containing less than 19 cigarettes or 30 grammes of loose fine-cut tobacco. Therefore, retailers may not destroy a tax strip on a tobacco packaging. The law does except cigarillos and cigars under certain conditions.
Resale price maintenance
Selling tobacco products for more or less than the retail sale price which is set by the manufacturer and printed on the tax strip is unlawful. The only exception is providing free samples for advertisement purpose to a customer.
Gaming and gambling
Tobacco products may not be used as a prize in any form of commercial gaming or gambling.
Adding or supplying anything else than the tobacco product to a package of cigarettes, cigars or cigarillos except for change is unlawful.
Federal smoking ban
The "Federal non-smoking act" has introduced a smoking ban for the following public places and facilities:
- in federal institutions and the constitutional bodies of the federal government,
- in public transportation,
- in passenger stations of public railways.
The law does not apply to any residential or accommodation facility given to residents for personal use. And for separated smoking facilities if the conditions apply which are set by the federal government.
Smoking ban by state
|Bundesland||Government agency, departments and other institutions of the state and municipalities||Prisons||Hospitals and nursing homes||Day care centers for children||Schools||Gymnasiums, swimming pools etc.||Cultural institutions||Discothèques||Restaurants and bars||Public Transportation||Note|
|Baden-Württemberg||1||2||3||4||5||–6||–6 / (applies to cinemas only)7||8||9||The Non smoking protection law does not apply to: cultural institutions and sports facilities (except as part of a school). It also has lots of exceptions for restaurants, nightclubs, schools and governmental agencies and departments of the state and municipalities.|
|Bavaria||10||11||11||10||10||10||12||10||10||10||In designated areas of police departments and public prosecutions office, smoking may be permitted where interrogations are conducted and the interrogated person is a smoker and has the permission of the director or head of department.|
|Hesse||32 33||36||35 34||36||36||36||36||36||37||36||Buildings of the Hessischer Rundfunk have a special status: inside the building separated smoking rooms can be established.|
|Lower Saxony||42||43||44 42||45||Schools:
45 Institution of higher education:
|45||42||42||42||In accordance with § 4 NiRSG a municipality can ban smoking on public playgrounds.|
41 Institution of higher education:
|38||38||38||38||In accordance with § 2 (1) NichtRSchutzG M-V, every building can establish separated smoking areas. This does not apply to schools (except institutions of higher education), as well as daycare facilities for children.|
|North Rhine-Westphalia||46||47||48||46||46||46||46||46||46||46||North Rhine-Westphalia has one of the strictest smoking bans nationwide.|
Institution of higher education:
Exceptions and notes for Baden-Württemberg:
|1||Exceptions may be issued for special events. A gerneral exception does exists for enclosed rooms.|
|2||Smoking is allowed in detention premises, which are inhabited exclusively by smokers. In enclosed rooms or at special events further exemptions may be issued.|
|3||Exceptions apply to patients in: palliative care, psychiatric treatment, by a court-ordered placement in a closed facility, or to achieve the therapeutic goal (addiction treatment). Smoking in enclosed areas of care facilities may be permitted if it is used or occupied exclusively by smokers or with the permission of the residents.|
|4||Absolutely no smoking.|
|5||Except apartments which are located wholly or partially on the school ground. Furthermore, the teacher's conference can allow smoking for adult students from class 11, or the corresponding classes of vocational schools as well as for teachers working there, at designated smoking areas with permission of the school committee and after consulting the parents' and student council.|
|6||Is not covered by the state's smoking ban. Restrictions may apply if it is a part of a school or other educational establishment.|
|7||Since smoking is banned in all public establishments where food or drinks are administered for consumption on premises, smoking is prohibited in theaters and cinemas. This was confirmed on request from the government of Tübingen and the relevant ministry.|
|8||Exceptions for discothèques are made, if the smoking room is completetly separated and does not have a dance floor. Furthermore, minors under the age of 18 years may never be present on premises and the smoking area has to be clearly recognisable by a legible notice.|
|9||Exceptions for restaurants and bars exist for completely separate rooms, if these areas are marked clearly recognizable as smoking rooms. Furthermore, smoking is permitted in bars and pubs: which are smaller than 75 square meters, the relevant premises only has one room which is used to serve the customers (Einraumgaststätten), and no food or just "cold" prepared food is sold for consumption on premises, and minors under the age of 18 are not permitted to enter and if the premises is clearly recognisable as a smokers pub.|
Exceptions and notes for Bavaria:
|10||Absolutely no smoking.|
|11||Exceptions apply to patients in: palliative care and psychiatric hospitals where smoking can be permitted at every station in a side room. In addition, the director of a correctional facility may permit smoking in common areas.|
|12||Smoking is permitted if it is a part of an artistic performance.|
Exceptions and notes for Berlin:
|13||Absolutely no smoking.|
|14||Exceptions apply for designated areas of correctional facilities, at deportation custody in prison cells of prisoners, other specially designated rooms in specially designated waiting areas in court buildings and in specially designated waiting areas and at interrogation in police stations.|
|15||Exceptions apply for: designated rooms of psychiatric hospitals or rehabilitation centers, as well as areas in health facilities. Especially in psychiatry and palliative care for patients with permission of the chief physician allowing smoking for therapeutic reasons. Furthermore, exceptions apply for designated areas of stationary institutions or care centers for disabled people.|
|16||Smoking is permitted if it is a part of an artistic performance.|
|17||Exceptions apply to:
Exceptions and notes for Brandenburg:
|18||Exceptions apply for holding cells of police departments with explicit permission by the chief the department.|
|19||Excepted from the smoking ban are: prison cells of correctional facilities and of deportation custody, with permission of the chief of the administration.|
|20||Excluded from the smoking ban are forensic commitment in patient rooms and in the areas where the management of the facility allows smoking, as well as in specially designated areas in health facilities, especially in psychiatry and palliative care for patients with permission by the treating physician for therapeutic reasons and in the rooms of homes or child care facilities pursuant to § 34 of the Eighth book of the Social Code, which are left to the residents for private use; in institutions beyond in specially designated areas where the home management allows smoking for residents and their families.|
|21||Absolutely no smoking.|
|22||Exceptions apply to:
Exceptions and notes for Bremen:
|23||Absolutely no smoking.|
|24||Excluded from the smoking ban are prisoner cells (only for solitary cells). Further smoking can be permitted in enclosed smoking rooms if permission is given by the chief of department.|
|25||Excluded from the smoking ban are: rooms used by patients of palliative care or patients in psychiatric treatment or reside in a closed ward of a hospital because of a court-ordered placement. Furthermore, exceptions can be given to single patients to reach therapy goal. In individual cases, the attending physician will decide.|
|26||In restaurants, bars and clubs separated smoking rooms can be established. In discothèques the separated room may not be connected to the dancing floor.|
Exceptions and notes for Hamburg:
|27||Excpetions apply to rooms of police custody if permission is given by the chief of department in every individual case.|
|28||Excluded are rooms used for habitation, and if permission is given by every resident. Furthermore, a permission has to be obtained by the chief of the establishment.|
|29||Excluded are patients of mandatory conceptual or therapeutic reasons.|
|30||Absolutely no smoking.|
|31||Exceptions apply to:
Exceptions and notes for Hesse:
|32||Exceptioned are completely separated smoking rooms, if there existence does not violate non smokers.|
|33||Exceptions apply for holding cells of police departments with explicit permission by the chief the department.|
|34||Excluded are rooms used by residents for their own personal use.|
|35||Exceptioned are patients of a hospitals or other health care facilities, if smoking is a part of a medical treatment.|
|36||Absolutely no smoking.|
|37||The smoking ban does not apply to:
Exceptions and notes for Lower Saxony:
|42||Exccluded are completely separated smoking rooms, which are marked as smoking rooms.|
|43||The smoking ban does not apply to detention and interrogation rooms of correctional facilities and the police.|
|44||The smoking ban does not apply to:
|45||Absolutely no smoking.|
Exceptions and notes for Mecklenburg-Vorpommern:
|38||It is possible to introduce separated smoking rooms.|
|39||Excluded are prison cells of correctional facilities, or patient rooms of residents of a mental hospital.|
|40||Excluded are rooms used for own use by residents of a hospital or care faciliy if permission is given by attending physician.|
|41||Absolutely no smoking. (§ 45 Sec. 1 of the 8. Social lawbook)|
Exceptions and notes for North Rhine-Westphalia:
|46||Absolutely no smoking.|
|47||Excluded from the smoking ban are prisoner cells of correctional institutes, as long as all detainees are smokers.|
|48||Smoking rooms are permitted in inpatient nursing facilities, institutes for diabled people. The smoking ban does not apply to patients in palliative or psychiatric treatment (as well as for patients sent to a health facility by court order). Further exceptions can be made for individual cases to reach the therapy goal.|
Exceptions and notes for Rhineland-Palatinate:
|49||Absolutely no smoking.|
|50||Excluded from the ban are holding cells of correctional facilities if all residents give their permission, further separated smoking rooms can be established.|
|51||In all hospitals, prevention and rehabilitation facilities, homes for the elderly, care home and inpatient treatment facilities smoking is strictly prohibited. The smoking ban generally does not apply to premises which is for personal use only. Exceptions apply to:
|52||Smoking is strictly prohibited in premises of public youth services, day care centers or other facilities for young people (Facilities acc. Of the Eighth Book of the Social Code). In individual cases the head of the facilitie may permit smoking.|
|53||Smoking is permitted if it is a part of an artistic performance.|
|54||For restaurants, bars and clubs following rules apply:
Exceptions and notes for Saarland:
|55||Smoking is permitted in separated and clearly highlighted smoker facilities.|
|56||The smoking ban does not apply
|57||Absolutely no smoking.|
Exceptions and notes for Saxony:
|58||Separated smoking rooms are permitted in:
|59||Absolutely no smoking.|
|60||Exceptions apply to:
Exceptions and notes for Saxony-Anhalt:
|61||Absolutely no smoking.|
|62||The smoking ban does not apply to:
|63||Smoking rooms can be permitted:
Exceptions and notes for Schleswig-Holstein:
|64||Absolutely no smoking.|
|65||The smoking ban does not apply to:
|66||Exceptions apply to:
Exceptions and notes for Thuringia:
|67||Absolutely no smoking.|
|68||The smoking ban does not apply to:
|69||Exceptions apply to:
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