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"Smoko" (also "smoke-o" or "smoke-oh") is a term used in Australian English, New Zealand English and Falkland Islands English for a short, often informal, cigarette break taken during work or military duty, although the term can also be used to describe any short break such as a rest or a coffee/tea break. Among sheep shearers in Australia, "smoko" is a mid-morning break, between breakfast and lunch, in which a light meal may be eaten.
There is a town in Victoria, Australia called Smoko, which "gained its name in the 1850s because gold seekers regularly stopped here for a smoke and a rest on their way to and from the goldfields". 
Within New Zealand the term has evolved to include coffee breaks and outdoor rests. The term is used primarily in New Zealand amongst the building and manufacturing communities.
The term is believed to have originated in the British Merchant Navy, and was in use as early as 1865. The term is still in use in the British Merchant Navy today. The tradition of a smoko in the Australian sense seems to have begun amongst sheep shearers in the 1860s.
Although a slang term, the word "smoko" has been used in government writing and industrial relations reports to mean a short work break.
Smoko as an Australian institution
The smoko break in Australia has become an institution symbolic of working culture and even of workers' rights. The Australian Industrial Relations Commission has arbitrated cases of industrial action over workers' entitlement to a smoko break.
There are, however, considerable health and productivity concerns about smoke breaks, and non-smoking workers are sometimes concerned that their smoking colleagues take more time on breaks.
In 2006, the Australian government's Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources banned the "smoko" from its Canberra offices, prompting then Health Minister Tony Abbott to declare that the "smoko has had its day". In January 2010 the Health Department announced a ban on its employees taking cigarette breaks.
- McDonald, Roger (1992). Shearers' Motel. Sydney: Picador. ISBN 0-330-27351-5.
- "Weird place names". The Age.
- "What does Smoko mean?". SMOKO.
- Lind, Lewis James (1982). Sea Jargon: A Dictionary of the Unwritten Language of the Sea. Sydney: Kangaroo Press. ISBN 0-949924-22-9.
- Ayto, J. & Simpson, J. (eds.) (1992) The Oxford Dictionary of Modern Slang. Oxford: Oxford University Press
- The Australian Tobacco Timeline Archived 11 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine., University of Sydney
- Glossary of common industrial relations terms Archived 28 March 2010 at Archive.is, Department of Employment and Industrial Relations (Queensland)
- "Smoko by The Chats". YouTube.
- Application to Stop or Prevent Industrial Action, Australian Industrial Relations Commission, 17 October 2002.
- Workplace 'smoko' unfair, The Sydney Morning Herald, 22 October 2003.
- Ban the smoko? No way, gasp diehard smokers, The Age, 7 October 2006.
- Abbott says smoko has had its day, The Age, 6 October 2006.
- Health Department bans staff smoke breaks,The Sydney Morning Herald,11 January 2010