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Smoltification (also known as Parr-Smolt transformation) is the series of physiological changes where juvenile salmonid fish adapt from living in fresh water to living in seawater. Physiological changes during smoltification include altered body shape, increased skin reflectance (silvery colouration), and increased Na+/K+-ATPase in the gills.[1] A number of mechanisms assist with osmoregulation.[2]


  1. ^ Nichols, Krista M., Edo, Alicia Felip, Wheeler, Paul A. and Thorgaard, Gary H. (July 2008). "The Genetic Basis of Smoltification-Related Traits in Oncorhynchus mykiss". Genetics. 179 (3): 1559–1575. doi:10.1534/genetics.107.084251. PMC 2475755. PMID 18562654.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  2. ^ Høgåsen, Helga Rachel. Physiological changes associated with the diadromous migration of salmonids (PDF). p. 27. ISBN 9780660176376.