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Smoltification (also known as Parr-Smolt transformation) is a complex series of physiological changes where young salmonid fish adapt from living in fresh water to living in seawater. Physiological changes during smoltification include modified body shape, increased skin reflectance (the measure of the proportion of light or other radiation striking a surface which is reflected off it.), and increased Na+/K+-ATPase in the gills.[1] A number of mechanisms assist with osmoregulation.[2]


  1. ^ Nichols, Krista M., Edo, Alicia Felip, Wheeler, Paul A. and Thorgaard, Gary H. (July 2008). "The Genetic Basis of Smoltification-Related Traits in Oncorhynchus mykiss". Genetics. 179 (3): 1559–1575. doi:10.1534/genetics.107.084251. PMC 2475755. PMID 18562654.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ Høgåsen, Helga Rachel (1998). Physiological changes associated with the diadromous migration of salmonids (PDF). p. 27. ISBN 9780660176376.