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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Kiwi smoothie

A smoothie is a beverage made by puréeing ingredients in a blender.[1] A smoothie commonly has a liquid base, such as fruit juice or milk, yogurt or ice cream. Other ingredients may be added, including fruits, vegetables, non-dairy milk, crushed ice, whey powder or nutritional supplements.

History of smoothies[edit]

Health food stores on the West Coast of the United States began selling smoothies with the invention of the electric blender.[2] The actual term "smoothie" was being used in recipes and trademarks by the mid-1980s.[3] In the 1960s Steve Kuhnau was inspired by his work as a soda jerk and began experimenting with smoothies. They were an alternative for the lactose intolerant Kuhnau to taste his own concoctions using unique blends of fruit juices, vegetables, protein powder, and vitamins. Kuhnau discovered early success in his smoothie sales and founded Smoothie King. Smoothie King expanded throughout the United States and would pioneer other smoothie businesses such as Jamba Juice. The smoothie was then modified by fast food chains with the addition of sweeter ingredients like chocolate and Splenda.[4] In the 2000s, consumers began making smoothies at home, in part as an alternative for daily consumption of fruits and vegetables.[5]

Nutrition of smoothies[edit]

Blueberry smoothie topped with blueberries and pineapple pieces

The nutrition of a smoothie depends on its ingredients and their proportions. Many smoothies include large or multiple servings of fruits and vegetables, which are recommended in a healthy diet and intended to be a meal replacement.[6] However, fruit juice containing high amounts of sugar can increase caloric intake and promote weight gain.[7][8] Ingredients such as protein powders, sweeteners, or ice cream may be used.[6][9][10] One study found smoothies to be less satiating, despite providing the same amount of energy as unblended foods.[11]

Types of smoothies[edit]

Green smoothie[edit]

A green smoothie typically consists of 40–50% green vegetables (roughly half), usually raw green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, kale, Swiss chard, collard greens, celery, parsley, or broccoli, with the remaining ingredients being mostly or entirely fruit.[12][13][14] Most green leafy vegetables have a bitter flavor when served raw, but this can be ameliorated by choosing certain less-bitter vegetables (e.g. baby spinach) or combining with fruits or other sweet ingredients.[15]

Protein smoothie[edit]

A protein smoothie is a combination of water or milk, protein powder, fruits, and vegetables. They can be consumed any part of the day and are used as protein supplement for those who want to increase their protein intake. Protein powder can have a chalky taste when mixed individually by itself with milk or water. The protein smoothie improves the taste of the protein powder through addition of fruits or other sweeteners.[16]

Yogurt smoothie[edit]

A yogurt smoothie is a smoothie that includes yogurt as a protein source and to add a creamy texture to the drink. Greek yogurt, specifically, is included as a thickener (due to its strained consistency) and in order to take advantage of its claimed health benefits.[17]

Around the world[edit]

Many different smoothies are part of Indian, Mediterranean, and Middle Eastern cuisine. Fruit sharbat (a popular West and South Asian drink) sometimes include yogurt and honey, too. In India, the lassi is a smoothie or milkshake comprising crushed ice, yogurt, sugar, and mango; in the south, pineapple smoothies made with crushed ice, sugar and no yogurt are common.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Smoothie". Oxford Dictionary, Oxford University Press. 2018. Archived from the original on October 25, 2018.
  2. ^ Brown, Ellen (2005). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Smoothies. p. 3. ISBN 1-59257-318-5.
  3. ^ "Smoothie". Online Etymology Dictionary, Douglas Harper. 2018. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
  4. ^ Moffitt, Sally (2014-06-01). "Sources: Food and Drink in American History: A "Full Course" Encyclopedia". Reference & User Services Quarterly. 53 (4): 377. doi:10.5860/rusq.53n4.377a. ISSN 1094-9054.
  5. ^ Walkling-Ribeiro, Markus; Noci, Francesco; Cronin, Denis A.; Lyng, James G.; Morgan, Desmond J. (2010-09-01). "Shelf life and sensory attributes of a fruit smoothie-type beverage processed with moderate heat and pulsed electric fields". LWT - Food Science and Technology. 43 (7): 1067–1073. doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2010.02.010. ISSN 0023-6438.
  6. ^ a b Jeff Olsen (26 July 2017). "Mayo Clinic Minute: Get smart about smoothies". Retrieved 25 October 2018.
  7. ^ "Get the Facts: Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Consumption". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services. 23 October 2018. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
  8. ^ Boseley, Sarah (2013-09-07). "Smoothies and fruit juices are a new risk to health, US scientists warn". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-03-27.
  9. ^ Darla Stoker; Carrie Durward. "Smoothies—Helpful or Harmful?". Nutrition Extension - Utah State University. Retrieved 2022-03-01.
  10. ^ "Rethink Your Drink". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services. 23 September 2015. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
  11. ^ Rogers, Peter J.; Shahrokni, Roya (2018-03-30). "A Comparison of the Satiety Effects of a Fruit Smoothie, Its Fresh Fruit Equivalent and Other Drinks". Nutrients. 10 (4): 431. doi:10.3390/nu10040431. ISSN 2072-6643. PMC 5946216. PMID 29601488.
  12. ^ Zavasta, Tonya (2009), "Smooth Moves: Enjoy the Benefit of Green Smoothies and Puddings", Raw Food and Hot Yoga, p. 39, ISBN 978-0-9742434-9-8, A green smoothie...is a mixture of about 60 percent fruit and 40 percent leafy greens blended together in a delicious, nourishing beverage.
  13. ^ Smith Jones, Susan (2008). Health Bliss, p.179. ISBN 1-4019-1241-9. "...about 50-60 percent fruit and 40-50 percent greens."
  14. ^ Caldwell, Kim (2009) How Green Smoothies Saved My Life: A Guide for Using Green Smoothies, Uplifted Thinking, and Live Food to Enhance Your Life, p.12. ISBN 0-615-30290-4.
  15. ^ "Drink your fruits and vegetables?". Harvard Heart Letter, Harvard Medical School. May 2018. Archived from the original on 25 October 2018. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
  16. ^ "How to build a better smoothie, according to a nutritionist". NBC News. Retrieved 2022-03-01.
  17. ^ Cassetty, Samantha (2018-05-27). "How to build a better smoothie, according to a nutritionist". NBC. Archived from the original on 2018-05-27. Retrieved 2024-01-14.

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