2014 and 2016 world champion Mark Selby playing a practice game
|Highest governing body||World Snooker Association|
|First played||19th century|
|Contact||Handshake at the beginning and end of match|
|Olympic||IOC recognition; bidding for inclusion in 2020.|
Snooker (UK //, US //) is a cue sport played on a table covered with a green cloth or baize, with pockets at each of the four corners and in the middle of each of the long side cushions. A full-size table measures 11 ft 81⁄2 in × 5 ft 10 in (3569 mm x 1778 mm), commonly referred to as 12 × 6 ft.
The game is played using a cue and 22 snooker balls: one white cue ball, 15 red balls worth one point each, and six balls of different colours: yellow (two points), green (three), brown (four), blue (five), pink (six) and black (seven). The red balls are initially placed in a triangular formation, and the other coloured balls on marked positions on the table known as "spots". Players execute shots by striking the cue ball with the cue, causing the cue ball to hit a red or coloured ball. Points are scored by sinking the red and coloured balls (knocking them into the pockets, called "potting") in the correct sequence. A player receives additional points if the opponent commits a foul. A player (or team) wins a frame (individual game) of snooker by scoring more points than the opponent(s). A player wins a match when a predetermined number of frames have been won.
Snooker, generally regarded as having been invented in India by British Army officers, is popular in many of the English-speaking and Commonwealth countries, with top professional players attaining multimillion-pound career earnings from the game. The sport has become increasingly popular in China. Touring professional players compete regularly around the world, the premier tournament being the World Snooker Championship, held annually in Sheffield, England.
Snooker in its modern form originated in the latter half of the 19th century. Billiards had been a popular activity amongst British Army officers stationed in India, and variations on the more traditional billiard games were devised. One variation, devised in the officers' mess in Jabalpur during 1874 or 1875, was to add coloured balls in addition to the reds and black which were used for pyramid pool and life pool. The rules were formally finalised in 1884 by Sir Neville Chamberlain at Ooty. The word snooker also has military origins, being a slang term for first-year cadets and inexperienced personnel. One version of events states that Chamberlain, of the Devonshire regiment, was playing this new game when his opponent failed to pot a ball and Chamberlain called him a snooker. It thus became attached to the billiards game now bearing its name as inexperienced players were labelled as "snookers".
Snooker grew in popularity in England but generally it was still a game for the gentry, and many well established gentlemen's clubs which had a billiards table would not allow non-members inside to play. To accommodate the popularity of the game, smaller and more open snooker-specific clubs started to be formed.
The game of snooker grew in the later half of the 19th century and the early 20th century, and by 1927 the first World Snooker Championship had been organised by Joe Davis who, as a professional English billiards and snooker player, moved the game from a pastime activity into a more professional sphere. Davis won every world championship until 1946 when he retired. The game went into a decline through the 1950s and 1960s with little interest generated outside of those who played. In 1959, Davis introduced a variation of the game, known as "snooker plus" (see the Variations section below) to try to improve the game's popularity by adding two extra colours. However, it never caught on.
A major advance occurred in 1969, when David Attenborough commissioned the snooker tournament Pot Black to demonstrate the potential of colour television, with the green table and multi-coloured balls being ideal for showing off the advantages of colour broadcasting. The TV series became a ratings success and was for a time the second most popular show on BBC Two. Interest in the game increased and the 1978 World Snooker Championship was the first to be fully televised. The game quickly became a mainstream game in the UK, Ireland and much of the Commonwealth and has enjoyed much success since the late 1970s, with most of the ranking tournaments being televised. In 1985 a total of 18.5 million viewers watched the concluding frame of the world championship final between Dennis Taylor and Steve Davis. The loss of tobacco sponsorship during the 2000s led to a decrease in the number of professional tournaments, although some new sponsors were sourced; and the popularity of the game in the Far East and China, with emerging talents such as Liang Wenbo and more established players such as Ding Junhui and Marco Fu, boosted the sport in that part of the world.
In 2010, promoter Barry Hearn gained a controlling interest in World Snooker Ltd, the professional sport's commercial arm, pledging to revitalise the "moribund" professional game. Under his direction, the number of professional tournaments has increased, certain tournament formats have been changed in an attempt to increase their appeal, and, as of 2013, total prize money had more than doubled from £3m to more than £7m.
The object of the game is to score more points than one's opponent by potting object balls in the correct order. At the start of a frame, the balls are positioned as shown, and the players then take turns to hit shots by striking the cue ball with the tip of the cue, their aim being to pot one of the red balls into a pocket and thereby score a point, or, if this is not possible, to at least hit a red ball so as to avoid making a foul shot. If the striker pots a red ball, he or she must then pot one of the six "colours" (in snooker, the term colour is understood to exclude the red balls). If the player successfully pots a colour, the value of that ball is added to the player's score, and the ball is returned to its starting position on the table. After that, the player must pot another red ball, then another colour, and so on. This process continues until the striker fails to pot the desired ball, at which point the opponent comes to the table to play the next shot.
The game continues in this manner until all the reds are potted and only the six colours are left on the table. At this point the colours must be potted in the order from least to most valuable ball – that is, yellow first (two points), then green (three points), brown (four points), blue (five points), pink (six points) and finally black (seven points), with the balls not being returned to play. When the final ball is potted, the player with more points wins. If the scores are equal when all the balls have been potted, the black is placed back on its spot as a tiebreaker. A player may also concede a frame while on strike if he or she thinks there are not enough points available on the table to beat the opponent's score. In professional snooker this is a common occurrence.
Points may also be scored in a game when a player's opponent fouls. A foul can occur for various reasons, most commonly for failing to hit the correct ball (e.g. hitting a colour first when the player was attempting to hit a red), or for sending the cue ball into a pocket. The former may occur when the player fails to escape from "a snooker" – a situation in which the previous player leaves the cue ball positioned such that no legal ball can be struck directly without obstruction by an illegal ball. Points gained from a foul vary from a minimum of four, to a maximum of seven if the black ball is involved.
The total number of consecutive points (excluding fouls) that a player amasses during one visit to the table is known as a "break". A player attaining a break of 15, for example, could have reached it by potting a red then a black, then a red then a pink, before failing to pot the next red. The traditional maximum break in snooker is achieved by potting all reds with blacks then all colours, yielding 147 points; this is often known as a "147" or a "maximum". The highest possible break is a 155 break, also known as a "super maximum". This is achieved via the opponent leaving a free ball, with the black being potted as the additional colour, and then potting 15 reds and blacks with the colours. Jamie Cope has the distinction of being the first player in snooker history to post a verified 155 break, achieved in a practice frame in 2005.
One game, from the balls in their starting position until the last ball is potted, is called a "frame". A match generally consists of a predetermined number of frames and the player who wins the most frames wins the match. Most professional matches require a player to win five frames, and are called "best of nine" as that is the maximum possible number of frames. Tournament finals are usually best of 17 or best of 19, while the world championship uses longer matches – ranging from best of 19 in the qualifiers and the first round proper, up to 35 frames in length (first to 18), and is played over two days, extended if necessary until a winner is determined.
Professional and competitive amateur matches are officiated by a referee who is the sole judge of fair play. The referee also replaces the colours on the table when necessary and calls out how many points the player has scored during a break. Professional players usually play the game in a sporting manner, declaring fouls the referee has missed, acknowledging good shots from their opponent, or holding up a hand to apologise for fortunate shots, also known as "flukes".
Accessories used for snooker include chalk for the tip of the cue, rests of various sorts (needed often, due to the length of a full-size table), a triangle to rack the reds, and a scoreboard. One drawback of snooker on a full-size table is the size of the room (22 by 16 feet (6.7 m × 4.9 m)), which is the minimum required for comfortable cueing room on all sides. This limits the number of locations in which the game can easily be played. While pool tables are common to many pubs, snooker tends to be played either in private surroundings or in public snooker halls. The game can also be played on smaller tables using fewer red balls. The variants in table size are: 10 ft × 5 ft, 9 ft × 4.5 ft, 8 ft × 4 ft, 6 ft × 3 ft (the smallest for realistic play) and 4 ft × 2 ft. Smaller tables can come in a variety of styles, such as fold-away or dining-table convertible.
A traditional snooker scoreboard resembles an abacus, and records units, tens and hundreds via horizontal sliding pointers. They are typically attached to a wall by the snooker table. A simple scoring bead is also sometimes used, called a "scoring string", or "scoring wire". Each bead (segment of the string) represents a single point. Snooker players typically move one or several beads with their cue.
Governance and tournaments
The World Professional Billiards and Snooker Association (WPBSA, also known as World Snooker), founded in 1968 as the Professional Billiard Players' Association, is the governing body for the professional game. The amateur game is governed by the International Billiards and Snooker Federation (IBSF).
Professional snooker players can play on the World Snooker main tour ranking circuit. Ranking points, earned by players through their performances over the previous two seasons, determine the current world rankings. A player's ranking determines what level of qualification he or she requires for ranking tournaments. The elite of professional snooker are generally regarded as the "top 16" ranking players, who are not required to pre-qualify for three of the tournaments, namely the Shanghai Masters, Australian Open and the World Snooker Championship. The tour contains 96 players – the top 64 from the previous two seasons, the 8 highest ranked professional players on the Players Tour Championship Order of Merit who are not in the top 64, 12 players from the Q School, and various regional, junior and amateur champions.
The most important event in professional snooker is the world championship, held annually since 1927 (except during World War II and between 1958 and 1963). The tournament has been held at the Crucible Theatre in Sheffield, England since 1977, and was sponsored by Embassy from 1976 to 2005. Since 2005, tobacco companies have not been allowed to sponsor sporting events in the United Kingdom, and the world championship has had to find a new sponsor. It was announced in January 2006 that the 2006–2010 world championships would be sponsored by online casino 888.com. The championship is currently sponsored by Betfred.com after 888.com pulled out of their five-year sponsorship deal after three years. On 15 April 2009 the World Snooker Championship website announced that Betfred.com would be the new sponsor of the world championship for the next four years.
The status of the world championship is great, and it is the most highly valued prize in professional snooker, both in terms of financial reward (£300,000 for the winner, formerly £250,000) as well as ranking points and prestige. The world championship is televised extensively in the UK by the BBC and gains significant coverage in Europe on Eurosport and in the Far East.
The group of tournaments that come next in importance are the other ranking tournaments. Players in these tournaments score world ranking points. A high ranking ensures qualification for the next year's tournaments, opportunities to play in invitational tournaments and an advantageous draw in tournaments. The most prestigious of these, after the world championship, is the UK Championship. Third in line are the invitational tournaments, to which most of the highest ranked players are invited. The most important tournament in this category is the Masters, which to most players is the second or third most sought-after prize.
In an attempt to answer criticisms that televised matches can be slow or get bogged down in lengthy safety exchanges and that long matches cause problems for advertisers, an alternative series of timed tournaments has been organised by Matchroom Sport chairman Barry Hearn. The shot-timed Premier League Snooker was established, with seven players invited to compete at regular United Kingdom venues, televised on Sky Sports. Players had twenty-five seconds to take each shot, with five time-outs per player per match. While some success was achieved with this format, it generally did not receive the same amount of press attention or status as the regular ranking tournaments. However, this event has been taken out of the tour since 2013, when the Champion of Champions was established.
There are also other tournaments that have less importance, earn no world ranking points and are not televised. These can change on a year-to-year basis depending on calendars and sponsors.
Several players, such as Ronnie O'Sullivan, Mark Allen and Steve Davis, have warned that there are so many tournaments that players risk burning out. In 2012, O'Sullivan played fewer tournaments in order to spend more time with his children, and ended the 2012-'13 season ranked No. 19 in the world. Furthermore, he did not play any tournament in 2013 except the world championship, which he won.
- The playing surface, 11 feet 8.5 inches by 5 feet 10 inches for a standard full-size table, with six pocket holes, one at each corner and one at the center of each of the longer side cushions. For further information see Billiard table, specifically the section Snooker and English billiards tables.
- The fully wool cloth is usually green, with a directional nap running from the baulk end of the table towards the end with the black ball spot. The cloth is often called "baize"; however baize is a much inferior type of cloth sometimes used on pool tables. The nap will affect the direction of the cue ball depending on which direction the cue ball is shot and also on whether left or right side (spin) is placed on the ball. Even if the cue ball is hit in exactly the same way, the nap will cause a different effect depending on whether the ball is hit down table (towards the black ball spot) or up table towards the baulk line. The cloth on a snooker table is not vacuumed, as this can destroy the nap. The cloth is brushed in a straight line from the baulk end to the far end with multiple brush strokes that are straight in direction (i.e. not across the table). Some table men will also then drag a dampened cloth wrapped around a short piece of board (like a two by four), or straight back of a brush to collect any remaining fine dust and help lay the nap down. The table is then ironed. Strachan cloth as used in official snooker tournaments is made up of 100% wool. Some other cloths include a small percentage of nylon.
- 22 balls (15 red, 6 colour balls and a white cue ball), 52.5 mm or 21⁄16 inches in diameter. For further information see Billiard ball, particularly the section Snooker
- A stick, made of wood or fibreglass, tapering to a tip, usually ending in leather, which is used to strike the cue-ball.
- Cue-tip chalk
- The tip of the cue is "chalked" to ensure good contact between the cue and the cue-ball. This "chalk" is generally a silica based compound rather than actual chalk of the type used used on blackboards.
- A shorter baton that fits over, or screws into, the back end of the cue, effectively lengthening it. Is used for shots where the cue ball is a long distance from the player.
- A stick with an X-shaped head that is used to support the cue when the cue ball is out of reach at normal extension.
- Rest head adaptor
- An attachment that slips onto a conventional rest head to make a spider or to give a slightly different bridge.
- Hook rest
- Identical to the normal rest, yet with a hooked metal end. It is used to set the rest around another ball. The hook rest is the most recent invention in snooker.
- Similar to the rest but with an arch-shaped head; it is used to elevate and support the tip of the cue above the height of the cue-ball.
- Swan (or swan-neck spider or giraffe)
- This equipment, consisting of a rest with a single extended neck and a fork-like prong at the end, is used to give extra cueing distance over a group of balls. If not available, a regular X rest can be placed on a spider so it in turn hangs the required distance beyond to provide similar support.
- The piece of equipment is used for gathering the red balls into the formation required for the break to start a frame.
- Extended rest
- Similar to the regular rest, but with a mechanism at the butt end which makes it possible to extend the rest by up to three feet.
- Extended spider
- A hybrid of the swan and the spider. Its purpose is to bridge over large packs of reds. Is less common these days in professional snooker but can be used in situations where the position of one or more balls prevents the spider being placed where the striker desires.
- Half butt
- Usually housed underneath the side of the table, the half butt is a combination of a table length rest and cue which is rarely used unless the cue ball needs to be struck in such a way that the entire length of the table is the actual obstacle.
- Ball marker
- A multi-purpose instrument with a "D" shaped notch, which a referee can place next to a ball, in order to mark the position of it. They can then remove the ball to clean it; also used to judge if a ball is preventing a colour from being placed on its spot and to judge if the cue ball can hit the extreme edge of a "ball on" when awarding a free ball (by placing it alongside the potentially intervening ball).
Through the decades, certain players have tended to dominate the game, but none more than its original star player, Joe Davis. Davis was world champion for twenty years, retiring unbeaten after claiming his fifteenth world title in 1946 when the tournament was reinstated after the Second World War. Davis was unbeaten in world championship play, and was only ever beaten four times in his entire life, with all four defeats coming after his world championship retirement and inflicted by his own brother Fred. He did lose matches in handicapped tournaments, but on level terms these four defeats were the only losses of his entire career. He was also world billiards champion. It is regarded as highly unlikely that anyone will ever dominate the game to his level again. After Davis retired from world championship play, the next dominant force was his younger brother Fred Davis who had lost the 1940 final by a single frame. By 1947 he was deemed ready by his brother to take over the mantle but lost the world final to the Scotsman Walter Donaldson. After this setback, Fred and Walter contested the next four finals with Fred proving himself the stronger player. After the abandonment of the world championship in 1953, with the 1952 final boycotted by British professionals, the Professional Match Play Championship became the unofficial world championship in all but name. Fred won the event every year until its penultimate one, when in 1957 he did not enter. After winning three official and five unofficial world titles, his absence from the 1957 tournament was to prove vital, as its winner, John Pulman, was automatically awarded the official world title on resumption of the tournament in 1964. Davis would try, but never regain the world title again.
John Pulman was the king of the 1960s, when the world championship was played on a challenge basis. However, when the tournament reverted to a knockout formula in 1969, he did not prosper. Ray Reardon became the dominant force in the 1970s winning six titles, with John Spencer winning three. By the time Steve Davis won his first world title in 1981, there had been just ten world champions since 1927, with Davis becoming the eleventh, including the winner of the boycotted 1952 title, Horace Lindrum. Stephen Hendry became the fourteenth in 1990 and dominated through the 1990s. Reardon won six (1970, 1973–1976 and 1978), Davis also six (1981, 1983, 1984 and 1987–1989) and Hendry seven (1990, 1992–1996 and 1999). O'Sullivan is the closest to dominance in the modern era, having won the title on five occasions in the 21st century (2001, 2004, 2008, 2012 and 2013). Mark Williams has won twice (2000 and 2003) and John Higgins four times (1998, 2007, 2009, 2011) but since the beginning of the century, there has not been a dominant force like in previous decades, and the modern era has seen many players playing to a similar standard, instead of one player raising the bar. Davis for example, won more ranking tournaments than the rest of the top 64 players put together by 1985 and still holds the record for most tournament wins overall, at a time when there were far fewer tournaments than today. By retaining his title in 2013, O'Sullivan became the first player to successfully defend the world championship since 1996 when Hendry won the sixth of his seven titles, his fifth in a row.
- American snooker, a variant dating to 1925, usually played on a 10 by 5 foot table with 2 1⁄8 inch balls, and a simpler rule set influenced by pool (despite its name, American snooker is not governed or recognised by the United States Snooker Association).
- Power snooker, a variant with only nine reds, in a diamond-shaped pack, instead of 15 in a triangle, and matches limited to 30 minutes.
- Sinuca brasileira, a Brazilian version with only one red ball, and divergent rules.
- Six-red snooker, a variant played with only six reds in a triangular pack.
- Snookerpool, a variant played on an American pool table with ten reds in a triangular pack.
- Snooker plus, a variant with two additional colour balls (8pt orange and 10pt purple), allowing a maximum break of 210. The variation was created by Joe Davis in 1959 and used at the 1959 News of the World Snooker Plus Tournament. It failed to gain popularity.
- Ten-red snooker, a variant played with only ten reds in a triangle.
- Volunteer snooker, a variant from the early 1900s.
- Snooker season 2016/2017
- Snooker world rankings 2016/2017
- Snooker world ranking points 2016/2017
- Glossary of cue sports terms – includes key snooker-specific terminology
- "Snooker bids to be included in 2020 Olympics in Tokyo", BBC Sport, 22 January 2015, (Retrieved 28 April 2015)
- "Pronunciation of snooker". Macmillan Dictionary. London, UK: Macmillan Publishers. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
- "American pronunciation of snooker". Macmillan Dictionary. op. cit. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
- "Official Rules of the Games of Snooker and English Billiards" (PDF). The World Professional Billiards & Snooker Association Limited. November 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
- Everton, Clive "Take snooker to the world", BBC Sport, 5 May 2002, (Retrieved 24 February 2007)
- Reardon, R. "Where does Ronnie rank?", BBC Sport, 21 February 2005, (Retrieved 25 February 2007)
- "China in Ding's hands", BBC Sport, 22 January 2007, (Retrieved 25 February 2007)
- Maume, C."Sporting Vernacular 11. Snooker", The Independent, 26 April 1999, (Retrieved 25 February 2007)
- Shamos, Mike (1993), The Complete Book of Billiards. ISBN 0-517-20869-5
- unknown author "Origins of the Game of Snooker", Titan Sports, unknown date, (Retrieved 25 February 2007), (Archive Version)[dead link]
- unknown author "Snooker Timeline" "Joe Davis will reinvent this after-dinner pastime and become world champion", cuesnviews.co.uk, unknown date, (Retrieved 24 February 2007), (Archive Version)
- "Pot Black returns", BBC Sport, 27 October 2005. Retrieved 24 February 2007
- Porter, H. "Cue China", Time, 20 June 2008, (Retrieved 23 June 2008)
- unknown author, "Pot Black Ratings" "Surprisingly, the programme raced to second place in the BBC2 ratings", unknown date, (Retrieved 24 February 2007) (Archive Version)[dead link]
- unknown author "1978 – The World Snooker Championships", "By 1977, though, a new lighting system had been devised, allowing the players to be seen clearly without problems and, the following year, Aubrey Singer agreed to cover the World Championships all the way through, with an hour of highlights every day for 16 days", unknown date, (Retrieved 24 February 2007), (Archive Version)[dead link]
- MacInnes, P."Thatch of the day", The Guardian, 10 February 2004, (Retrieved 24 February 2007)
- "1985: the black ball final" BBC sport
- Anstead, M."Snooker finds sponsor with deep pockets", The Guardian, 19 January 2006, (Retrieved 24 February 2007), (Archive Version)
- "Could Ding be snooker's saviour?", BBC Sport, 4 April 2005, (Retrieved 25 February 2007)
- "Barry Hearn wins vote to take control of World Snooker", BBC Sport, 2 June 2010
- "Barry Hearn: World Snooker chief on how he saved the sport", BBC Sport, 27 November 2013
- "Ding compiles maximum at Masters", BBC Sport, (Retrieved 24 February 2007)
- "World title victory delights Dott", BBC Sport, (Retrieved 24 February 2007)
- Peter Ietswaart, "Thurston Snooker Table makers", Recommended room size for full size table 22 ft × 16 ft, unknown date, (Retrieved 25 February 2007), (Archive Version)
- "What is Scoreboard in Snooker? Definition and Meaning". sportsdefinitions.com.
- "WPBSA v TSN", BBC Sport, 16 February 2001, (Retrieved 25 February 2007), (Archive Version)
- "Snooker's biggest break", BBC Sport, 7 December 2000, (Retrieved 25 February 2007), (Archive Version)
- "Snooker authorities survive bid", BBC Sport, 13 November 2002, (Retrieved 25 February 2007), (Archive Version)
- "Snooker at the crossroads", BBC Sport, 14 November 2002, (Retrieved 25 February 2007), (Archive Version)
- "IBSF", (Retrieved 24 February 2007), (Archive Version)[dead link]
- WPBSA "Professional Tour ranking points", World Snooker, (Retrieved 25 January 2010)[dead link]
- "Swail targeting place in top 16", BBC Sport, 1 August 2006, (Retrieved 25 February 2007)
- "The Seeds of Success", BBC Sport, 24 November 2000, (Retrieved 25 February 2007), (Archive Version)
- "The Tour 2010/2011 Season Provisional Qualifying Criteria". worldsnooker.com. Retrieved 4 December 2010.[dead link]
- "World title victory delights Dott", BBC Sport, 2 May 2006, (Retrieved 25 February 2007)
- "Huge financial blow hits snooker", BBC Sport, 6 August 2008, (Retrieved 6 August 2008)
- "Crucible event gets new sponsor", BBC Sport, 15 January 2006, (Retrieved 25 February 2007), (Archive Version)
- World Snooker Announcements: Betfred.com Named Title Sponsor for the World Snooker Championship Archived 19 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Doherty sets out to regain greatest prize", The Independent, 20 April 2001, (Retrieved 25 February 2007)[dead link]
- "World's best ready for Crucible", BBC Sport, 13 April 2006, (Retrieved 25 February 2007), (Archive Version)
- "Snooker signs five-year BBC deal", BBC Sport, 26 October 2005, (Retrieved 25 February 2007), (Archive Version)
- "Eurosport pots TV snooker rights", The Guardian, 27 April 2006, (Retrieved 25 February 2007, registration or BugMeNot required)
- "Snooker finds new Masters sponsor", BBC Sport, 13 January 2006, (Retrieved 25 February 2007, (Archive Version)
- Harris, N. "An email conversation with Graeme Dott: 'We need an Abramovich to take the game to a new level", The Independent, 15 January 2007, (Retrieved 25 February 2007)
- Ronay, B. "Too dull to miss", The Guardian, 27 October 2006, (Retrieved 25 February 2007)
- "Snooker bids to be included in 2020 Olympics in Tokyo". BBC Sport. 23 January 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- Snooker: Ronnie O'Sullivan warns of players burning out, The Independent, 7 May 2012.
- Milliken Industrials Limited - Woollen Speciality Products. "Strachan snooker cloths - WSP Textiles - Billiard and Tennis cloths".
- [Snooker], Cues Cues, 10 July 2013, (Retrieved 20 July 2013), ()
- "O'Sullivan in exalted company", BBC Sport, 10 May 2002, (Retrieved 25 February 2007), (Archive Version)
- Hunter, P. "Putting in the practice", BBC Sport, 5 November 2004, (Retrieved 25 February 2007)
- Fred Davis Talking Snooker
- Clive Everton The history of snooker
- Guinness Book of Snooker History of the World Championship
- Guinness Book of Snooker
- "World Snooker Championship – History", World Snooker Official Site, (Retrieved 9 April 2010) Archived 28 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Definitions of terms used in Snooker and English Billiards (search for snooker plus)". snookergames.co.uk. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
- "Snooker Plus". The Glasgow Herald. 27 October 1959. p. 10. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|
|Look up snooker in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|