|Snow leopard in Wakhan District, Afghanistan|
|Snow leopard in Cologne Zoological Garden|
The snow leopard or ounce (Panthera uncia) is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central and South Asia. It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species because the global population is estimated to number less than 10,000 mature individuals and decline about 10% in the next 23 years. As of 2016, the global population was estimated at 4,500 to 8,745 mature individuals.
The snow leopard inhabits alpine and subalpine zones at elevations from 3,000 to 4,500 m (9,800 to 14,800 ft), ranging from eastern Afghanistan to Mongolia and western China. In the northern range countries, it also occurs at lower elevations.
Taxonomically, the snow leopard was initially classified in the monotypic genus Uncia. Since 2008, it is considered a member of the genus Panthera based on results of genetic studies. Two subspecies were described based on morphological differences, but genetic differences between the two have not been confirmed. It is therefore regarded a monotypic species.
- 1 Naming and etymology
- 2 Taxonomy and evolution
- 3 Characteristics
- 4 Distribution and habitat
- 5 Ecology and behavior
- 6 Threats
- 7 Conservation
- 8 Relationships with humans
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Naming and etymology
Both the Latinized specific epithet uncia and the occasional English name ounce are derived from the Old French once, originally used for the European lynx. Once itself is believed to have arisen by false splitting from an earlier variant of lynx, lonce – where lonce was interpreted as l'once, in which l' is the elided form of the French definite article la ('the'), leaving once to be perceived as the animal's name. This, like the English version ounce, came to be used for other lynx-sized cats, and eventually for the snow leopard.
Taxonomy and evolution
The snow leopard was first described by the German naturalist Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber on the basis of an illustration in his 1777 publication Die Säugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen. Schreber named the cat Felis uncia and gave its type locality as Barbary, Persia, East India, and China. In 1854, the British zoologist John Edward Gray proposed the genus Uncia, to which he subordinated the snow leopard under the name Uncia irbis. British zoologist Reginald Innes Pocock corroborated this classification, but attributed the scientific name Uncia uncia. He also described morphological differences between snow leopards and the then-accepted Panthera species.
- U. u. uncia in Mongolia and Russia;
- U. u. uncioides in western China and the Himalayas;
- U. u. baikalensis-romanii was proposed for a population living in the southern Transbaikal region;
Until spring 2017, there was no evidence available for recognition of subspecies. Results of a phylogeographic study published in September 2017 indicate that three subspecies should be recognised: P. u. uncia in the Pamir Mountains range countries, P. u. uncioides in the Himalayas and Qinghai, and P. u. irbis in Mongolia.
The snow leopard is part of the Panthera lineage, one of the eight lineages of Felidae. This lineage comprises the species of Panthera and Neofelis. The Neofelis lineage diverged first from the remainder of the Felinae. Subsequent branching between the snow leopard and clouded leopard began two to three million years ago, but the details of this are disputed. Results of a phylogenetic study published in 2006, based on nDNA and mtDNA analysis, indicate that snow leopard and tiger are sister taxa, whereas the leopard is sister taxon to two clades within Panthera – one consisting of the tiger and the snow leopard, and the other of the lion and the jaguar. Results of a similar study published in 2009 corroborated this assessment. Results obtained during two subsequent phylogenetic studies indicate a swapping in the cladogram between the leopard and the jaguar. A 2016 study indicates that, at some point in their evolution, snow leopards interbred with lions, as their mitochondrial genomes are more similar to each other than their nuclear genomes. These results indicate that a female hybrid offspring of male ancestors of modern snow leopards and female ancestors of modern lions interbred with the male ancestors of modern snow leopards.
The snow leopard's fur is whitish to gray with black spots on head and neck, but larger rosettes on the back, flanks and bushy tail. The belly is whitish. The fur is thick with hairs between 5 and 12 cm (2.0 and 4.7 in) long. Its body is stocky, short-legged and slightly smaller than the other cats of the genus Panthera, reaching a shoulder height of 56 cm (22 in), and ranging in head to body size from 75 to 150 cm (30 to 59 in). Its tail is 80 to 105 cm (31 to 41 in) long. Its eyes are pale green or grey in color. Its muzzzle is short and its forehead domed. Its nasal cavities are large. It weighs between 22 and 55 kg (49 and 121 lb), with an occasional large male reaching 75 kg (165 lb) and small female of under 25 kg (55 lb).
The snow leopard shows several adaptations for living in a cold, mountainous environment. Its body is stocky, its fur is thick, and its ears are small and rounded, features that help to minimize heat loss. Its broad paws well distribute the body weight for walking on snow, and have fur on their undersides to increase their grip on steep and unstable surfaces; it also helps to minimize heat loss. Its long and flexible tail helps to maintain balance in the rocky terrain. The tail is also very thick due to fat storage, and is very thickly covered with fur, which allows the cat to use it like a blanket to protect its face when asleep.
The snow leopard cannot roar, despite possessing partial ossification of the hyoid bone. This partial ossification was previously thought to be essential for allowing the big cats to roar, but new studies show that the ability to roar is due to other morphological features, especially of the larynx, which are absent in the snow leopard. Snow leopard vocalizations include hisses, chuffing, mews, growls, and wailing.
Distribution and habitat
The snow leopard is distributed from the west of Lake Baikal through southern Siberia, in the Kunlun Mountains, in the Russian Altai mountains, Sayan and Tannu-Ola Mountains, in the Tian Shan, across Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan to the Hindu Kush in eastern Afghanistan, Karakoram in northern Pakistan, in the Pamir Mountains, and in the high altitudes of the Himalayas in India, Nepal, and Bhutan, and the Tibetan Plateau. In Mongolia, it is found in the Mongolian and Gobi Altai Mountains and the Khangai Mountains. In Tibet, it is found up to the Altyn-Tagh in the north.
Potential snow leopard habitat in the Indian Himalayas is estimated at less than 90,000 km2 (35,000 sq mi) in the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, and Arunachal Pradesh, of which about 34,000 km2 (13,000 sq mi) is considered good habitat, and 14.4% is protected. In the beginning of the 1990s, the Indian snow leopard population was estimated at roughly 200–600 individuals living across about 25 protected areas.
In summer, snow leopards usually live above the tree line on mountainous meadows and in rocky regions at altitudes from 2,700 to 6,000 m (8,900 to 19,700 ft). In winter, they come down into the forests to altitudes around 1,200 to 2,000 m (3,900 to 6,600 ft). Snow leopards prefer rocky, broken terrain, and can travel without difficulty in snow up to 85 cm (33 in) deep, although they prefer to use existing trails made by other animals.
Before 2003, the total wild snow leopard population was estimated at 4,080 to 6,500 individuals. In 2016, the global population was estimated at 4,678 to 8,745 individuals, suggesting that the total number of snow leopards was larger than previously thought.
|Range Country||Habitat area
Snow leopards inhabit the following protected areas:
- Chitral National Park, in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
- Hemis National Park, in Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India
- Khunjerab National Park, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan
- Nanda Devi National Park, in Uttarakhand, India, a UNESCO Natural World Heritage Site
- Qomolangma National Nature Preserve, Tibet, China
- Sagarmatha National Park, Nepal, a UNESCO Natural World Heritage Site.
- Tumor Feng Nature Reserve, western Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, China.
- Valley of Flowers National Park, Uttarakhand, India, a UNESCO Natural World Heritage Site
- Shey-Phoksundo National Park, Dolpa, Nepal
- Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve, Baglung, Nepal
- Annapurna Conservation Area, Western Nepal
- Api Nampa Conservation Area, Western Nepal
- Jigme Dorji National Park, Bhutan
- Gobi Gurvansaikhan National Park, Mongolia
- Ubsunur Hollow, on the territorial border of Mongolia and the Republic of Tuva, Russia
- Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary, near Anini, India
- Aksu-Djabagly Nature Reserve, Kazakhstan
- Sarychat-Ertash State Nature Reserve, Kyrgyzstan
- Katun Nature Reserve, Russia
- Kibber Wildlife Sanctuary, Lahaul Spiti, Himachal Pradesh, India
- Pin Valley National Park, Lahaul Spiti, Himachal Pradesh, India
- Great Himalayan National Park, Kullu, Himachal Pradesh, India
- Sacred Himalayan Landscape, Nepal, India, Bhutan
Ecology and behavior
The snow leopard is solitary, except for females with cubs. They rear them in dens in the mountains for extended periods.
An individual snow leopard lives within a well-defined home range, but does not defend its territory aggressively when encroached upon by other snow leopards. Home ranges vary greatly in size. In Nepal, where prey is abundant, a home range may be as small as 12 km2 (5 sq mi) to 40 km2 (15 sq mi) and up to five to 10 animals are found here per 100 km2 (39 sq mi); in habitats with sparse prey, though, an area of 1,000 km2 (386 sq mi) supports only five of these cats. However, a new study lasting from 2008 to 2014 indicates their ranges are much greater than believed; a male snow leopard requires a territory of around 80 square miles, while females require up to 48 square miles of territory. Taking this data into account, it is estimated that 40 percent of the 170 protected areas in place are smaller than the space required to support a single male snow leopard.
Like other cats, snow leopards use scent marks to indicate their territories and common travel routes. These are most commonly produced by scraping the ground with the hind feet before depositing urine or scat, but they also spray urine onto sheltered patches of rock.
Hunting and diet
The snow leopard is a carnivore and actively hunts its prey. It is an opportunistic hunter and also eats carrion. It can kill animals two to four times its own weight, such as Himalayan blue sheep, Himalayan tahr, markhor, argali, horse, and camel. It prefers prey ranging in weight from 36 to 76 kg (79 to 168 lb), but also hunts smaller mammals such as marmot, pika and vole species.
Snow leopards prefer to ambush prey from above, using broken terrain to conceal their approach. They will actively pursue prey down steep mountainsides, using the momentum of their initial leap to chase animals for up to 300 m (980 ft). They kill with a bite to the neck, and may drag the prey to a safe location before feeding. They consume all edible parts of the carcass, and can survive on a single bharal for two weeks before hunting again. Annual prey needs appears to be 20–30 adult blue sheep.
The snow leopard is capable of killing most animals in its range, with the probable exception of the adult male yak. It also eats a significant amount of vegetation, including grass and twigs. Snow leopards have been recorded to hunt in pairs successfully, especially mating pairs.
The diet of the snow leopard varies across its range and with the time of year, and depends on prey availability. In the Himalayas, it preys mostly on Himalayan blue sheep and Siberian ibex. In the Karakoram, Tian Shan, Altai and Mongolia's Tost Mountains, its main prey consists of Siberian ibex, Thorold's deer, Siberian roe deer and argali. Other species hunted when available include red panda, wild boar, langur monkey, snow cock and Chukar partridge.
Where snow leopards prey on domestic livestock, they are subject to conflict with humans. However, even in Mongolia, where wild prey has been reduced, and interactions with humans are common, domestic livestock, mainly domestic sheep, comprises less than 20% of snow leopard diet. Herders kill snow leopards to prevent them from taking their livestock. The loss of prey animals due to overgrazing by domestic livestock, poaching, and defense of livestock are the major drivers for the decreasing population of the snow leopard. The snow leopard has not been reported to attack humans, and appears to be the least aggressive to humans of all big cats. As a result, they are easily driven away from livestock; they readily abandon their kills when threatened, and may not even defend themselves when attacked.
Reproduction and life cycle
Snow leopards are unusual among large cats in that they have a well-defined birth peak. They usually mate in late winter, marked by a noticeable increase in marking and calling. Snow leopards have a gestation period of 90–100 days, so the cubs are born between April and June. Oestrus typically lasts from five to eight days, and males tend not to seek out another partner after mating, probably because the short mating season does not allow sufficient time. Paired snow leopards mate in the usual felid posture, from 12 to 36 times a day.
The mother gives birth in a rocky den or crevice lined with fur shed from her underside. Litter sizes vary from one to five cubs, but the average is 2.2. The cubs are blind and helpless at birth, although already with a thick coat of fur, and weigh from 320 to 567 g (11.3 to 20.0 oz). Their eyes open at around seven days, and the cubs can walk at five weeks and are fully weaned by 10 weeks. Also when they are born, they have full black spots which turn into rosettes as they grow to adolescence.
The cubs leave the den when they are around two to four months of age, but remain with their mother until they become independent after around 18–22 months. Once independent, they may disperse over considerable distances, even crossing wide expanses of flat terrain to seek out new hunting grounds. This likely helps reduce the inbreeding that would otherwise be common in their relatively isolated environments. Snow leopards become sexually mature at two to three years, and normally live for 15–18 years, although in captivity they can live for up to 25 years.
The major threat to snow leopard populations is poaching and illegal trade of skins and body parts. In China, 103 to 236 animals are poached every year, in Mongolia between 34 and 53, in Pakistan between 23 and 53, in India from 21 to 45, and in Tajikistan 20 to 25. Poaching is linked to prey declines and livestock depredation.
Numerous agencies are working to conserve the snow leopard and its threatened mountain ecosystems. These include the Snow Leopard Trust, the Snow Leopard Conservancy, the Snow Leopard Network, the Cat Specialist Group, and the Panthera Corporation.
These groups and various national governments from the snow leopard’s range, nonprofits, and donors from around the world worked together at the 10th International Snow Leopard Conference in Beijing. Their focus on research, community programs in snow leopard regions, and education programs are aimed at understanding the cat's needs, as well as the needs of the villagers and herder communities juxtaposed with the snow leopards' habitats.
Global Snow Leopard Forum
In 2013, government leaders and officials from all 12 countries encompassing the snow leopard's range (Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan) came together at the Global Snow Leopard Forum (GSLF) initiated by the President Almazbek Atambayev of the Kyrgyz Republic, and the State Agency on Environmental Protection and Forestry under the government of the Kyrgyz Republic. The meeting was held in Bishkek, the capital of the Kyrgyz Republic, and all countries agreed that the snow leopard and the high mountain habitat it lives in need trans-boundary support to ensure a viable future for snow leopard populations, as well as to safeguard their fragile environment. The event brought together many partners, including NGOs like the Snow Leopard Conservancy, the Snow Leopard Trust, and the Nature and Biodiversity Conservation Union. Also supporting the initiative were the Snow Leopard Network, the World Bank's Global Tiger Initiative, the United Nations Development Programme, the World Wild Fund for Nature, the United States Agency for International Development, and Global Environment Facility.
At the GSLF meeting, the 12 range countries signed the Bishkek Declaration to "acknowledge that the snow leopard is an irreplaceable symbol of our nations' natural and cultural heritage and an indicator of the health and sustainability of mountain ecosystems; and we recognize that mountain ecosystems inhabited by snow leopards provide essential ecosystem services, including storing and releasing water from the origins of river systems benefitting one-third of the world’s human population; sustaining the pastoral and agricultural livelihoods of local communities which depend on biodiversity for food, fuel, fodder, and medicine; and offering inspiration, recreation, and economic opportunities." 
Global Snow Leopard and Eco-system Protection Program
Out of these efforts was formed a cooperative support effort, the Global Snow Leopard and Eco-system Protection Program (GSLEP). The GSLEP is a joint initiative of range country governments, international agencies, civil society, and the private sector. Its goal is to secure the long-term survival of the snow leopard in its natural ecosystem.
The goal of the GSLEP is for the 12 snow leopard range countries, with support from conservation agencies, NGOs and others to work together to identify and secure at least 20 healthy populations of snow leopards across the cat’s range by 2020, or "20 by 2020". Many of these populations will cross international boundaries.
The three criteria that will secure healthy populations of snow leopards are populations that represent at least 100 breeding age snow leopards, contain adequate and secure prey populations and have connectivity to other snow leopard populations.
This is an interim goal for the years through to 2020. During the coming years, agreement will be reached on the steps needed to achieve the ultimate goal of ensuring that healthy snow leopard populations remain the icon of the mountains of Asia for generations to come. 
2015 designated International Year of the Snow Leopard
To help spread the word amongst the people, government authorities, and conservation groups in each range country, 2015 was designated the International Year of the Snow Leopard as part of the GSLEPP's work. All range-country governments, nongovernmental and inter-governmental organizations, local communities, and various private sector businesses pledged to take the year as an opportunity to further work towards conservation of snow leopards and their high-mountain ecosystems.
In 2008, there were approximately 600 snow leopards in zoos around the world. In the Richmond Metropolitan Zoo in Virginia, in the United States of America, snow leopard cubs were born in 2016.
Much progress has been made in securing the survival of the snow leopard, with them being successfully bred in captivity. Females usually give birth to two to three cubs in a litter, but can give birth to up to seven in some cases.
Snow leopard in San Diego Zoo
Relationships with humans
Attacks on humans and livestock
Snow leopard attacks on humans are rare; only two instances are known. On July 12, 1940, in Maloalmaatinsk gorge near Almaty, a rabid snow leopard attacked two men during the day and inflicted serious injuries on both. In the second case, not far from Almaty, an old, toothless, emaciated snow leopard unsuccessfully attacked a passerby in winter; it was captured and carried to a local village. There are no other records of any snow leopard attacking a human being.
A 2008 Natural World episode, "Snow Leopard – Beyond the Myth", interviewed a couple with a goat farm in Pakistan; the woman was bowled over by a snow leopard escaping an enclosure where it had been feeding on the livestock, but she was not attacked by the cat, despite fainting and being helpless. The film crew went to some lengths to demonstrate that the cat was primarily hunting wild prey and was often ranging far outside the area, as they hoped to prevent local farmers from shooting it. Nevertheless, they also found evidence of other sightings of the cats around nearby human settlements, and of repeated attacks on livestock (some of them unsuccessful). Snow leopards attacking livestock has also been a subject of conservation journal papers.
The snow leopard in heraldry is sometimes known in English as the ounce. The cat has long been used as a political symbol, the Aq Bars ('White Leopard'), by Tatars, Kazakhs, and Bulgars, among others. A snow leopard is found on the official seal of the city of Almaty, Kazakhstan, and the former 10,000 Kazakhstani tenge banknote also featured one on the reverse. A mythical winged Aq Bars is found in the national coat of arms of Tatarstan, the seal of the city of Samarqand, Uzbekistan, and (also with a crown) the old coat of arms of the Kazakh capital, Astana. In Kyrgyzstan, it has been used in highly stylized form in the modern emblem of the capital, Bishkek, and the same art has been integrated into the badge of the Kyrgyzstan Girl Scouts Association. A crowned snow leopard features in the arms of Shushensky District, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia.
Membership badge of the Girl Scout Association of Kyrgyzstan
In the media
Documentary footage of the snow leopard is scarce. While such coverage would not be remarkable with regard to common species, wildlife video of the snow leopard is difficult to obtain due to the animal's rarity and the human inaccessibility of much of its natural habitat.
The BBC One TV series Planet Earth had a segment on snow leopards. The series took some of the first video of snow leopards in the wild, and also featured a snow leopard hunting a markhor. The episode Mountains of Planet Earth II, aired in November 2016, featured the rather violent mating fights of snow leopards, as well as a snow leopard's chuffing and wailing.
Nisar Malik, a Pakistani journalist, and Mark Smith, a cameraman who had worked on the Planet Earth segment, spent a further 18 months filming snow leopards in the Hindu Kush for the BBC Two series Natural World episode "Snow Leopard – Beyond the Myth". The cat has been featured in segments of other episodes of the same series.
In Philip Pullman's 1995–2000 fantasy trilogy His Dark Materials, Lord Asriel's dæmon is a snow leopard named Stelmaria.
- McCarthy, T., Mallon, D., Jackson, R., Zahler, P. & McCarthy, K. (2017). "Panthera uncia". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2017: e.T22732A50664030. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-2.RLTS.T22732A50664030.en. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
- Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 548. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- Nyhus, P.; McCarthy, T.; Mallon, D. (2016). Snow Leopards. Biodiversity of the World: Conservation from Genes to Landscapes. London, Oxford, Boston, New York, San Diego: Academic Press.
- McCarthy, T. M.; Chapron, G., eds. (2003). Snow Leopard Survival Strategy (PDF). Seattle, USA: International Snow Leopard Trust and Snow Leopard Network.
- Janecka, J. E.; Jackson, R.; Yuquang, Z.; Diqiang, L.; Munkhtsog, B.; Buckley-Beason, V.; Murphy, W. J. (2008). "Population Monitoring of Snow Leopards Using Noninvasive Genetics". Cat News. 48: 7–10.
- Kitchener, A. C.; Breitenmoser-Würsten, C.; Eizirik, E.; Gentry, A.; Werdelin, L.; Wilting, A.; Yamaguchi, N.; Abramov, A. V.; Christiansen, P.; Driscoll, C.; Duckworth, J. W.; Johnson, W.; Luo, S.-J.; Meijaard, E.; O’Donoghue, P.; Sanderson, J.; Seymour, K.; Bruford, M.; Groves, C.; Hoffmann, M.; Nowell, K.; Timmons, Z.; Tobe, S. (2017). "A revised taxonomy of the Felidae: The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group" (PDF). Cat News (Special Issue 11).
- Allen, Edward A (1908). "English Doublets". Publications of the Modern Language Association of America. 23 (New Series 16): 214.
- Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press. 1933: Ounce
- Liddell, H. G. & R. Scott (1940). "πάνθηρ". A Greek-English Lexicon, revised and augmented. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- Johnson, W.E.; Eizirik, E.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Murphy, W.J.; Antunes, A.; Teeling, E.; O'Brien, S.J. (2006). "The late Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: a genetic assessment". Science. 311 (5757): 73–77. Bibcode:2006Sci...311...73J. doi:10.1126/science.1122277. PMID 16400146.
- Werdelin, L.; Yamaguchi, N.; Johnson, W.E.; O'Brien, S.J. (2010). "Phylogeny and evolution of cats (Felidae)" (PDF). Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids: 59–82.
- Davis, B.W.; Li, G.; Murphy, W.J. (2010). "Supermatrix and species tree methods resolve phylogenetic relationships within the big cats, Panthera (Carnivora: Felidae)" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 56 (1): 64–76. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.01.036. PMID 20138224. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-05.
- Mazák, J.H.; Christiansen, P.; Kitchener, A.C.; Goswami, A. (2011). "Oldest known pantherine skull and evolution of the tiger". PLoS ONE. 6 (10): e25483. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...625483M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025483. PMC . PMID 22016768.
- Scheber, J.C.D. (1777). "Die Unze". Die Säugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen. Erlangen: Wolfgang Walther. pp. 386–387.
- Gray, J.E. (1854). "The ounces". Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 2nd series (14): 394.
- Pocock, R. I. (1930). "The panthers and ounces of Asia. Part II. The panthers of Kashmir, India, and Ceylon". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 34 (2): 307–336.
- Medvedev, D. G. (2000). Morfologicheskie otlichiya irbisa iz Yuzhnogo Zabaikalia [Morphological differences of the snow leopard from Southern Transbaikalia]. Vestnik Irkutskoi Gosudarstvennoi sel'skokhozyaistvennoi akademyi [Proceedings of Irkutsk State Agricultural Academy], vypusk 20: 20–30. (in Russian).
- Janecka, J.E., Zhang, Y., Li, D., Munkhtsog, B., Bayaraa, M., Galsandorj, N., Wangchuk, T.R., Karmacharya, D., Li, J., Lu, Z. and Uulu, K.Z. (2017). "Range-Wide Snow Leopard Phylogeography Supports Three Subspecies". Journal of Heredity. 108 (6): 597−607. doi:10.1093/jhered/esx044.
- Turner, A. (1987). "New fossil carnivore remains from the Sterkfontein hominid site (Mammalia: Carnivora)". Annals of the Transvaal Museum. 34: 319–347.
- Li, G.; Davis, B.W.; Eizirik, E.; Murphy, W.J. (2016). "Phylogenomic evidence for ancient hybridization in the genomes of living cats (Felidae)". Genome Research. 26 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1101/gr.186668.114. PMC . PMID 26518481.
- Hemmer, H. (1972). "Uncia uncia" (PDF). Mammalian Species. 20 (20): 1–5. doi:10.2307/3503882. JSTOR 3503882. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-01.
- Sunquist, M.; Sunquist, F. (2002). "Snow leopard". Wild Cats of the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 377–394. ISBN 0-226-77999-8.
- Boitani, L. (1984). Simon & Schuster's Guide to Mammals. Simon & Schuster, Touchstone Books. ISBN 978-0-671-42805-1.
- Chadwick, D. H. (2008). "Out of the Shadows". National Geographic. Retrieved 2010-01-29.
- Nowak, Ronald M. (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-5789-9.
- Weissengruber, G. E.; Forstenpointner, G.; Peters, G.; Kübber-Heiss, A.; Fitch, W. T. (September 2002). "Hyoid apparatus and pharynx in the lion (Panthera leo), jaguar (Panthera onca), tiger (Panthera tigris), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and domestic cat (Felis silvestris f. catus)". Journal of Anatomy. 201 (3): 195–209. doi:10.1046/j.1469-7580.2002.00088.x. PMC . PMID 12363272.
- Geptner, V. G.; Sludskii, A. A. (1992). Mammals of the Soviet Union: Carnivora (Hyaenas and Cats). Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-08876-4.
- Ebrahim, Zofeen (May 5, 2015). "Climate change stalks the snow leopard". scidev.net. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
- UNESCO World Heritage Centre Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks. Retrieved 27 November 2006.
- Jackson, R. (1998). "People-Wildlife Conflict Management in the Qomolangma Nature Preserve, Tibet" (PDF). In Wu Ning; D. Miller; Lhu Zhu; J. Springer. Tibet’s Biodiversity: Conservation and Management. Proceedings of a Conference, August 30 – September 4, 1998. Tibet Forestry Department and World Wide Fund for Nature. China Forestry Publishing House. pp. 40–46.
- UNESCO World Heritage Center. Sagarmatha National Park: Brief Description. Retrieved 27 November 2006.
- Ming, M.; Snow Leopard Network (2005). Camera Trapping of Snow Leopards in the Muzat Valley. Retrieved 27 November 2006.
- Simms, A., Moheb, Z., Salahudin, Ali, H., Ali, I. and Wood, T. (2011). "Saving threatened species in Afghanistan: snow leopards in the Wakhan Corridor". International Journal of Environmental Studies. 68: 299−312.
- "One Snow Leopard Needs a Protected Range Bigger Than Aruba". 21 September 2016.
- "Snow Leopard Fact Sheet" (PDF). snowleopard.org. 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-03.
- Johansson, Ö.; McCarthy, T.; Samelius, G.; Andrén, H.; Tumursukh, L: Mishra, C., Gustaf; Andrén, Henrik; Tumursukh, Lkhagvasumberel; Mishra, Charudutt (2015). "Snow leopard predation in a livestock dominated landscape in Mongolia" (PDF). Biological Conservation. 184: 251–258. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2015.02.003. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- Lyngdoh, S., Shrotriya, S., Goyal, S.P., Clements, H., Hayward, M.W. and Habib, B. (2014). "Prey preferences of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia): regional diet specificity holds global significance for conservation". PLoS One. 9 (2): e88349. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088349. PMC . PMID 24533080.
- Macri, A. M. & E. Patterson-Kane (2011). "Behavioural analysis of solitary versus socially housed snow leopards (Panthera uncia), with the provision of simulated social contact". Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 130 (3–4): 115–123. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2010.12.005.
- Shehzad, W., McCarthy, T.M., Pompanon, F., Purevjav, L., Coissac, E., Riaz, T. and Taberlet, P. (2012). "Prey Preference of Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia) in South Gobi, Mongolia". PLoS ONE. 7 (2): e32104. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...732104S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032104. PMC . PMID 22393381.
- The oldest snow leopard in the world, Article about Shynghyz in Tama Zoo, Tokyo
- Nowell, K., Li, J., Paltsyn, M. and Sharma, R.K. (2016). An Ounce of Prevention: Snow Leopard Crime Revisited. Cambridge, UK: TRAFFIC. ISBN 978-1-85850-409-4.
- Theile, Stephanie (2003). "Fading footprints; the killing and trade of snow leopards". TRAFFIC International, ISBN 1-85850-201-2
- "Cats in the Clouds", Australian Broadcasting Corporation (2009-05-06). Retrieved 27 June 2009.
- "Bishkek Declaration", Global Snow Leopard Forum October 2013. Retrieved 2015-02-27.
- Securing at least 20 healthy populations of snow leopards across the cat’s range by 2020, Global Snow Leopard and Eco-System protection Program October 2013. Retrieved 2015-04-15.
- "International Year of the Snow Leopard", Saving Snow Leopards Report (2015-02-06). Retrieved 2015-02-27.
- Curran, Colleen (September 2, 2016). "Snow leopard cubs go on exhibit at the Metro Richmond Zoo". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- Heptner, V.G.; and Sluskii, A.A. (1992) Mammals of the Soviet Union. Vol 2, Part 2. (Carnivores: Hyaenas and Cats) New Delhi: Amerind Publishing. p. 308.
- Inskip, C.; Zimmermann, A. (2009). "Human-felid conflict: A review of patterns and priorities worldwide". Oryx. 43 (1): 18–34. doi:10.1017/S003060530899030X.
- Nowell, K.; Jackson, P., eds. (1996). Wild cats: Status survey and conservation action plan. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature. pp. 193–195. ISBN 9782831700458. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
- Snow Leopard – Beyond the Myth. Natural World. 4 January 2008.
- "The Official Web Gateway to Pakistan". www.pakistan.gov.pk. Archived from the original on 2016-11-28. Retrieved 2016-10-23.
- Press Office – Planet Earth firsts. BBC (2006-02-01). Retrieved 2012-08-23.
- BBC Two – Natural World, 2007–2008, Snow Leopard- Beyond the Myth. BBC.co.uk (2008-09-23). Retrieved 2012-08-23.
- Janczewski, Dianne N.; Modi, William S.; Stephens, J. Claiborne; O'Brien, Stephen J. (1995). "Molecular Evolution of Mitochondrial 12S RNA and Cytochrome b Sequences in the Pantherine Lineage of Felidae". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 12 (4): 690–707. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a040232. PMID 7544865.
- Theile, Stephanie. 2003. Fading Footprints: The Killing and Trade of Snow Leopards. TRAFFIC International. ISBN 1-85850-201-2.
- Jackson, Rodney; Hillard, Darla (June 1986). "Tracking the Elusive Snow Leopard". National Geographic. Vol. 169 no. 6. pp. 793–809. ISSN 0027-9358. OCLC 643483454.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|
|Wikispecies has information related to Panthera uncia|
- Snow Leopard Network
- Snow Leopard Conservancy
- Snow Leopard Program. Panthera.org
- Snow Leopard Program. World Wildlife Fund
- Snow Leopard. IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group
- Snow Leopard Gallery. National Geographic
- Snow Leopard. Wildscreen Arkive
- "Silent Roar: Searching for the Snow Leopard". PBS Nature
- Snow Leopard. BBC Nature
- Nepal's Snow Leopard Action Plan yet to be implemented. Wildlife Times
- Snow Leopard. Paradise Wildlife Park