Snow scorpionfly

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Snow scorpionfly
Boreus hiemalis3.jpg
Boreus hiemalis
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Class: Insecta
Order: Mecoptera
Family: Boreidae
Genera

Boreidae, commonly called snow scorpionflies, or in the British Isles, snow fleas (no relation to the snow flea Hypogastrura nivicola) are a very small family of scorpionflies, containing only around 30 species, all of which are boreal or high-altitude species in the Northern Hemisphere. Recent research indicates the boreids are more closely related to fleas than to other scorpionflies, which renders the order Mecoptera paraphyletic if the order Siphonaptera is excluded from it.[1]

These insects are small (typically 6 mm or less), with the wings reduced to bristles or absent, and they are somewhat compressed, so in fact some resemblance to fleas is noted. They are most commonly active during the winter months, towards the transition into spring, and the larvae typically feed on mosses. The adults will often disperse between breeding areas by walking across the open snow, thus the common name. The males use their bristle-like wings to help grasp the female while mating.

A snow scorpionfly is so adapted to its cold environment, just holding it in a human hand will kill it.[2]

Phylogeny[edit]

The cladogram of external relationships, based on a 2008 DNA and protein analysis, shows the family as a clade, sister to the Siphonaptera, and more distantly related to the Diptera (true flies) and Mecoptera (scorpionflies).[3][4][5][6]

part of Endopterygota

Antliophora

Diptera (true flies) Common house fly, Musca domestica.jpg




Mecoptera (scorpionflies) Gunzesrieder Tal Insekt 3.jpg




Boreidae (snow scorpionflies) Boreus hiemalis2 detail.jpg



Siphonaptera (fleas) Pulex irritans female ZSM.jpg







Trichoptera (caddisflies) Sericostoma.personatum.jpg



Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) Tyria jacobaeae-lo.jpg





Hymenoptera (sawflies, wasps, ants, bees) AD2009Sep09 Vespula germanica 03.jpg



Genera[edit]

This list is adapted from the World Checklist of extant Mecoptera species,[7] and is complete as of 1997. The number of species in each genus is indicated in parentheses.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Whiting, M. F. (2002). "Mecoptera is paraphyletic: multiple genes and phylogeny of Mecoptera and Siphonaptera". Zoologica Scripta. 31 (1): 93. doi:10.1046/j.0300-3256.2001.00095.x. 
  2. ^ Attenborough, David. (2005) Life in the Undergrowth. http://www.bbc.co.uk/sn/tvradio/programmes/lifeintheundergrowth/video.shtml
  3. ^ Whiting, Michael F.; Whiting, Alison S.; Hastriter, Michael W.; Dittmar, Katharina (2008). "A molecular phylogeny of fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera): origins and host associations". Cladistics. 24 (5): 1–31. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2008.00211.x. 
  4. ^ Yeates, David K.; Wiegmann, Brian. "Endopterygota Insects with complete metamorphosis". Tree of Life. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  5. ^ Whiting, Michael F. (2002). "Mecoptera is paraphyletic: multiple genes and phylogeny of Mecoptera and Siphonaptera". Zoologica Scripta. 31 (1): 93–104. doi:10.1046/j.0300-3256.2001.00095.x. 
  6. ^ Wiegmann, Brian; Yeates, David K. (2012). The Evolutionary Biology of Flies. Columbia University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-231-50170-5. 
  7. ^ Boreidae
  8. ^ Sikes, Derek; Jill Stockbridge (July 11, 2013). "Description of Caurinus tlagu, new species, from Prince of Wales Island, Alaska (Mecoptera, Boreidae, Caurininae)". ZooKeys. 316: 35–53. PMC 3713333Freely accessible. PMID 23878513. doi:10.3897/zookeys.316.5400.