Snowy Mountains Scheme

Coordinates: 36°07′S 148°36′E / 36.12°S 148.6°E / -36.12; 148.6
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Snowy Mountains Scheme
Map of Snowy Mountains Scheme
LocationKosciuszko National Park, New South Wales
Coordinates36°07′S 148°36′E / 36.12°S 148.6°E / -36.12; 148.6
PurposeHydroelectricity and irrigation project
Construction began17 October 1949 (1949-10-17)
Opening date21 October 1972 (1972-10-21)
Construction costA$820 million
Operator(s)Snowy Hydro Limited

The Snowy Mountains Scheme, also known as the Snowy Hydro[1] or the Snowy scheme, is a hydroelectricity and irrigation complex in south-east Australia. Near the border of New South Wales and Victoria, the scheme consists of sixteen major dams; nine power stations; two pumping stations; and 225 kilometres (140 mi) of tunnels, pipelines and aqueducts that were constructed between 1949 and 1974. The Scheme was completed under the supervision of Chief Engineer, Sir William Hudson. It is the largest engineering project undertaken in Australia.[2][3][4]

The water of the Snowy River and some of its tributaries, much of which formerly flowed southeast onto the river flats of East Gippsland, and into Bass Strait of the Tasman sea, is captured at high elevations and diverted inland to the Murray and Murrumbidgee Rivers irrigation areas. The Scheme includes two major tunnel systems constructed through the continental divide of the Snowy Mountains, known in Australia as the Great Dividing Range. The water falls 800 metres (2,600 ft) and travels through large hydro-electric power stations which generate peak-load power for the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales and Victoria.[3][5] The Scheme also provides some security of water flows to the Murray-Darling basin, providing approximately 2,100 gigalitres (7.4×1010 cu ft) of water a year to the basin for use in Australia's irrigated agriculture industry.

In 2016, the Snowy Mountains Scheme was added to the Australian National Heritage List.[6]


Official launch of the Snowy Mountains Scheme at Adaminaby. From the left, Prime Minister, Ben Chifley; Governor-General, William McKell and Minister for Works and Housing, Nelson Lemmon, 1949.
William Hudson KBE FRS Commissioner Snowy Mountains Hydro Electric Authority 1949-1967. Plaque at Cooma Visitors Centre.
The Machine Hall Floor of Murray-1 Hydroelectric Power Station.
Talbingo Dam. 16 major dams store water in the scheme. Many were constructed in rugged wilderness areas.
Lake Eucumbene from the air


Since the 1800s, both the Murray and Murrumbidgee rivers have been subject to development and control to meet water supply and irrigation needs. By contrast, the Snowy River, that rises in the Australian Alps and flows through mountainous and practically uninhabited country until debouching onto the river flats of East Gippsland, had never been controlled in any way, neither for the production of power nor for irrigation. A great proportion of its waters flowed eastwards into the South Pacific Ocean (the Tasman Sea). The Snowy River has the highest headwater source of any in Australia and draws away a large proportion of the waters from the south-eastern New South Wales snowfields. The construction of the Snowy Mountains Scheme was seen as a means of supplementing the flow of the great inland rivers, a means for developing hydro-electric power, and also a way to increase agricultural production in the Murray and Murrumbidgee valleys.[3]

Following World War II, the Government of New South Wales proposed that the flow of the Snowy River be diverted into the Murrumbidgee River for irrigation and agricultural purposes. There was little emphasis placed on the generation of power. A counter proposal by the Government of Victoria involved a greater generation of power, and involved diversion of the Snowy River to the Murray River.[3] Additionally, the Government of South Australia was concerned that downstream flows on the Murray River would be severely jeopardised.[7]

The Commonwealth Government, looking at the national implications of the two proposals, initiated a meeting to discuss the use of the waters of the Snowy River, and a Committee was set up in 1946 to examine the question on the broadest possible basis. This Committee, in a report submitted in November 1948, suggested consideration of a far greater scheme than any previously put forward. It involved not only the simple question of use of the waters of the Snowy River, but consideration of the possible diversion of a number of rivers in the area, tributaries, not only of the Snowy, but of the Murray and Murrumbidgee. The recommendations of the Committee were generally agreed to by a conference of Ministers representing the Commonwealth, New South Wales, and Victoria, and it was also agreed that the Committee should continue its investigations.[3]

However, limitations in the Australian Constitution meant that the Commonwealth Government was limited in the powers it could exercise, without the agreement of the States.[7] Subsequently, the Commonwealth Government introduced legislation into the Federal Parliament under its defence power;[7] and enacted the Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Power Act 1949 (Cth) that enabled the formation of the Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Authority.[3] Ten years later, the relevant States and Territories introduced their own corresponding legislation and in January 1959 the Snowy Mountains Agreement was reached between the Commonwealth and the States.[7]

The legislation created the Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Authority that was given responsibility for the final evaluation, design and construction of the Snowy Mountains Scheme. The final agreed plan was to divert the waters of the Snowy Mountains region to provide increased electricity generating capacity and to provide irrigation water for the dry west. It was "greeted with enthusiasm by the people of Australia" and was seen to be "a milestone towards full national development".[citation needed]

The chief engineer, New Zealand-born William Hudson[8] (knighted 1955), was chosen to head the scheme as Chairman of the Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Authority, and was instructed to seek workers from overseas. Hudson's employment of workers from 32 (mostly European) countries, many of whom had been at war with each other only a few years earlier,[9] had a significant effect on the cultural mix of Australia.


Cabramurra, Australia's highest town, is a Snowy Scheme company town
Lake Eucumbene flooded the township of Adaminaby. It is the largest reservoir in the Scheme, with a capacity some nine times that of Sydney Harbour.
Tumut 3 generating station
Mount Kosciuszko and the Main Range. Water from Snowy Mountains snow melt is used to generate electricity and divert water for irrigation.
Jindabyne, as viewed from across Lake Jindabyne
Blowering Dam
Aerial photo of Tumut Pond Reservoir and Dam, 2009
The Snowy Scheme Museum, in Adaminaby
Guthega Ski Resort was built above Guthega Dam

Construction of the Snowy Scheme was managed by the Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Authority. It officially began on 17 October 1949 and took 25 years, being officially completed in 1974.

An agreement between the United States Bureau of Reclamation and Snowy Mountains Hydro to provide technical assistance and training of engineers was agreed between the United States and Australia in Washington, D.C., on 16 November 1951.[10] A loan for $100 million was obtained from the World Bank in 1962.[11]

Tunneling records were set in the construction of the Scheme and it was completed on time and on budget in 1974, at a cost of A$820 million; a dollar value equivalent in 1999 and 2004 to A$6 billion.[12][13][14] Around two thirds of the workforce employed in the construction of the scheme were immigrant workers, originating from over thirty countries. The official death toll of workers on the Scheme stands at 121 people. Some 1,600 kilometres (990 mi) of roads and tracks were constructed, seven townships and over 100 camps were built to enable construction of the 16 major dams, seven hydroelectric power stations, two pumping stations, 145 kilometres (90 mi) of tunnel and 80 kilometres (50 mi) of pipelines and aqueducts. Just 2% of the construction work is visible from above ground.[15]

Two of the towns constructed for the scheme are now permanent; Cabramurra, the highest town in Australia; and Khancoban. Cooma flourished during construction of the Scheme and remains the headquarters of the operating company of the Scheme. Townships at Adaminaby, Jindabyne and Talbingo were inundated by the flooded waters from Lake Eucumbene, Lake Jindabyne and Jounama Reservoir.[16][17][18] Improved vehicular access to the high country enabled ski-resort villages to be constructed at Thredbo and Guthega in the 1950s by former Snowy Scheme workers who realised the potential for expansion of the Australian ski industry.[19][20]

The Scheme is in an area of 5,124 square kilometres (1,978 sq mi), almost entirely within the Kosciuszko National Park. The design of the scheme was modelled on that of the Tennessee Valley Authority.[14] Over 100,000 people from over 30 countries were employed during its construction, providing employment for many recently arrived immigrants, and was important in Australia's post-war economic and social development. Seventy percent of all the workers were migrants.[2] During construction of the tunnels, a number of railways were employed to convey spoil from worksites and to deliver personnel, concrete and equipment throughout.[21]

The project used Australia's first transistorised computer; one of the first in the world. Called 'Snowcom', the computer was used from 1960 to 1967.[22]

At the completion of the project, the Australian Government maintained much of the diverse workforce and established the Snowy Mountains Engineering Corporation (SMEC), which is now an international engineering consultancy company. The Scheme is the largest renewable energy generator in mainland Australia and plays an important role in the operation of the National Electricity Market, generating approximately 67% of all renewable energy in the mainland National Electricity Market. The Snowy Scheme's primary function is as a water manager, however under the corporatised model must deliver dollar dividends to the three shareholder governments - the NSW, Commonwealth and Victorian Governments.[citation needed]

The Scheme also has a significant role in providing security of water flows to the Murray-Darling Basin. The Scheme provides approximately 2,100 gigalitres (7.4×1010 cu ft) of water a year to the Basin, providing additional water for an irrigated agriculture industry worth about A$3 bn per annum,[2] representing more than 40% of the gross value of the nation's agricultural production.

The Snowy Mountains Hydro-electric Scheme, is one of the most complex integrated water and hydro-electric power schemes in the world and is listed as a "world-class civil engineering project" by the American Society of Civil Engineers.[14] The scheme interlocks seven power stations and 16 major dams through 145 kilometres (90 mi) of trans-mountain tunnels and 80 kilometres (50 mi) of aqueducts. The history of the Snowy Scheme reveals its important role in building post World War II Australia.

Sir William Hudson was appointed the first commissioner of the Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Authority, serving between 1949 and 1967. The Commissioner's role was the overall management of the Scheme. He represented the Scheme at the highest levels of government, welcomed international scientists and engineers, encouraged scientific and engineering research, as well as attending many social and civic activities. Sir William's management style 'stressed cooperation between management and labour and scientific knowledge (facts) over opinion'.[23]

The Scheme was completed with the official opening of the Tumut 3 Power Station project by the Governor-General of Australia, Sir Paul Hasluck GCMG GCVO KStJ on 21 October 1972.[24]


The Scheme used a number of innovative approaches to all sorts of things during its construction. For example all vehicles driven on all parts of the scheme were required to be fitted with seatbelts for driver and front seat passenger; and that these seatbelts were required to be used.[25]

On 16 April 1958, an elevator at a dam near Cabramurra fell about 400 feet when the cable broke, killing 4 Italian employees of a French construction firm.[26]

Personal stories and memoirs of work on the Snowy Scheme[edit]

Various stories and memoirs have been written about work on the Snowy Mountains Scheme. Siobhan McHugh's social history, The Snowy: The People Behind the Power[27] is the most prominent, having been awarded the NSW Premier's Literary Award for Non-Fiction and being the source of an ABC radio documentary series (1987) and a Film Australia documentary, Snowy, A Dream of Growing Up (1989).[28] Her book is based on about 90 oral histories with former Snowy workers and residents, with original recordings archived as a research collection at the State Library of New South Wales. An updated 70th anniversary edition of her book was published by New South in 2019 and its content showcased by Richard Fidler in an interview with McHugh for his popular ABC podcast, Conversations. Most recently, Snowy Hydro, Woden Community Service, Gen S Stories and PhotoAccess partnered for a Digital Storytelling project to present a diverse collection of stories told from the point of view of seven ex-workers, two lifelong employees and a child of a Snowy worker.[29]

As part of the project, participants created short films about their experience on the Snowy Scheme, each story offering a unique perspective into what life was like building the Scheme between 1949 and 1974. The project's artistic director Jenni Savigny assisted participants to make the short films; enabling them to put together the scripts, record voice overs and edit the short films. In an interview with Andrew Brown (The Canberra Times), Savigny said it was important to create a history of the Snowy Hydro using the participant's own words, "You just get a personal sense of what it was like to be there, and what it meant to people's lives."[30]

The films premiered 7 June 2018 at the Palace Electric Cinema in New Acton in Canberra and can be viewed on the Woden Community Service YouTube Channel.

Current operations[edit]

The Scheme is operated by Snowy Hydro Limited, an unlisted public company incorporated pursuant to the Corporations Act, 2001 (Cth), owned by the Australian Federal government.[31]

There is currently further work ongoing for the expansion of the snowy scheme under the Snowy scheme 2.0 announced in 2017. Despite government support it has revived many criticisms and concerns over the logistical and financial feasibility of the operation.

Environmental concerns[edit]

The original plan was for 99% of the water of the Snowy River's natural flow to be diverted by the Scheme below Lake Jindabyne. Releases from the Scheme were based on the needs of riparian users only and took no account of the ecosystem's needs. It soon became clear that there were major environmental problems in the lower reaches of the Snowy river. An extensive public campaign led to the Snowy Water Inquiry being established in January 1998. The Inquiry reported to the New South Wales and Victorian Governments in October of that year, recommending an increase to 15% of natural flows. The two governments were equivocal about this target. Aside from economic considerations, there was a view that the health of the Murray was more important than that of the Snowy and that any extra environmental flows were better used there instead.

In the 1999 Victorian state election, the seat of Gippsland East was won by Craig Ingram, an independent and member of the Snowy River Alliance, based in large part on his campaign to improve Snowy flows.[32] In 2000, Victoria and NSW agreed to a long-term target of 28%, requiring A$156 million of investment to offset losses to inland irrigators.[32] In August 2002 flows were increased to 6%, with a target of 21% within 10 years. However, by October 2008 it was evident that the return of environmental flows to the Snowy River in 2009 would be no more than 4% of natural flow with governments arguing the Snowy River needs to "pay back" the "Mowamba Borrowings".[33] At the 2010 state election, Ingram lost the seat of Gippsland East to the Nationals.[34]

In 2017, it was announced that the 21% target would be reached for the first time.[35]

Some concerned water managers, conservationists, politicians and farmers continue to advocate for the return of environmental flows to the Snowy River. The Snowy River Alliance formed in 1996 to address the lack of environmental flow commemorates Snowy River Day annually, towards the end of August, to mark the 2002 anniversary of when the governments of Victoria, NSW and the Commonwealth first released water into the Snowy River over the Mowamba Weir.[36] The Dalgety District and Community Association started in response to dirty drinking water for the town of Dalgety, the loss of fishing and looming closure of the caravan park. A weir was constructed at Dalgety and the caravan park stayed as a result of their efforts. In accordance with the Snowy Water Licence, Snowy Hydro Limited has 're-commissioned' the Mowamba Aqueduct. Seasonal variable flows are essential to river ecology including flushing flows to support vital ecosystems for the Australian platypus[37] and native Australian Bass, the species over which Ingram initially fought for flows into the Snowy River.[citation needed] A major spillway upgrade now facilitates these flows.[citation needed]


Construction of the Scheme began in 1949 and was completed in 1974. Guthega power station commenced power production on 21 February 1955.

Power stations[edit]

Hydro-electric power station Installed capacity
Guthega 60 80 1955
Tumut 1 330 440 1958
Tumut 2 286.4 384 1961
Blowering 80 110 1967
Murray 1 950 1,270 1967
Murray 2 550 740 1969
Tumut 3 1,800 2,210 1973
Tumut 3 Micro Hydro 0.72 0.97 2004
Jounama Small Hydro 14.4 19.3 2010
Jindabyne Dam Mini Hydro 1.1 1.5 2011

The total installed capacity is 4.073 gigawatts (5,462,000 hp).

Major dams and reservoirs[edit]

The Scheme's largest dam is Talbingo Dam with an embankment volume of 14 488 000 m3 and a wall height of 161.5 metres.[38] Khancoban Dam is the longest dam in the scheme with a crest length of 1,067 metres (3,501 ft). A variety of dam and spillway types were used in the construction.

With a capacity of 4,798,400 megalitres (1,055.5×10^9 imp gal; 1,267.6×10^9 US gal), Lake Eucumbene is the largest reservoir in the Scheme. At the other end of the scale, Deep Creek Reservoir is the smallest reservoir with just 11 megalitres (2.4×10^6 imp gal; 2.9×10^6 US gal).[15]

Dam constructed Year
Impounded body of
Reservoir capacity Dam wall height Crest length Dam type Spillway type
ML mill. imp gal mill. US gal
Blowering Dam 1968 Blowering Reservoir 1,628,000 358,000 430,000 112 m (367 ft) 747 m (2,451 ft) Rockfill embankment Concrete chute
Deep Creek Dam 1961 Deep Creek Reservoir 11 2.4 2.9 21 m (69 ft) 55 m (180 ft) Concrete gravity Uncontrolled
Eucumbene Dam 1958 Lake Eucumbene 4,798,400 1,055,000 1,267,600 116 m (381 ft) 579 m (1,900 ft) Earthfill embankment Overflow ski-jump and bucket
Geehi Dam 1966 Geehi Reservoir 21,093 4,640 5,572 91 m (299 ft) 265 m (869 ft) Rockfill embankment Bell Mouth
Guthega Dam 1955 Guthega Reservoir 1,604 353 424 34 m (112 ft) 139 m (456 ft) Concrete gravity Uncontrolled
Happy Jacks Dam 1959 Happy Jacks Pondage 271 60 72 29 m (95 ft) 76 m (249 ft) Concrete gravity Uncontrolled
Island Bend Dam 1965 Island Bend Pondage 3,084 678 815 49 m (161 ft) 146 m (479 ft) Concrete gravity Controlled
Jindabyne Dam 1967 Lake Jindabyne 688,287 151,402 181,826 72 m (236 ft) 335 m (1,099 ft) Rockfill embankment Controlled
Jounama Dam 1968 Jounama Pondage 43,542 9,578 11,503 44 m (144 ft) 518 m (1,699 ft) Rockfill embankment Controlled
Khancoban Dam 1966 Khancoban Reservoir 26,643 5,861 7,038 18 m (59 ft) 1,067 m (3,501 ft) Earthfill embankment Controlled
Murray Two Dam 1968 Murray Two Pondage 2,344 516 619 43 m (141 ft) 131 m (430 ft) Concrete arch Controlled
Talbingo Dam 1970 Talbingo Reservoir 921,400 202,700 243,400 162 m (531 ft) 701 m (2,300 ft) Rockfill embankment Concrete chute
Tantangara Dam 1960 Tantangara Reservoir 254,099 55,894 67,126 45 m (148 ft) 216 m (709 ft) Concrete gravity Concrete chute
Tooma Dam 1961 Tooma Reservoir 28,124 6,186 7,430 67 m (220 ft) 305 m (1,001 ft) Concrete embankment Concrete Chute
Tumut Pond Dam 1959 Tumut Pond Reservoir 52,793 11,613 13,946 86 m (282 ft) 218 m (715 ft) Concrete arch Controlled
Tumut Two Dam 1961 Tumut Two Pondage 2,677 589 707 46 m (151 ft) 119 m (390 ft) Concrete gravity Controlled


Tunnel Length






Section Year


Murrumbidgee-Eucumbene 16.6 17.7% 17 Horseshoe 1961
Eucumbene-Tumut 22.2 28.3% 113.2 Circular 1959
Tooma-Tumut 14.3 20% 38.5 Combination 1961
Tumut 1 Pressure 2.4 100% 124.6 Circular 1959
Tumut 1 Tailwater 1.3 54.5% 124.6 Horseshoe 1959
Tumut 2 Pressure 4.8 100% 124.6 Circular 1961
Tumut 2 Tailwater 6.4 100% 124.6 Circular 1961
Guthega Pressure 4.6 11.6% 34 Horseshoe 1955
Eucumbene-Snowy 23.5 19.7% 96.3 Horseshoe 1965
Jindabyne-Island Bend 9.8 10.6% 25.5 Combination 1968
Snowy-Geehi 14.5 13.3% 113.2-147.2 Horseshoe 1966
Murray 1 Pressure 12 189.2
Murray 2 Pressure 2.4 100% 243.5 Horseshoe 1969

Pumping Stations[edit]

The Snowy Mountains Scheme has two pumping stations. The 600 MW pump storage facility at Tumut 3 Power Station returns water to Talbingo Reservoir.[40] The 1 MW Jindabyne Pumping Station pumps water from Lake Jindabyne through to the Snowy-Geehi Tunnel at Island Bend.

Expansion plans[edit]

In March 2017, the Australian government then headed by Malcolm Turnbull suggested a $2 billion project expanding the 4.1 GW Snowy Mountains Scheme by 2 GW of pump storage for a week, building new tunnels and power stations, but no new dams. The 80% efficiency of such storage can be sufficient in leveling differences between supply and demand.[41][42] Dubbed Snowy 2.0, the expansion has been under construction since 2019 and was expected to be complete by 2026. Delays have meant the project will not be fully operational until 2029.[43]


The Snowy Scheme is a major tourist destination. Sightseeing driving tours to the key locations of the Scheme are popular out of regional centres like Cooma, Adaminaby and Jindabyne along roads built for the Scheme like the Snowy Mountains Highway and Alpine Way and towards sights like Cabramurra, as Australia's highest town, spectacular dam walls, and scenic lakes. Trout fishing is popular in the lakes of the Scheme, notably Lake Jindabyne and Lake Eucumbene.

The Snowy Scheme Museum opened at Adaminaby in 2011 to profile the history of the Scheme.[44]

Though skiing in Australia began in the northern Snowy Mountains in the 1860s, it was the construction of the vast Snowy Scheme from 1949, with its improvements to infrastructure and influx of experienced European skiers among the workers on the Scheme, that really opened up the mountains for the large scale development of a ski industry, and led to the establishment of Thredbo and Perisher as leading Australian resorts.[19][45] The construction of Guthega Dam brought skiers to the isolated Guthega district and a rope tow was installed there in 1957.[46] Charles Anton, a snowy worker identified the potential of the Thredbo Valley.

Engineering heritage award[edit]

The scheme is listed as a National Engineering Landmark by Engineers Australia as part of its Engineering Heritage Recognition Program.[47]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ [bare URL]
  2. ^ a b c "The Snowy Mountains Scheme". Culture and recreation portal. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (Australia). 2008. Archived from the original on 30 August 2007. Retrieved 20 July 2008.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "The Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Scheme". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 1 January 1986. Archived from the original on 9 October 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  4. ^ Lewis, Wendy; Balderstone, Simon; Bowan, John (2006). Events That Shaped Australia. New Holland. pp. 189–194. ISBN 978-1-74110-492-9.
  5. ^ "The Snowy Mountains Scheme". Technology in Australia 1788-1988. Australian Science and Technology Heritage Centre. 2000. Archived from the original on 16 September 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  6. ^ "Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Scheme added to National Heritage List". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 14 October 2016. Archived from the original on 14 October 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  7. ^ a b c d Bergmann, Michael (February 1999). The Snowy Mountains Hydro-electric Scheme: How did it Manage Without an EIA?. Australian National University. ISBN 0-7315-3403-4.
  8. ^ Sweeney, Brian, ed. (2011). "William Hudson". The New Zealand Edge: Heroes: Builders. IP Holdings Limited. Archived from the original on 16 October 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
  9. ^ Sparke, Eric (1996). "Sir William Hudson (1896–1978)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 14. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. ISSN 1833-7538. Archived from the original on 15 April 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  10. ^ "Agreement between the Governments of Australia and the United States relating to Technical Assistance for the Snowy Mountains Project [1951] ATS 22". Australian Treaties Library. Australasian Legal Information Institute. Archived from the original on 13 April 2017. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  11. ^ World Bank document, 'Appraisal of the Snowy Mountains Project Australia', 11 January 1962, (accessed 20 October 2019)
  12. ^ Besley, M. A. (Tim) (11 August 1999). The Need for Infrastructure Projects — Then and Now (Speech). ATSE Focus No 109, November/December 1999. Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering (ATSE). Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 9 March 2007.
  13. ^ Anderson, John (7 June 2004). "AusLink, Peter Garrett, US relations, Iraq, Federal election". Ministers' speeches (Press release). Department of Transport and Regional Services (Australia). Archived from the original (transcript) on 19 September 2006. Retrieved 9 March 2007.
  14. ^ a b c "Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Scheme". American Society of Civil Engineers. Retrieved 29 January 2022.
  15. ^ a b Information plaque, Adaminaby: Snowy Scheme Museum
  16. ^ "Adaminaby". The Sydney Morning Herald. 1 January 2009. Archived from the original on 6 June 2014.
  17. ^ "Towns: Jindabyne". About the Snowy Mountains. Tourism Snowy Mountains. 2012. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
  18. ^ "Towns: Talbingo". About the Snowy Mountains. Tourism Snowy Mountains. 2012. Archived from the original on 27 June 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
  19. ^ a b "History". About Thredbo. Kosciuszko Thredbo Pty Ltd. 2013. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  20. ^ "Guthega". Visit NSW. 24 July 2012. Archived from the original on 12 August 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  21. ^ Wright, H. J.; Shellshear, W. M. (September 1971). "Tunnel Railways of the Snowy Mountains Scheme". Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin. Australian Railway History: 193–210.
  22. ^ "The Engineering". Snowy Mountains Scheme. Snowy Hydro Limited. 2007. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2008.
  23. ^ "Investigating, managing, and building the Scheme". Snowy! Power of a nation. Powerhouse Museum. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
  24. ^ "Programme for the Official Opening of the Tumut 3 Project". Collection search. National Museum of Australia. 21 October 1972. Archived from the original on 21 March 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
  25. ^ "Snowy Hydro – Safety on the Snowy Scheme".
  26. ^ "4 Killed Near Cabramurra". The Canberra Times. 17 April 1958.
  27. ^ McHugh, Siobhan (1995) [1989]. The Snowy: The People Behind the Power. Harper Collins – via Heinemann.
  28. ^ McHugh, Siobhan (6 January 2012). "The SNOWY". Siobhan McHugh.
  29. ^ "Premiere of Snowy Stories from former workers and families of the Snowy Mountains Scheme". Woden Community Service. 29 May 2018. Retrieved 11 July 2018.
  30. ^ Brown, Andrew (15 April 2018). "Personal stories of Snowy Hydro workers to be told in new film project". The Canberra Times. Archived from the original on 11 July 2018. Retrieved 11 July 2018.
  31. ^ "Share Sale: Business as usual at Snowy Hydro". Snowy Hydro. 2 March 2018. Archived from the original on 12 December 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
  32. ^ a b Connellan, Ian (November 2010). "Fighting for the Snowy River". Australian Geographic. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
  33. ^ Crisp, Louise (3 July 2009). "Snowy River up the creek". Weekly Times. Archived from the original on 21 April 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
  34. ^ Mangan, John (28 November 2010). "Nationals end a lone wolf's 11-year run". The Age. Melbourne. Archived from the original on 30 April 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
  35. ^ "Snowy River deal delivers on its target 18 years on | the Weekly Times". Archived from the original on 19 April 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  36. ^ "Dalgety celebrates Snowy River Day". Summit Sun. 16 August 2012. Archived from the original on 25 March 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
  37. ^ Snowy River National Park Archived 23 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ "Dams • Snowy Hydro". Archived from the original on 3 May 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  39. ^ Engineering Features of the Snowy Mountains Scheme (1st ed.). Cooma: Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Authority. 1972. ISBN 0642955816.
  40. ^ "Pumping Stations • Snowy Hydro". Archived from the original on 4 October 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  41. ^ "'Snowy Hydro 2.0': Malcolm Turnbull announces plans for $2 billion expansion". 15 March 2017. Archived from the original on 17 March 2017. Retrieved 18 March 2017 – via The Sydney Morning Herald.
  42. ^ "Turnbull drives stake through heart of fossil fuel industry". 15 March 2017. Archived from the original on 17 March 2017. Retrieved 18 March 2017. minus 20 per cent losses
  43. ^ Dhanji, Krishani (3 May 2023). "Snowy Hydro 2.0 pumped-hydro battery project faces a further two years of delays". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 5 May 2023.
  44. ^ "Governor-General opens Snowy museum". ABC News. Australia. 17 October 2011. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  45. ^ "The History of Perisher". Perisher Blue Pty Limited. 2013. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  46. ^ "Guthega Ski Resort". Project management. Christiana Capital Group. 2012. Archived from the original on 21 June 2019. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  47. ^ "Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Scheme, 1949 to 1974-". Engineers Australia. Retrieved 7 May 2020.

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]