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Soanian Culture
Soan near Adiala.JPG
Geographical rangePakistan
PeriodLower Paleolithic
Dates500,000 – 125,000 BP[citation needed]
Type siteSoan River
Major sitesAdiala, Chauntra, Khasala Kalan, Khasala Khurd
Preceded byAcheulean
Followed byMousterian

The Soanian is an archaeological culture of the Lower Paleolithic in the Potohar Plateau region of Pakistan.[1] Contemporary to the Acheulean, it is named after the Soan River Valley in Pakistan.


Soanian is located in Pakistan
Map of the Pakistan showing important sites of the Soanian culture.

The term "Soan Culture" was first used by Hellmut De Terra in 1936,[2] but D. N. Wadia had identified the presence of these archaeological implements in 1928.[3] Further archaeological research was conducted by Stephen Lycett in order to determine the morphometric assessment of the Soanian techno-complex. The result of this experiment concluded that the Soanian techno-complex contains a Mode 3 Levallois technique core component.[1]

At Adiala and Khasala Kalan, about 16 km (9.9 mi) from Rawalpindi terrace on the bend of the river, hundreds of edged pebble tools were discovered. At Chauntra in Himachal Pradesh, hand axes and cleavers were found. Tools up to two million years old have been recovered. In the Soan River Gorge, many fossil bearing rocks are exposed on the surface. 14 million year old fossils of gazelle, rhinoceros, crocodile, giraffe and rodents have been found there. Some of these fossils are on display at the Pakistan Museum of Natural History in Islamabad.

See also[edit]

The Paleolithic
Pliocene (before Homo)


  1. ^ a b Lycett, Stephen J. (2007). "Is the Soanian techno-complex a Mode 1 or Mode 3 phenomenon? A morphometric assessment" (PDF). Journal of Archaeological Science. 34 (9): 1434–1440. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2006.11.001.
  2. ^ Hellmut De Terra (1969). George Grant MacCurdy (ed.). Early man: as depicted by leading authorities at the International symposium, the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, March 1937. pp. 267–. ISBN 978-0-8369-1184-8. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  3. ^ Kenneth Oakley (30 April 2007) [1964]. Frameworks for Dating Fossil Man. Transaction Publishers. pp. 224–. ISBN 978-0-202-30960-6. Retrieved 16 October 2011.

Further reading[edit]

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