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Coordinates: 0°33′07″N 77°34′48″W / 0.552°N 77.58°W / 0.552; -77.58 Soche is a 3,955-metre-high (12,976 ft) dacitic volcano in Ecuador and is located on the northern end of a secondary volcanic chain. Constructed on a Paleozoic substratum, it contains an eastwards-opening caldera in the summit region. A large eruption in 6650 BCE generated ashfall into Colombia and two lava domes in the caldera.[1] The ash- and lapilli-fall is about a metre thick in the Interandean valley and the neighbouring cordilleras and most likely represented a long-lasting obstacle for human population.[2] Earlier eruptive events involving a lava flow that was subsequently offset by a fault zone named the Cayambe-Chingual fault by 110m occurred 9.67 ka BP,[3] and another involving a pyroclastic flow was dated at 37.22 ± 0.63 ka BP.[4]


  1. ^ "Soche". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. 
  2. ^ Hall, Minard L.; Mothes, Patricia A. (2008). "Volcanic impediments in the progressive development of pre-Columbian civilizations in the Ecuadorian Andes". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 176 (3): 344–355. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.01.039. ISSN 0377-0273. 
  3. ^ Tibaldi, A.; Rovida, A.; Corazzato, C. (2007). "Late Quaternary kinematics, slip-rate and segmentation of a major Cordillera-parallel transcurrent fault: The Cayambe-Afiladores-Sibundoy system, NW South America". Journal of Structural Geology. 29 (4): 664–680. doi:10.1016/j.jsg.2006.11.008. ISSN 0191-8141. 
  4. ^ Egbue, Obi; Kellogg, James (2010). "Pleistocene to Present North Andean "escape"". Tectonophysics. 489 (1-4): 248–257. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2010.04.021. ISSN 0040-1951.