Social and environmental impact of palm oil
Palm oil, produced from the oil palm, is a basic source of income for many farmers in South East Asia, Central and West Africa, and Central America. It is locally used as cooking oil, exported for use in much commercial food and personal care products and is converted into biofuel. It produces up to 10 times more oil per unit area than soybeans, rapeseed or sunflowers.
Oil palms produce 38% of the world's vegetable-oil output on 5% of the world’s vegetable-oil farmland. Palm oil plantations, typically monoculture crops are under increasing scrutiny for their effects on the environment, including loss of carbon-sequestering, biodiverse forest land. There is also concern over displacement and disruption of human and animal populations due to palm oil cultivation.
As of 2006, the cumulative land area of palm oil plantations is approximately 11,000,000 hectares (42,000 sq mi). In 2005 the Malaysian Palm Oil Association, responsible for about half of the world's crop, estimated that they manage about half a billion perennial carbon-sequestering palm trees. Demand for palm oil has been rising and is expected to climb further.
Between 1967 and 2000 the area under cultivation in Indonesia expanded from less than 2,000 square kilometres (770 sq mi) to more than 30,000 square kilometres (12,000 sq mi). Deforestation in Indonesia for palm oil (and illegal logging) is so rapid that a 2007 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) report said that most of the country's forest might be destroyed by 2022. The rate of forest loss has declined in the past decade.
Global production is forecast at a record 46.9m tonnes in 2010, up from 45.3m in 2009, with Indonesia providing most of the increase.
Oil palm is a valuable economic crop and provides a source of employment. It allows small landholders to participate in the cash economy and often results in improvements to local infrastructure and greater access to services such as schools and health facilities. In some areas, the cultivation of oil palm has replaced traditional practices, often due to the higher income potential of palm oil. The modernisation of cultivation practices has led to issues including food insecurity. This issue stems from the intensive use of land which leads to soil degradation. As a result, the ability for locals to produce their own food has dwindled and they are having to look for food in other areas as they can no longer rely exclusively on their land.
However, in some cases, land has been developed by oil palm plantations without consultation or compensation of the Indigenous Peoples occupying the land. This has occurred in Papua New Guinea, Colombia, and Indonesia. In the Sarawak state of Malaysian Borneo, there has been debate over whether there was an appropriate level of consultation with the Long Teran Kanan community prior to the development of local land for palm oil plantations. Appropriation of native lands has led to conflict between the plantations and local residents in each of these countries.
According to a 2008 report by NGOs including Friends of the Earth, palm oil companies have also reportedly used force to acquire land from Indigenous communities in Indonesia. Additionally, some Indonesian oil palm plantations are dependent on imported labor or undocumented immigrants, which has raised concerns about the working conditions and social impacts of these practices.
The production of palm oil requires intensive deforestation and this has led to a gradual loss of flora and fauna in the areas where land is cleared for the cultivation of palm oil. Tropical rainforests in countries including Malaysia and Indonesia have been the most ideal countries to have large palm oil plantations as they provide the most suitable climate with ample rainfall and sunshine throughout the year. Between the years 1990 and 2005, the total land in Malaysia used for palm oil cultivation increased by 2.4 million ha and reached 4.2 million ha. During that period, over 1.1 million ha of tropical rainforest was lost. The diverse biodiversity that each rainforest possesses has been diminishing at a rapid rate as fauna is often very fragile and easily affected by deforestation. Animal wildlife has been most affected in areas where significant amounts of land, for commercial palm oil purposes, have been cleared to allow the trees to be planted. Animals have been forced to relocate and have increasingly come into contact with humans as they have started to roam around the surrounding villages in search for food. Some animals have not been able to adapt and relocate elsewhere, leading to their populations decreasing significantly and this has disrupted the symbiotic relationships that the flora and fauna have with their habitat. The figure below shows how deforestation negatively affects biodiversity when forests are converted into plantations and depicts the relatively low species richness in primary forests compared to disturbed forests.
The process of removing existing flora and planting palm oil trees is detrimental for the quality of the soil in the ground. When the existing flora is removed to make way for the new plants, the soil surrounding it is often eroded away. When palm oil trees are planted, large amounts of fertilisers and pesticides are used to ensure rapid growth and the health of each tree. Younger palm oil trees absorb more valuable nutrients from the soil which degrades the quality of the soil. As the nutrients are absorbed by the young trees, there is a depletion in nutrients and consequently, there is a lower level of remaining nutrients for other trees. This problem is also another cause for the increased use of fertilisers during the palm oil production process. Distances between adjacent palm oil trees in plantations have also been designed to be very close in order to optimise use of the limited space available. This has further impacted soil quality because as the trees grow, they require more minerals and water from the soil. Due to the close distances between trees, there is a limited supply of nutrients that the trees can depend on which leads to the plantation workers shrouding the trees with higher amounts of fertilisers, pesticides and water. This process further harms the state of the soil and makes it challenging for existing flora and fauna to survive in the area.
In tropical countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia, where a majority of palm oil plantations are located, there are continual rain showers and sun exposure throughout the day. Palm oil plantations that are geographically located close to rivers have exacerbated impacts on surrounding local communities. This is due to the increased use of fertilisers and pesticides which has led to higher amounts of both being washed away by the frequent rain into rivers (runoff process). This is an issue because rivers are central to the daily lives of local villagers. They use water from the river for personal consumption and also use the river as a source of food, which makes them vulnerable to the residue from fertilisers and pesticides. The untreated water that the local villagers are exposed to can potentially cause detrimental health effects, including diseases such as cholera, E. coli and lead poisoning.
The damage from soil erosion and poor soil quality has also affected the livelihoods of many local villagers that live close to these palm oil plantations as they can no longer depend solely on their land for the cultivation of food and timber. Local villagers are now inclined to find new sources of food and materials for shelter. As a result, local villagers have been indirectly forced to move out and relocate depending on the extent of the loss of the plants and animals native to the area. This has led to economic complications as governments now need to reallocate their resources to support these typically marginalised communities.
Other environmental issues
In Indonesia, rising demand for palm oil and timber has led to the clearing of tropical forest land in Indonesian national parks. According to a 2007 report published by UNEP, at the rate of deforestation at that time, an estimated 98 percent of Indonesian forest would be destroyed by 2022 due to legal and illegal logging, forest fires and the development of palm oil plantations.
Malaysia, the second largest producer of palm oil has pledged to conserve a minimum of 50 percent of its total land area as forests. As of 2010, 58 percent of Malaysia was forested.
Palm oil cultivation has been criticised for:
- Greenhouse gas emissions. Deforestation in tropical areas accounts for an estimated 10 percent of manmade CO
2 emissions, and is a driver toward dangerous climate change.
- Habitat destruction, leading to the demise of critically endangered species (e.g. the Sumatran elephant, Sumatran tiger, the Sumatran rhinoceros, and the Sumatran orangutan).
- Reduced biodiversity, including damage to biodiversity hotspots.
- Cultivating crops on land that belongs to indigenous people in the Sarawak and Kalimantan states on the island of Borneo and the Malaysian state of Sabah.
In some states where oil palm is established, lax enforcement of environmental legislation leads to encroachment of plantations into riparian strips, and release of pollutants such as palm oil mill effluent (POME) in the environment.
More environment-friendly practices have been developed. Among those approaches is anaerobic treatment of POME, which might allow for biogas (methane) production and electricity generation, but it is very difficult to maintain optimum growth conditions for the anaerobic organisms that break down acetate to methane (primarily Methanosaeta concilii, a species of Archaea).
Greenhouse gas emissions
sions and eight percent of all global emissions caused annually by burning fossil fuels, due to the clearing of large areas of rainforest for palm oil plantations. Many Indonesian and Malaysian rainforests lie atop peat bogs that store great quantities of carbon. Forest removal and bog drainage to make way for plantations releases this carbon.
Researchers are looking for possible, more environmentally friendly, solutions and ways to help the situation and have suggested that if enough land is conserved and there remain large enough areas of primary forest reserves, the effects of the palm oil industry may not have as much of an impact on wildlife and biodiversity. Environmental groups like Greenpeace, the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil, and Amnesty International are also taking part in advocating bans on unsustainable palm oil crops and the companies that purchase these exports.
Environmental groups such as Greenpeace claim that this deforestation produces far more emissions than biofuels remove. Greenpeace identified Indonesian peatlands—unique tropical forests whose dense soil can be burned to release carbon emissions—which are being destroyed to make way for palm oil plantations. Greenpeace argues the peatlands represent massive carbon sinks, and they claim the destruction already accounts for four percent of annual global CO₂ emissions. However, according to the Tropical Peat Research Laboratory, at least one measurement has shown that oil palm plantations are carbon sinks because oil palms convert carbon dioxide into oxygen just as other trees do, and, as reported in Malaysia's Second National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, oil palm plantations contribute to Malaysia's net carbon sink.
Greenpeace recorded peatland destruction in the Indonesian province of Riau on the island of Sumatra, home to 25 percent of Indonesia's palm oil plantations. Greenpeace claims this would have devastating consequences for Riau's peatlands, which have already been degraded by industrial development and store a massive 14.6 billion tonnes of carbon, roughly one year's greenhouse gas emissions.
Environmentalists and conservationists have been called upon to team up with palm oil companies to purchase small tracts of existing palm plantation, so they can use the profits to create privately owned nature reserves. It has been suggested that this is a more productive strategy than the current confrontational approach that threatens the livelihoods of millions of smallholders.
Indonesia and Malaysia
In the two countries responsible for over 80% of world oil palm production, Indonesia and Malaysia, smallholders account for 35–40% of the total area of planted oil palm and as much as 33% of the output. Elsewhere, as in West African countries that produce mainly for domestic and regional markets, smallholders produce up to 90% of the annual harvest.
As a result of Malaysia's commitment to retain natural forest cover on at least 50% of the nation's land, the growth of new palm oil plantations has slowed in recent years. According to Malaysia's Plantation Industries and Commodities Minister Bernard Dompok, significant expansion of palm oil is no longer possible, therefore Malaysian farmers are now focusing on increasing production without expansion.
In January 2008, the CEO of the Malaysian Palm Oil Council wrote a letter to the Wall Street Journal stating that Malaysia was aware of the need to pursue a sustainable palm oil industry. Since then the Malaysian government, along with palm oil companies, have increased production of certified sustainable palm oil (CSPO). Malaysia has been recognized by the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil as the largest producer of CSPO, producing 50% of the world's supply, and accounting for 40% of CSPO growers worldwide. Indonesia produces 35% of the world's CSPO.
In Indonesia, the Indigenous Peoples' Alliance of the Archipelago (AMAN) under the direction of Mina Susana Setra has fought for policies that find balance between economic need and indigenous people's rights. 99% of the palm oil concessions in the country concern land that is occupied by indigenous people. In 2012, AMAN led an advocacy team which won a Constitutional Court case recognizing customary land rights; however, implementation of programs that protect indigenous rights, the environment and developers have failed to come to fruition except in limited cases.
In Africa, the situation is very different compared to Indonesia or Malaysia. In its Human Development Report 2007-2008, the United Nations Development Program says production of palm oil in West Africa is largely sustainable, mainly because it is undertaken on a smallholder level without resorting to diversity-damaging monoculture. The United Nations Food and Agriculture program is encouraging small farmers across Africa to grow palm oil, because the crop offers opportunities to improve livelihoods and incomes for the poor.
Food and cosmetics companies, including ADM, Unilever, Cargill, Procter & Gamble, Nestle, Kraft and Burger King, are driving the demand for new palm oil supplies, demand was partly driven by a need for a replacement for high trans fat content oils.
Although palm oil is used in the production of biofuels and proposals have been made to use it in large installations, a 2012 report by the International Food Policy Research Institute concluded that the increase in palm oil production is related to food demands, not biofuel demands.
Biodiesel made from palm oil grown on sustainable non-forest land and from established plantations reduces greenhouse gas emissions. According to Greenpeace, clearing peatland to plant oil palms releases large amounts of greenhouse gasses, and that biodiesel produced from oil palms grown on this land may not result in a net reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, research by Malaysia's Tropical Peat Research Unit has found that oil palm plantations developed on peatland produce lower carbon dioxide emissions than forest peat swamp. However, it has been suggested that this research unit was commissioned by politicians who have interests in the palm oil industry.
In 2011, eight of Malaysia's Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA) plantations were certified under the International Sustainability and Carbon Certification System (ISCC), becoming part of Asia's first ISCC certified supply and production chain for palm biodiesel. This certification system complies with the European Union's Renewable Energy Directive (RED). In 2012, the European Commission approved the RSPO's biofuel certification scheme allowing certified sustainable palm oil biofuel to be sold in Europe.
The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), founded in 2004, works to promote the production of sustainably sourced palm oil through involvement with growers, processors, food companies, investors and NGOs. Beginning in 2008, palm oil that meets RSPO introduced standards has been designated "certified sustainable palm oil" (CSPO). Within two years of implementation, CSPO-designated palm oil comprised 7 percent of the global palm oil market. As of October 2012, 12 percent of palm oil has been certified by the RSPO. However, in the first year of CSPO certification only 30 percent of sustainable oil was marketed as CSPO.
In The Economist in 2010, the RSPO was criticized for not setting standards for greenhouse-gas emissions for plantations and because its members account for only 40 percent of palm oil production. In a 2007 report, Greenpeace was critical of RSPO-member food companies saying that they are "dependent on suppliers that are actively engaged in deforestation and the conversion of peatlands".
Following a contribution of $1 billion from Norway, in May 2010, Indonesia announced a two-year suspension on new agreements to clear natural forests and peatlands. Additionally, Indonesia announced plans to create its own organization similar to the RSPO, which, as a government certification system, will introduce mandatory regulation for all Indonesian palm oil producers.
In 2011, Malaysia began developing a national certification, the "Malaysia sustainable palm oil" (MSPO) certification, to improve involvement in sustainable palm oil production nationwide. The certification program, aimed at small and medium-sized producers, is expected to be launched in 2014. Malaysia has initiated its own environmental assessment on oil palm industry based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approaches. LCA has been applied to assess the environmental impact of production of oil palm seedlings, oil palm fresh fruit bunches, crude palm oil, crude palm kernel oil and refined palm oil. The assessment on downstream industries such as bio-diesel, was also conducted.
In July 2020 scientists show via detailed analysis of satellite images that certified "sustainable" palm oil production resulted in deforestation of tropical forests of Sumatra and Borneo and endangered mammals' habitat degradation in the past 30 years.
Carbon credit programs
Oil palm producers are eligible to take part in Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) programs in which developed nations invest in clean energy projects in developing nations to earn carbon credits to offset their own greenhouse gas emissions and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions worldwide.
Investors have been cautious about investing in palm oil biofuel projects because of the impact the expansion of oil palm plantations has had on tropical rain forests, but according to the South East Asian CDM development company YTL-SV Carbon, many CDM projects in the palm oil sector focus on improving use of waste products to reduce gas emissions and do not contribute to the establishment of new oil palm plantations.
Use of sustainable oil by corporations
The World Wildlife Foundation (WWF) publishes an annual report on the use of sustainable palm oil by major corporations. In the 2011 report, 31 of the 132 companies surveyed received a top score for their use of sustainable palm oil. This represents an increase from 2009, the first year the report was issued, where no companies received top scores.
The WWF reports that 87 companies have committed to using only sustainable palm oil by 2015, including Unilever and Nestlé, both of which committed to exclusively using sustainable palm oil following demonstrations and urgings from environmental organizations in the late 2000s. However, according to the WWF, the overall growth in the use of sustainable palm oil is too slow.
Retailers who have made commitments to offering products containing sustainable oil, including Walmart and Carrefour, have attributed the slow rate of growth in the availability of sustainable palm oil to a lack of consumer interest and awareness in products made with sustainable palm oil. These companies have expressed concern about the potential impact of low consumer demand on the cost and future availability of sustainable palm oil.
It may be possible to persuade governments of nations that produce competing products to enact protectionist legislation against the products of deforestation, an approach that was presented in a report by the National Farmers Union (United States) and Avoided Deforestation Partners. The 2010 report estimates that protecting the 13,000,000 hectares (50,000 sq mi) of mostly tropical forest that are lost annually worldwide would boost American agricultural revenue by $190–270 billion between 2012 and 2030. However, several conservation groups, including Conservation International, Environmental Defense Fund, National Wildlife Federation, and The Nature Conservancy, presented a rebuttal to the report, stating that it was "based on the assumption, totally unfounded, that deforestation in tropical countries can be easily interrupted, and its conclusions are therefore also unrealistic."
- 2015 Southeast Asian haze
- Environmental issues with energy
- Food vs. fuel
- Southeast Asian haze
- Sustainable biofuel
- The Burning Season, a 2008 documentary that highlights deforestation in Indonesia for palm oil plantations
- Synthetic palm oil
- "The other oil spill". The Economist. June 24, 2010. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
- "Stanford researchers show oil palm plantations are clearing carbon-rich tropical forests in Borneo".
- Wong, Jack (3 May 2010). "Oil palm planters urged to create corridors for wildlife". The Star Online. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- "Oro Landowners' Declaration on Large-Scale Commercial Extraction of Natural Resources and the Expansion of Oil Palm Nucleus Estates". Forest Peoples Programme. Retrieved 2007-11-29.
- "MPOA and sustainable palm oil" (PDF). Malaysian Palm Oil Association. 2005.
- Nor Aini Bt Kamarul Zaman, Kamar (2007-12-16). "Malaysian government not concerned with rising palm oil prices – minister". AFX News. Forbes Magazine.
- "Palm oil plantations already estimated at occupying 11 million hectares". WWF (Panda.org). Archived from the original on 2007-10-14. Retrieved 2007-09-29.
- Budidarsono, Suseno; Dewi, Sonya; Sofiyuddin, Muhammad; Rahmanulloh, Arif. "Socio-Economic Impact Assessment of Palm Oil Production" (PDF). World Agroforestry Centre. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
- Norwana, Awang Ali Bema Dayang; Kunjappan, Rejani (2011). "The local impacts of oil palm expansion in Malaysia" (PDF). cifor.org. Center for International Forestry Research. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
- The Report: Malaysia 2011. Oxford Business Group. 2011. p. 295. ISBN 9781907065460. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
- Guillaume, Thomas; Holtkamp, Anna Mareike; Damris, Muhammad; Brümmer, Bernhard; Kuzyakov, Yakov (2016-09-16). "Soil degradation in oil palm and rubber plantations under land resource scarcity". Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 232: 110–118. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2016.07.002. ISSN 0167-8809.
- Rist, Lucy; Feintrenie, Laurène; Levang, Patrice (2010-04-01). "The livelihood impacts of oil palm: smallholders in Indonesia". Biodiversity and Conservation. 19 (4): 1009–1024. doi:10.1007/s10531-010-9815-z. hdl:20.500.11850/16972. ISSN 1572-9710. S2CID 23735927.
- "Palm oil cultivation for biofuel blocks return of displaced people in Colombia" (PDF). iDMC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-11-27. Retrieved 2007-11-29.
- ""Losing Ground" - report on indigenous communities and oil palm development from LifeMosaic, Sawit Watch and Friends of the Earth". Forest Peoples Programme. 28 February 2008. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- Colchester, Marcus; Jalong, Thomas; Meng Chuo, Wong (2 October 2012). "Free, Prior and Informed Consent in the Palm Oil Sector - Sarawak: IOI-Pelita and the community of Long Teran Kanan". Forest Peoples Program. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- "Ghosts on our Own Land: Indonesian Oil Palm Smallholders and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm" (PDF). Forest Peoples Programme. Retrieved 2012-10-20.
- Wilcove, David S.; Koh, Lian Pin (2010-04-01). "Addressing the threats to biodiversity from oil-palm agriculture". Biodiversity and Conservation. 19 (4): 999–1007. doi:10.1007/s10531-009-9760-x. ISSN 1572-9710. S2CID 10728423.
- Chow, C. S. "The effects of season, rainfall and cycle on oil palm yield in Malaysia". www.cabdirect.org. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
- Fitzherbert, Emily B.; Struebig, Matthew J.; Morel, Alexandra; Danielsen, Finn; Brühl, Carsten A.; Donald, Paul F.; Phalan, Ben (2008-10-01). "How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity?". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 23 (10): 538–545. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2008.06.012. ISSN 0169-5347. PMID 18775582.
- Koh, Lian Pin; Wilcove, David S. (2008). "Is oil palm agriculture really destroying tropical biodiversity?". Conservation Letters. 1 (2): 60–64. doi:10.1111/j.1755-263X.2008.00011.x. ISSN 1755-263X.
- Edwards, David P.; Hodgson, Jenny A.; Hamer, Keith C.; Mitchell, Simon L.; Ahmad, Abdul H.; Cornell, Stephen J.; Wilcove, David S. (2010). "Wildlife-friendly oil palm plantations fail to protect biodiversity effectively". Conservation Letters. 3 (4): 236–242. doi:10.1111/j.1755-263X.2010.00107.x. ISSN 1755-263X.
- "Palm oil and biodiversity". IUCN. 2018-06-26. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
- Khatun, Rahima; Reza, Mohammad Imam Hasan; Moniruzzaman, M.; Yaakob, Zahira (2017-09-01). "Sustainable oil palm industry: The possibilities". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 76: 608–619. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2017.03.077. ISSN 1364-0321.
- Hartemink, Alfred E. "Soil Erosion: Perennial Crop Plantations". ISRIC–World Soil Information, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
- Moser, Stefan; Mußhoff, Oliver (2016). "Ex-ante Evaluation of Policy Measures: Effects of Reward and Punishment for Fertiliser Reduction in Palm Oil Production". Journal of Agricultural Economics. 67 (1): 84–104. doi:10.1111/1477-9552.12114. hdl:10.1111/1477-9552.12114. ISSN 1477-9552.
- Nkongho, Raymond N.; Feintrenie, Laurène; Levang, Patrice (2014-03-01). "Strengths and weaknesses of the smallholder oil palm sector in Cameroon". OCL. 21 (2): D208. doi:10.1051/ocl/2013043. ISSN 2257-6614.
- "Soil nutrient changes in Ultisols under oil palm in Johor, Malaysia | Kah Joo Goh | Journal of Oil Palm, Environment and Health (JOPEH)". jopeh.com.my. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
- McCarthy, John F. (2012-11-01). "Certifying in Contested Spaces: private regulation in Indonesian forestry and palm oil". Third World Quarterly. 33 (10): 1871–1888. doi:10.1080/01436597.2012.729721. ISSN 0143-6597. S2CID 155041814.
- Foong, Steve Z. Y.; Goh, Carmen K. M.; Supramaniam, Christina V.; Ng, Denny K. S. (2019-01-01). "Input–output optimisation model for sustainable oil palm plantation development". Sustainable Production and Consumption. 17: 31–46. doi:10.1016/j.spc.2018.08.010. ISSN 2352-5509.
- Tarmizi, A M; Mohd Tayeb, D. "Nutrient Demands Of Tenera Oil Palm Planted On Inland Soils Of Malaysia" (PDF). Journal of Oil Palm Research. 18: 204–209. S2CID 73527301.
- "GreenPalm :: Which countries grow and produce palm oil?". greenpalm.org. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
- Rulli, Maria Cristina; Casirati, Stefano; Dell’Angelo, Jampel; Davis, Kyle Frankel; Passera, Corrado; D’Odorico, Paolo (2019-05-01). "Interdependencies and telecoupling of oil palm expansion at the expense of Indonesian rainforest". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 105: 499–512. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2018.12.050. ISSN 1364-0321.
- Tømte, Aksel. "The human cost of palm oil development". The Conversation. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
- Dayang Norwana, A. a. B.; Kanjappan, R.; Chin, M.; Schoneveld, G. C.; Potter, L.; Andriani, R. (2011). "The local impacts of oil palm expansion in Malaysia; An assessment based on a case study in Sabah State". Working Paper. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
- Walter, A; Wagai, Samuel; Arama, Peter; Ogur, Joseph (2011). "Antibacterial activity of Moringa oleifera and Moringa stenopetala methanol and n-hexane seed extracts on bacteria implicated in water borne diseases". African Journal of Microbiology Research. S2CID 53500935.
- "Heavy Metals in Fertilizers - EH: Minnesota Department of Health". www.health.state.mn.us. Retrieved 2020-03-17.
- Afandi, A M; Zuraidah, Y; Nurzuhaili, H A Z A; Zulkifli, H; Yaqin. "Managing Soil Deterioration and Erosion under Oil Palm" (PDF). Oil Palm Bulletin. 75: 1–10. S2CID 195177630.
- McElwee, Pamela D. (2006). "Displacement and Relocation Redux: Stories from Southeast Asia". Conservation and Society. 4 (3): 396–403. ISSN 0972-4923. JSTOR 26396616.
- Nellemann, Christian, ed. (6 February 2007). "The Last Stand of The Orangutan" (PDF). grida.no. United Nations Environment Programme. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- Morales, Alex (18 November 2010). "Malaysia Has Little Room for Expanding Palm-Oil Production, Minister Says". Bloomberg. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Doom, Justing (21 June 2012). "Deforestation Emissions May Be a Third of Prior Estimates". Bloomberg. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- "Indonesian tiger catchers race against time". San Diego Union-Tribune. 2009-03-02. Retrieved 2020-03-17.
- "Torgamba's Story". International Rhino Foundation. Retrieved 2007-12-11.
- Helen Buckland. "The Oil for Ape Scandal: How Palm Oil is Threatening the Orang-utan" (PDF). Friends of the Earth. Retrieved 2007-09-29.
- Ancrenaz, M.; Marshall, A.; Goossens, B.; van Schaik, C.; Sugardjito, J.; Gumal, M.; Wich, S. (2007). "Pongo pygmaeus. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2007. Retrieved 2008-04-02.old-form url
- Singleton, I.; Wich, S.A.; Griffiths, M. (2007). "Pongo abelii. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2007. Retrieved 2008-04-02.old-form url
- Brown, Ellie; Jacobson, Michael F. (May 2005). "Cruel Oil. How Palm oil Harms Health, Rainforest & Wildlife" (PDF). Center for Science in the Public Interest.
- Human Development Report 2007 – 2008, Chapter III: Avoiding dangerous climate change: strategies for mitigation United Nations Development Program
- Conservation International: Biodiversity Hotspots
- Colchester, Marcus; Wee, Aik Pang; Wong, Meng Chuo; Jalong, Thomas. "Land is life: Land rights and oil palm development in Sarawak | Forest Peoples Programme". www.forestpeoples.org. Retrieved 2020-03-17.
- "Indigenous community forcibly evicted for palm oil in Indonesian Borneo". Mongabay.com. 1 November 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- "Cut Down Oil Palm on River Banks, Plantations Warned". New Straits Times. Retrieved 2007-12-01.
- "Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Guidelines for Oil Palm Plantation Development" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-11-29.
- "Promoting the Growth and Use of Sustainable Palm Oil". RSPO. Archived from the original on 2007-07-06. Retrieved 2007-12-01.
- PCR-Based DGGE and FISH Analysis of Methanogens in Anaerobic Closed Digester Tank Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent. Meisam Tabatabaei, Mohd Rafein Zakaria, Raha Abdul Rahim, André-Denis G. Wright, Yoshihito Shirai, Norhani Abdullah, Kenji Sakai, Shinya Ikeno, Masatsugu Mori, Nakamura Kazunori, Alawi Sulaiman and Mohd Ali Hassan, 2009, Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, Vol.12 No.3, Issue of 15 July 2009, ISSN 0717-3458
- Cooking the Climate Greenpeace UK Report, November 15, 2007
- Once a Dream, Palm Oil May Be an Eco-Nightmare The New York Times, January 31, 2007
- Land Clearing and the Biofuel Carbon Debt. Joseph Fargione, Jason Hill, David Tilman, Stephen Polasky, and Peter Hawthorne. Published online 7 February 2008 doi:10.1126/science.1152747 (in Science Express Reports) Environment, the National Science Foundation DEB0620652, Princeton Environmental Institute, and the Bush Foundation. We thank T. Searchinger for valuable comments and insights, and J. Herkert for providing references. Supporting Online Material www.sciencemag.org.Abstract Supporting Online Material.
- "Palm oil: Cooking the Climate". Greenpeace. 2007-11-08. Archived from the original on 2007-11-10. Retrieved 2007-12-02.
- "The truth about oil palms and carbon sinks". New Straits Times. 7 November 2010. Archived from the original on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- Malaysia: Second National Communication to the UNFCCC (PDF) (Report). Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Malaysia. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- "Greenpeace hands over Forest Defenders Camp in Riau to community, allies". Greenpeace Philippines. Retrieved 2019-05-02.
- Lian Pin Koh and David S. Wilcove (2007). "Cashing in palm oil for conservation". Nature. 448 (7157): 993–994. Bibcode:2007Natur.448..993K. doi:10.1038/448993a. PMID 17728739. S2CID 4399026.
- NGOs should use palm oil to drive conservation Rhett A. Butler, Mongabay, 29 August 2007
- Vermeulen and Goad. 2006. Towards better practice in smallholder palm oil production. IIED
- Malaysian Palm Trees Are Fine and Green, Too. January 25, 2008. OP-ED letter from the CEO of the Malaysian Palm Oil Council, WSJ online
- Sarif, Edy (17 June 2011). "Malaysia expected to maintain position as world's largest producer of Certified Sustainable Palm Oil". The Malaysian Star. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- McDougall, Andrew (22 June 2011). "RSPO names Malaysia as world's largest producer of sustainable palm oil". Cosmetics Design. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- "Sustainable plam oil is good for business WWF study". World Wildlife Federation. 10 April 2012. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Eshelman, Robert S. (November 3, 2014). "Indonesian government's concession policy prioritizes companies over forest communities". Mongabay. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- Media, Tim (May 8, 2014). "Mina Setra Wakili Regio Kalimantan" (in Indonesian). Dewan Kehutanan Nasional. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- How the palm oil industry is Cooking the Climate Greenpeace November 2007
- US soyoil, low in trans fat, faces palm threat, Reuters, 3 March 2007
- "Burning palm oil fuels climate change". Friends of the Earth. Aug 23, 2006.
- Saunders, Daniel J.; Balagtas, Joseph V.; Gruere, Guillaume (March 2012). Revisiting the Palm Oil Boom in Southeast Asia (PDF) (Report). International Food Policy Research Institute. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- "The greenhouse and air quality emissions of biodiesel blends in Australia". csiro.au. The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. 26 November 2007. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- "FAQ: Palm oil, forests and climate change". greenpeace.org.uk. Greenpeace UK. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- Jack Wong (20 September 2010). "Less carbon dioxide from oil palm estates". The Star. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- Erin Vogele (16 March 2011). "Mission achieves ISCC certification, loses contract with Chevron". Biodiesel Magazine. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
- "RSPO Announcement: On the Approval from the European Commission of RSPO-RED, the Biofuels Certification Scheme of the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil" (Press release). RSPO. 28 November 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
- Adnan, Hanim (28 March 2011). "A shot in the arm for CSPO". The Star Online. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- Watson, Emma (5 October 2012). "WWF: Industry should buy into GreenPalm today, or it will struggle to source fully traceable sustainable palm oil tomorrow". Food Navigator. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- "How the Palm Oil Industry is Cooking the Climate" (PDF). greenpeace.org. Greenpeace International. 2007. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- Gillespie, Piers; Harjanthi, Rahayu Siti (2 November 2012). "ISPO, RSPO: Two sides of the same coin?". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- "Having own palm oil certification hailed". Daily Express. 14 September 2011. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- Hanim Adnan. (2013, September 4). "Malaysia to launch palm oil standard by next year," The Star. Accessed: October 5, 2013.
- Muhamad, Halimah; Sahid, Ismail Bin; Surif, Salmijah; Ai, Tan Yew; May, Choo Yuen (May 2012). "A Gate-to-gate Case Study of the Life Cycle Assessment of an Oil Palm Seedling". Tropical Life Sciences Research. 23 (1): 15–23. ISSN 1985-3718. PMC 3799395. PMID 24575222.
- Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen (December 2014). "Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds". Tropical Life Sciences Research. 25 (2): 41–51. ISSN 1985-3718. PMC 4814145. PMID 27073598.
- Yew, Ai Tan; Muhammad, Halimah; Hashim, Zulkifli; Subramaniam, Vijaya; Puah, Chiew Wei; Chong, Chiew Let; Ma, Ah Ngan; Choo, Yuen May (22 December 2010). "Life Cycle Assessment Of Refined Palm Oil Production and Fractionation (Part 4)" (PDF). Journal of Oil Palm Research. 22: 913–926.
- Puah C. W., Choo Y. M. And Ma A. N. 2010. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production and Use of Palm Biodiesel (Part 5). Journal of Oil Palm Research 22:927-933.
- "Certified 'sustainable' palm oil fields endanger mammal habitats and biodiverse tropical forests over 30 years". phys.org. Retrieved 16 August 2020.
- Cazzolla Gatti, Roberto; Velichevskaya, Alena (10 November 2020). "Certified "sustainable" palm oil took the place of endangered Bornean and Sumatran large mammals habitat and tropical forests in the last 30 years". Science of the Total Environment. 742: 140712. Bibcode:2020ScTEn.742n0712C. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140712. ISSN 0048-9697. PMID 32721759. Retrieved 16 August 2020.
- Chiew, Hilary (1 April 2008). "Developing countries play role to minimise global warming". The Star. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
- Carbon market takes sides in palm oil battle Carbon Finance, 23 November 2007
- Varming, Soeren; Dutschke, Michael (14 May 2008). "CDM is promoting sustainable palm oil". Point Carbon Newsletter: CDM & JI Monitor. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
- "2011 Palm Oil Buyers' Scorecard". wwf.panda.org. World Wildlife Foundation. 2011. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
- Watson, Elaine (21 June 2011). "Certified sustainable palm oil derivatives 'prohibitively expensive' in US". Food Navigator. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
- Lingga, Vincent (1 November 2012). "Consumer response to certified palm oil products still weak". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
- Freedman, Shari (May 2010). Farms Here, Forests There: Tropical Deforestation and U.S. Competitiveness in Agriculture and Timber (PDF) (Report). David Gardner and Assoc. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
- Butler, R. A.; Laurance, W. F (2009). "Is oil palm the next emerging threat to the Amazon?" (PDF). Tropical Conservation Science. 2 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1177/194008290900200102. S2CID 37419639.
- How the Palm Oil Industry is Cooking the Climate (PDF). Netherlands: Greenpeace International. November 2007.
- "Burning down the House: How Unilever and other global brands continue to fuel Indonesia's fires". Cite journal requires
- Greening the World with Palm Oil? – an in-depth analysis on palm oil's impact on the environment, Mongabay.com, January 26, 2011
- Cooking the Climate – a Greenpeace report on the palm oil industry
- Palm oil publications from Greenpeace
- Bruce Parry's Penan documentary showing the social and environmental impact of palm plantations in Malaysia
- "The slippery business of palm oil" – The Guardian, November 6, 2008
- "Palm oil: the biofuel of the future driving an ecological disaster now" – The Guardian, April 4, 2006
- "Palm Oil and Tropical Deforestation: Is There a Sustainable Solution?" – Union of Concerned Scientists