Social distancing

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Not to be confused with Social distance.

Social distancing is a term applied to certain nonpharmaceutical infection control actions that are taken by public health officials to stop or slow down the spread of a highly contagious disease.[1] The objective of social distancing is to reduce the probability of contact between persons carrying an infection, and others who are not infected, so as to minimize disease transmission, morbidity and ultimately, mortality.[2] Social distancing may be ineffective in cases where the infection is transmitted primarily via contaminated water or food or by a vector such as mosquitoes or other insects, and less frequently from person to person.[3]

One of the earliest references to social distancing dates to the seventh century BC in the Book of Leviticus, 13:45: "And the leper in whom the plague is...he shall dwell alone; [outside] the camp shall his habitation be."[4]

Historically, leper colonies and lazarettos were established as a means of preventing the spread of leprosy and other contagious diseases through social distancing,[5] until transmission was understood and effective treatments were invented.

Examples[edit]

Some examples of social distancing used to control the spread of contagious illnesses include:[6]

  • school closure (proactive or reactive)[7]
  • workplace closure [8]
  • isolation (health care)
  • quarantine
  • cordon sanitaire
  • protective sequestration
  • cancellation of mass gatherings such as sports events, films or musical shows.[9]
  • shutting down or limiting mass transit
  • closing “non-essential” businesses and social services. “Non-essential” means those facilities that do not maintain primary functions in the community, as opposed to essential services.[10]
  • closure of recreational facilities (community swimming pools, youth clubs, gymnasiums).[11]
  • "self-shielding" measures for individuals include limiting face-to-face contacts, conducting business by phone or online, avoiding public places and reducing unnecessary travel.[12][13] The "elbow bump" and the "Dracula sneeze" are additional measures to reduce direct person-to-person transmission of microorganisms.[14]

Effectiveness[edit]

Research indicates that measures must be applied rigorously and immediately in order to be effective.[15] During the 1918 flu pandemic, authorities in the US implemented school closures, bans on public gatherings, and other social distancing interventions in Philadelphia and in St. Louis, but in Philadelphia the delay of five days in initiating these measures allowed transmission rates to double three to five times, whereas a more immediate response in St. Louis was significant in reducing transmission there.[16] Bootsma and Ferguson analyzed social distancing interventions in 16 US cities during the 1918 epidemic and found that time-limited interventions reduced total mortality only moderately (perhaps 10–30%), and that the impact was often very limited because the interventions were introduced too late and lifted too early. It was observed that several cities experienced a second epidemic peak after social distancing controls were lifted, because susceptible individuals who had been protected were now exposed.[17]

School closures[edit]

School closures were shown to reduce morbidity from the Asian Flu by 90% during the 1957-58 outbreak,[18] and up to 50% in controlling influenza in the US, 2004-2008.[19] Similarly, mandatory school closures and other social distancing measures were associated with a 29% to 37% reduction in influenza transmission rates during the 2009 flu epidemic in Mexico.[20]

Workplace closures[edit]

Modeling and simulation studies based on US data suggest that if 10% of affected workplaces are closed, the overall infection transmission rate is around 11.9% and the epidemic peak time is slightly delayed. In contrast, if 33% of affected workplaces are closed, the attack rate decreases to 4.9%, and the peak time is delayed by 1 week.[21]

Quarantine of contacts and suspected cases[edit]

During the 2003 SARS outbreak in Singapore, some 8,000 persons were subjected to mandatory home quarantine and an additional 4,300 were required to self-monitor for symptoms and make daily telephone contact with health authorities as a means of controlling the epidemic. Although only 58 of these individuals were eventually diagnosed with SARS, public health officials were satisfied that this measure assisted in preventing further spread of the infection.[22] Voluntary self-isolation may have helped reduce transmission of influenza in Texas in 2009.[23]

Cordon sanitaire[edit]

During the 2003 SARS outbreak in Canada, "community quarantine" was used to reduce transmission of the disease with moderate success.[24]

Canceling mass gatherings[edit]

Evidence suggesting that mass gatherings increase the potential for infectious disease transmission is inconclusive.[25] There is some evidence that certain types of mass gatherings may be associated with increased risk of influenza transmission. They may also "seed" new strains into an area, and may instigate community transmission in a pandemic. Restricting mass gatherings, in combination with other social distancing interventions, may help reduce transmission.[26]

Travel restrictions[edit]

Border restrictions and/or internal travel restrictions are unlikely to delay an epidemic by more than 2–3 weeks unless implemented with over 99% coverage.[27] Airport screening was found to be ineffective in preventing viral transmission during the 2003 SARS outbreak in Canada[28] and the US.[29] Strict border controls between Austria and the Ottoman Empire, imposed from 1770 until 1871 to prevent persons infected with the bubonic plague from entering Austria, were reportedly effective, as there were no major outbreaks of plague in Austrian territory after they were established, whereas the Ottoman Empire continued to suffer frequent epidemics of plague until the mid-nineteenth century.[30]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Information about Social Distancing," Santa Clara Public Health Department.
  2. ^ Pandemic Planning - Social Distancing Fact Sheet
  3. ^ "Interim Pre-Pandemic Planning Guidance: Community Strategy for Pandemic Influenza Mitigation in the United States—Early, Targeted, Layered Use of Nonpharmaceutical Interventions," CDC, Feb 2007
  4. ^ Bible Gateway, Authorized King James Version, Leviticus 13
  5. ^ Charles Léon Souvay, "Leprosy," Catholic Encyclopedia (1913), Volume 9.
  6. ^ Kathy Kinlaw, Robert Levine, "Ethical Guidelines on Pandemic Influenza," CDC, December 2006
  7. ^ Cauchemez, S., Ferguson, N. M., Wachtel, C., Tegnell, A., Saour, G., Duncan, B., & Nicoll, A. (2009). "Closure of schools during an influenza pandemic." The Lancet infectious diseases, 9(8), 473-481.
  8. ^ Supriya Kumar, Sandra Crouse Quinn, Kevin H. Kim, Laura H. Daniel, and Vicki S. Freimuth. The Impact of Workplace Policies and Other Social Factors on Self-Reported Influenza-Like Illness Incidence During the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic. American Journal of Public Health: January 2012, Vol. 102, No. 1, pp. 134-140. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2011.300307
  9. ^ R. Booy and J. Ward, "Evidence compendium and advice on social distancing and other related measures for response to an influenza pandemic," National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance.
  10. ^ "Social Distancing Support Guidelines," Colorado Dept. of Public Health and Environment, March 2008.
  11. ^ "Flu Pandemic Mitigation - Social Distancing"
  12. ^ Glass RJ, Glass LM, Beyeler WE, Min HJ. "Targeted Social Distancing Designs for Pandemic Influenza." Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(11):1671-1681. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1211.060255
  13. ^ "Social Distancing Guidelines (for workplace communicable disease outbreaks)"
  14. ^ "Guidance on Preparing Workplaces for an Influenza Pandemic," OSHA 3327-02N 2007
  15. ^ Savi Maharaj, Adam Kleczkowski, "Controlling epidemic spread by social distancing: Do it well or not at all." BMC Public Health, 201212:679 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-12-679
  16. ^ Hatchett RJ, Mecher CE, Lipsitch M (2007). "Public health interventions and epidemic intensity during the 1918 influenza pandemic". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 104 (18): 7582–7587. doi:10.1073/pnas.0610941104. PMC 1849867Freely accessible. PMID 17416679. 
  17. ^ Bootsma MC, Ferguson NM (2007). "The effect of public health measures on the 1918 influenza pandemic in U.S. cities". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 104 (18): 7588–7593. doi:10.1073/pnas.0611071104. PMC 1849868Freely accessible. PMID 17416677. 
  18. ^ Chin TD, Foley JF, Doto IL, Gravelle CR, Weston J. "Morbidity and mortality characteristics of Asian strain influenza." Public Health Rep. 1960;75:148–58.
  19. ^ Wheeler CC, Erhart LM, Jehn ML. "Effect of school closure on the incidence of influenza among school -age children in Arizona." Public Health Reports, 2010;125(6):851–859.
  20. ^ Flu Pandemic Study Supports Social Distancing," NIH Research Matters, June 6, 2011.
  21. ^ Rousculp MD, Johnston SS, Palmer LA, Chu BC, Mahadevia PJ, Nichol KL. "Attending work while sick: implication of flexible sick leave policies." Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2010;52(10):1009–1013.
  22. ^ Chorh-Chuan Tan, "SARS in Singapore – Key Lessons from an Epidemic," Annals Academy of Medicine, May 2006, Vol. 35 No.5.
  23. ^ Teh B, Olsen K, Black J, Cheng AC, Aboltins C, Bull K, et al. "Impact of swine influenza and quarantine measures on patients and households during the H1N1/09 pandemic." Scandinavian Journal of In fectious Diseases, 2012;44(4):289–296.
  24. ^ Bondy SJ, Russell ML, Laflèche JM, Rea E. "Quantifying the impact of community quarantine on SARS transmission in Ontario: estimation of secondary case count difference and number needed to quarantine." BMC Public Health, 2009 Dec 24;9:488.
  25. ^ Thomas V. Inglersby et al, "Disease Mitigation Measures in the Control of Pandemic Influenza," Biosecurity and Bioterrorism Biodefense Strategy & Science, Volume 4, Number 4,2006
  26. ^ Ishola DAJ PN. "Could influenza transmission be reduced by restricting mass gatherings? Towards an evidence-based policy framework." Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, 2011;1:33- 60.
  27. ^ Ferguson NM, Cummings DA, Fraser C, Cajka JC, Cooley PC, Burke DS. "Strategies for mitigating an influenza pandemic." Nature. 2006;442:448–52.
  28. ^ Bell DM, World Health Organization Working Group on Prevention of International and Community Transmission of SARS. "Public health interventions and SARS spread, 2003." Emerg Infect Dis., 2004;10(11):1900–1906.
  29. ^ Martin Cetron, et al. "Isolation and Quarantine: Containment Strategies for SARS, 2003." From Learning from SARS: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak, National Academy of Sciences, 2004. ISBN 0309594332
  30. ^ George C. Kohn, Encyclopedia of Plague and Pestilence: From Ancient Times to the Present, Infobase Publishing, 2007; p. 30. ISBN 1438129238