Social isolation

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Not to be confused with emotional isolation, recluse, or hermit.
For social isolation to facilitate abuse, see isolation to facilitate abuse.

Social isolation is a state of complete or near-complete lack of contact between an individual and society. It differs from loneliness, which reflects a temporary lack of contact with other humans. Social isolation can be an issue for individuals of any age, though symptoms may differ by age group.[1]

Social isolation has similar characteristics in both temporary instances and for those with a historical lifelong isolation cycle. All types of social isolation can include staying home for lengthy periods of time, having no communication with family, acquaintances or friends, and/or willfully avoiding any contact with other humans when those opportunities do arise.


True social isolation over years and decades can be a chronic condition affecting all aspects of a person's existence. Social isolation can lead to feelings of loneliness, fear of others, or negative self-esteem. Lack of consistent human contact can also cause conflict with the (peripheral) friends the socially isolated person may occasionally talk to or cause problems with family members.

The magnitude of risk associated with social isolation is comparable with that of cigarette smoking and other major biomedical and psychosocial risk factors. However, our understanding of how and why social isolation is risky for health — or conversely — how and why social ties and relationships are protective of health, still remains quite limited.

James S. House, Psychosomatic Medicine, Issue 2, Volume 63, Page(s) 273 - 274[2]

In the case of mood-related isolation, the individual may isolate during a depressive episode only to 'surface' when their mood improves. The individual may attempt to justify their reclusive or isolating behavior as enjoyable or comfortable. There can be an inner realization on the part of the individual that there is something wrong with their isolating responses which can lead to heightened anxiety.[1] Relationships can be a struggle, as the individual may reconnect with others during a healthier mood only to return to an isolated state during a subsequent low or depressed mood.

Research by Cole and colleagues showed that perceived social isolation is associated with gene expression — specifically, the under-expression of genes bearing anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid response elements and over-expression of genes bearing response elements for pro-inflammatory NF-κB/Rel transcription factors.[3] This finding is paralleled by decreased lymphocyte sensitivity to physiological regulation by the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis in lonely individuals, which together with evidence of increased activity of the HPA axis, suggests the development of glucocorticoid resistance in chronically lonely individuals.[citation needed]

In social animal species in general[edit]

In a hypothesis proposed by Cacioppo and colleagues, the isolation of a member of a social species has detrimental biological effects. In a 2009 review, Cacioppo and Hawkley noted that the health, life, and genetic legacy of members of social species are threatened when they find themselves on the social perimeter.[4] For instance, social isolation decreases lifespan in the fruit fly; promotes obesity and Type 2 diabetes in mice;[5] exacerbates infarct size and oedema and decreases post-stroke survival rate following experimentally induced stroke in mice; promotes activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary response to an acute immobilisation or cold stressor in rats; delays the effects of exercise on adult neurogenesis in rats; decreases open field activity, increases basal cortisol concentrations, and decreases lymphocyte proliferation to mitogens in pigs; increases the 24 hr urinary catecholamines levels and evidence of oxidative stress in the aortic arch of rabbits; and decreases the expression of genes regulating glucocorticoid response in the frontal cortex of piglets.

Social isolation in the common starling, a highly social, flocking species of bird, has also been shown to stress the isolated birds.[6]


Social isolation is both a potential cause and a symptom of emotional or psychological challenges. As a cause, the perceived inability to interact with the world and others can create an escalating pattern of these challenges. As a symptom, periods of isolation can be chronic or episodic, depending upon any cyclical changes in mood, especially in the case of clinical depression.

Every day aspects of this type of deep-rooted social isolation can mean:

  • staying home for days or even weeks at a time due to lack of access to social situations rather than a desire to be alone;
  • both not contacting, and not being contacted by, any acquaintances, even peripherally; for example, never being called by anybody on the telephone and never having anyone visit one's residence;
  • a lack of meaningful, extended relationships, and especially close intimacy (both emotional and physical).[citation needed]

Contributing factors[edit]

The following risk factors contribute to reasons why individuals distance themselves from society.[7][8]

  • Domestic violence – perpetrator uses social isolation as a means of controlling their victim.[9]
  • Health and disabilities – People may be embarrassed by their disabilities or health issues such that they have a tendency to isolate themselves to avoid social interaction out of fear that they would be judged or stigmatised.
  • Loss of a spouse – Once a spouse has died, the other person may feel lonely and depressed.
  • Living alone.
  • Unemployment.
  • Aging – Once a person reaches an age where issues such as cognitive impairments and disabilities arise, they are unable to go out and socialise.
  • Transport issues – If the person doesn't have transport to attend gatherings or to simply get out of the house, they have no choice but to stay home all day which can lead to those feelings of depression.
  • Societal adversity – Desire to avoid the discomfort, dangers, and responsibilities arising from being among people. This can happen if other people are sometimes, or often, rude, hostile, critical or judgmental, crude, or otherwise unpleasant. The person would just prefer to be alone to avoid the hassles and hardships of dealing with people. There are some cases when not even seeing the sun long enough each day will affect them; by the time they try to go out and play, heart attacks and heat strokes are more common.

Social isolation can begin early in life. During this time of development, a person may become more preoccupied with feelings and thoughts of their individuality that are not easy to share with other individuals. This can result from feelings of shame, guilt, or alienation during childhood experiences.[10] Social isolation can also coincide with developmental disabilities. Individuals with learning impairments may have trouble with social interaction. The difficulties experienced academically can greatly impact the individual's esteem and sense of self-worth. An example would be the need to repeat a year of school. During the early childhood developmental years, the need to fit in and be accepted is paramount. Having a learning deficit can in turn lead to feelings of isolation, that they are somehow 'different' from others.[citation needed]

Substance abuse can also be an element in isolation, whether a cause or a result. This can and many times does coincide with mood related disorders, but also with loneliness. According to a study that was conducted by Kimmo Herttua, Pekka Martikainen, Jussi Vahtera, and Mika Kivimäki, living alone can increase rates of being socially isolated and leading individuals to turn to the use of alcohol and other substances.[citation needed]

The loss of a loved one can contribute to social isolation. Studies have shown that widows who keep in contact with friends or relatives have better psychological health. A study conducted by Jung-Hwal Ha and Berit Ingersoll-Dayton concluded that widows who had a lot of social contact and interactions lead to fewer depressive symptoms. During a time of loss social isolation is not beneficial to an individual's mental health.[11]

Whether new technologies such as the Internet and mobile phones exacerbate social isolation (of any origin) is a debated topic among sociologists.[citation needed] With the advent of online social networking communities, there are increasing options to become involved with social activities that do not require real-world physical interaction. Chat rooms, message boards, and other types of communities can meet the needs of those who would rather be alone, yet still develop communities of online friends.

Isolation among the elderly[edit]

The elderly have a unique set of isolating dynamics. Increasing frailty, possible declines in overall health, absent or uninvolved relatives or children, economic struggles can all add to the feeling of isolation. Among the elderly, childlessness can be a cause for social isolation. Whether their child is deceased or they didn't have children at all, the loneliness that comes from not having a child can cause social isolation.[12] Retirement, the abrupt end of daily work relationships, the death of close friends or spouses can also contribute to social isolation.[13] In the United States, Canada, and United Kingdom, a significant sector of the elderly who are in their 80s and 90s are brought to nursing homes if they show severe signs of social isolation. Other societies such as many in Southern Europe, Eastern Europe, East Asia, and also the Caribbean (like Jamaica) and South America, do not normally share the tendency towards admission to nursing homes, preferring instead to have children and extended-family of elderly parents take care of those elderly parents until their deaths.[7][14]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Khullar, Bhruv. "How Social Isolation Is Killing Us". The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved January 26, 2017. 
  2. ^ House, James S. (2001). "Social Isolation Kills, But How and Why?". Psychosomatic Medicine. 63 (2): 273–4. PMID 11292275. 
  3. ^ Cole, Steve W; Hawkley, Louise C; Arevalo, Jesusa M; Sung, Caroline Y; Rose, Robert M; Cacioppo, John T (2007). "Social regulation of gene expression in human leukocytes". Genome Biology. 8 (9): R189. doi:10.1186/gb-2007-8-9-r189. PMC 2375027Freely accessible. PMID 17854483. 
  4. ^ Cacioppo, John T.; Hawkley, Louise C. (2009). "Perceived social isolation and cognition". Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 13 (10): 447–54. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2009.06.005. PMC 2752489Freely accessible. PMID 19726219. 
  5. ^ Nonogaki, K.; Nozue, K.; Oka, Y. (2007). "Social Isolation Affects the Development of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in Mice". Endocrinology. 148 (10): 4658–66. doi:10.1210/en.2007-0296. PMID 17640995. 
  6. ^ Apfelbeck, Beate; Raess, Michael (2008). "Behavioural and hormonal effects of social isolation and neophobia in a gregarious bird species, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris)". Hormones and Behaviour. 54 (3): 435–41. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2008.04.003. PMID 18514197. 
  7. ^ a b Social Isolation Among Seniors: An Emerging Issue (PDF). British Columbia Ministry of Health. 2004. [page needed]
  8. ^ Cacioppo, John T.; Hawkley, Louise C. (2003). "Social Isolation and Health, with an Emphasis on Underlying Mechanisms". Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. 46 (3): S39–52. doi:10.1353/pbm.2003.0049. PMID 14563073. 
  9. ^ For survivors, Domestic Violence Resource Centre Victoria 
  10. ^ Newman, Barbara M.; Newman, Philip R. (2011). "Isolation". Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach. Wadsworth. p. 469. ISBN 978-1-111-34466-5. 
  11. ^ Ha, Jung-Hwa; Ingersoll-Dayton, Berit (2011). "Moderators in the relationship between social contact and psychological distress among widowed adults". Aging & Mental Health. 15 (3): 354–63. doi:10.1080/13607863.2010.519325. PMC 3095214Freely accessible. PMID 21491220. 
  12. ^ Bachrach, Christine A. (1980). "Childlessness and Social Isolation among the Elderly". Journal of Marriage and Family. 42 (3): 627–37. doi:10.2307/351906. JSTOR 351906. 
  13. ^ Blau, Zena Smith (1961). "Structural Constraints on Friendships in Old Age". American Sociological Review. 26 (3): 429–39. doi:10.2307/2090670. JSTOR 2090670. 
  14. ^ Lowenthal, Marjorie Fiske (1964). "Social Isolation and Mental Illness in Old Age". American Sociological Review. 29 (1): 54–70. doi:10.2307/2094641. JSTOR 2094641. 

Further reading[edit]