Social movement organization
In social movement theory, a social movement organization (often capitalized in academic literature as Social Movement Organization or abbreviated as SMO) is an organized component of a social movement (SM). SMO usually is only part of a particular social movement; in other words, a specific social movement is usually composed of many social movement organizations – formal organizations that share movement's goals. Social movement organizations usually have coordinating roles in social movements, but do not actually employ or direct most of the participants, who are part of a wider social movement community. Social movement organizations carry out the tasks that are necessary for any social movement to survive and to be successful.
For instance, the civil rights movement was a social movement composed of specific social movement organizations (like SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee) or CORE (Congress of Racial Equality)). PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) advocates for vegan lifestyles along with its other aims. But PETA is not the only group to advocate for vegan diets and lifestyles; there are numerous other groups actively engaged toward this end. Thus, the social movement is the general push toward veganism (an effort with numerous motivations) and PETA is only a single SMO working within the broader social movement. The peace movement is composed of many groups that want peace – groups that classify as SMOs such as Peace Action (SANE/FREEZE), Fellowship of Reconciliation and others. Ku Klux Klan is yet another SMO – part of the white supremacist movement. Al-Qaeda, acting as a coordinating body for a large number of loosely connected anti-American organizations and individuals is another example of a social movement organization.
An organizational equivalent of a particular social movement – a collection of all SMOs focused on a given field – is known as a Social Movement Industry (SMI). Social Movement Industries are similar to social movements in scope but are seen as having more structure. Social movement industries can be combined into one Social Movement Sector in the society.
The term SMO entered the literature through the work of Mayer N. Zald and Roberta Ash (Zald, Mayer N. and Roberta Ash, Social Movement Organizations: Growth, Decay and Change. Social Forces 44:327-341, 1966).
- Mayer N. Zald, John D. McCarthy, Social Movements in an Organizational Society: Collected Essays, Transaction Publishers, 1997, ISBN 0-88738-802-7, Google Print, p. 21
- Maurer, Donna. 2002. Vegetarianism: Movement or Moment? Philadelphia: Temple University Press. ISBN 1-56639-936-X
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- John Lofland, Social Movement Organizations: Guide to Research on Insurgent Realities, Aldine Transaction, 1996, ISBN 0-202-30553-8, Google Print, p.1
- Kevin Michael DeLuca, Image Politics: The New Rhetoric of Environmental Activism, Routledge, 2005, ISBN 0-8058-5848-2, Google Print, p.30
- Suzanne Staggenborg, The Pro-choice Movement: Organization and Activism in the Abortion Conflict, Oxford University Press US, 1994 ISBN 0-19-508925-1, Google Print, p. 189
- Morris Rosenberg; Ralph H. Turner; American Sociological Association. Section on Social Psychology (1981). Social psychology: sociological perspectives. Basic Books, Inc. p. 464. ISBN 978-0-465-07904-9. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Crabtree, Charity. "Where Culture, Structure, and the Individual Meet: A Social Movement Organization in Action" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Marriott Hotel, Loews Philadelphia Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 12, 2005 Online
- Jo Freeman, A Model for Analyzing the Strategic Options of Social Movement Organizations, n The Dynamics of Social Movements ed. by Mayer N. Zald and John D. McCarthy, Cambridge, Mass.: Winthrop Publishers, 1979, pp. 167–189. Revised edition online.
- Jo Freeman, CRISES AND CONFLICTS IN SOCIAL MOVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS, Chrysalis: A Magazine of Women's Culture, No. 5, 1978, pp. 43–51.
- Manuel Hensmans, Social Movement Organizations: A Metaphor for Strategic Actors in Institutional Fields, Organization Studies, Vol. 24, No. 3, 355-381 (2003) SAGE
- Jeff Goodwin, James M. Jasper, The Social Movements Reader: Cases and Concepts, Blackwell Publishing, 2003, ISBN 0-631-22196-4
- Mayer N. Zald and Roberta Ash, Social Movement Organizations: Growth, Decay and Change, Social Forces, Vol. 44, No. 3 (Mar., 1996), pp. 327–341, JSTOR
- Zald, Mayer N. and McCarthy, John D., Social Movement Industries: Competition and Cooperation Among Movement Organizations, 1979, working paper,