A social pension (also known as a non-contributory pension) is a regular cash transfer to older people. Eligibility is based on age and citizenship/residency, and almost always on means such as income, assets or other pension income. Over 100 countries in the world have some form of social pension, although design varies significantly.  However the social pension is among of the guarantees of the social protection floor with ILO recommendation 202 (2012)
The term "citizen's pension" (known also as universal pension, demogrant or categorical pension) is used to describe a social pension that realises the right to basic income in old age. Citizen's pensions are based in law and provide cash transfers to older people subject only to tests of age and citizenship/residency, never income, assets or other pension income. A citizen's pension is not a retirement pension. There is no income test, so it is not necessary to stop working to receive it.
Some researchers apply the term "citizen's pension" to social pensions that exclude - partially or totally - older people with other pension income, irrespective of their non-pension income or wealth. "Universal minimum pension" is a better description of such a scheme, which tops up small pensions and provides full, basic pensions only to those with no other pension income.
- Social insurance
- Social protection
- Social safety net
- Welfare state
- Welfare culture
- Social protection floor
- HelpAge International Pension watch country fact file http://www.pension-watch.net/country-fact-file/
- HelpAge International Social Pensions Database http://www.pension-watch.net/about-social-pensions/about-social-pensions/social-pensions-database/