Social pension

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A social pension (also known as a non-contributory pension) is a regular cash transfer to older people. Eligibility is based on age and citizenship/residency, and almost always on means such as income, assets or other pension income. Over 100 countries in the world have some form of social pension, although design varies significantly.[1] [2] [3]

Citizen's pension[edit]

The term "citizen's pension" (known also as universal pension, demogrant or categorical pension) is used to describe a social pension that realises the right to basic income in old age.[4] Citizen's pensions are based in law and provide cash transfers to older people subject only to tests of age and citizenship/residency, never income, assets or other pension income. A citizen's pension is not a retirement pension. There is no income test, so it is not necessary to stop working to receive it.

Some researchers[5] apply the term "citizen's pension" to social pensions that exclude - partially or totally - older people with other pension income, irrespective of their non-pension income or wealth. "Universal minimum pension" is a better description of such a scheme, which tops up small pensions and provides full, basic pensions only to those with no other pension income.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ HelpAge International Pension watch country fact file
  2. ^ HelpAge International Social Pensions Database
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^

External links[edit]