Social pension

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A social pension (also known as a non-contributory pension) is a regular cash transfer to older people. Eligibility is based on age and citizenship or residency, and almost always on means such as income, assets or other pension income. Over 100 countries[1] in the world have some form of social pension, although design varies significantly.[2] [3][4] However, the social pension is among the guarantees of the social protection floor with ILO recommendation 202 (2012).

Citizen's pension[edit]

The term citizen's pension (known also as universal pension, demogrant or categorical pension) is used to describe a social pension that realises the right to basic income in old age.[5] Citizen's pensions are based in law and provide cash transfers to older people subject only to tests of age and citizenship or residency, never income, assets or other pension income. A citizen's pension is not a retirement pension. There is no income test, so it is not necessary to stop working to receive it.

Some researchers[6] apply the term citizen's pension to social pensions that exclude – partially or totally - older people with other pension income, irrespective of their non-pension income or wealth. "Universal minimum pension" is another description of such a scheme, which tops up small pensions and provides full, basic pensions only to those with no other pension income.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Social pensions database - About social pensions - Pension watch". www.Pension-Watch.net. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  2. ^ "Country map - Country fact file - Pension watch". www.Pension-Watch.net. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  3. ^ "Social pensions database - About social pensions - Pension watch". www.Pension-Watch.net. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  4. ^ "What and where? - About social pensions - Pension watch". www.Pension-Watch.net. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  5. ^ http://larrywillmore.net/SocialPensions.pdf
  6. ^ "Citizen's pensions - Key debates - Pension watch". www.Pension-Watch.net. Retrieved 16 July 2017.