|Names||Social Worker (SW), State Registered Social Worker, Registered Social Worker (RSW), Qualified Social Worker, Qualified Care Manager, Forensic Social Worker, Psychiatric Social Worker, Licensed Social Worker, Clinical Social Worker, Mental Health Social Worker, Childrens Social Workers, Adults Social Worker, Learning Disabilities Social Worker, Drugs and Alcohol Social Worker, Social Work Practitioner, Medical Social Worker, Military Social Work Officer, Social Policy and Planning Social Worker, Community Development Social Worker, Social Advocacy Social Worker, Discharge Planner Social Worker, Radical Social Worker, Anti-Oppression Social Worker, Post-modern Social Worker, Human Rights Social Worker, Critical Social Worker, Structural Social Worker, International Social Worker.|
|Pursuit of promoting well-being, civil liberties, human rights, social welfare and social change through economics, education, ecology, sociology, law, medicine, philosophy, politics, anthropology, psychotherapy, psychology and counselling|
|Education Officer, Psychologist, Psychotherapist, Counselor, Occupational Therapist, Social Policy and Planning, Community Developer, Human Rights Advocate, Social Justice Worker|
Social work is a professional and academic discipline that seeks to improve the quality of life and subjective well-being of individuals, families, couples, groups, and communities through research, policy, community organizing, direct practice, crisis intervention, and teaching for the benefit of those affected by social disadvantages such as poverty, mental and physical illness or disability, and social injustice, including violations of their civil liberties and human rights. The profession is dedicated to the pursuit of social justice and the well-being of oppressed and marginalized individuals and communities. The social work profession is broad.
A person who practices social work is called a social worker. In the UK, the title "Social Worker" is protected by law (under s.61 Care Standards Act 2000) and only those who have undergone approved training at university either through a bachelor's or master's degree in Social Work and are registered with the appropriate professional regulatory body (the Health and Care Professions Council in England, the Scottish Social Services Council in Scotland, the Care Council for Wales, or the Northern Ireland Social Care Council) may practice social work and be called a social worker. To do so otherwise is a criminal offence. Student social workers typically undergo a systematic set of training and qualifications that are distinct from those of social care workers or care assistants, who may undertake a social work role but not necessarily have the qualifications or professional skills of a qualified social worker. Currently, there are no formal qualifications or training to practice as a social care assistant, care worker, or carer, but mostly ancillary staff are accountable to a qualified member of staff, such as a social worker.
Research and the practice of social work focuses on areas such as: mental health and addictions, assessment and diagnosis, human development, sociolegal, psychosocial, issues related to diversity, marginalization and oppression; psychotherapy, counselling, social policy, public administration, social program evaluation, social policy analysis and development, social planning, family and child welfare, and social and community development. Social workers are organized into local, national, continental, and international professional bodies. It is an interdisciplinary field that incorporates theoretical bases from economics, education, sociology, law, medicine, philosophy, ecology, politics, anthropology, and psychology.
- 1 History
- 2 Practice
- 3 Contemporary professional development
- 4 Qualifications
- 5 Role of the professional
- 6 Social workers in literature
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
The practice and profession of social work has a relatively modern and scientific origin, and is generally considered to have developed out of three strands. The first was individual casework, a strategy pioneered by the Charity Organisation Society in the mid-19th century. The second was social administration, which included various forms of poverty relief. Statewide poverty relief could be said to have its roots in the English Poor Laws of the 17th century, but was first systematized through the efforts of the Charity Organisation Society. The third consisted of social action - rather than engaging in the resolution of immediate individual requirements, the emphasis was placed on political action working through the community and the group to improve their social conditions and thereby alleviate poverty. This approach was developed originally by the settlement house movement.
This was accompanied by a less easily defined movement; the development of institutions to deal with the entire range of social problems. All had their most rapid growth during the nineteenth century, and laid the foundational basis for modern social work, both in theory and in practice.
Profesional social work originated in 19th century England, and had its roots in the social and economic upheaval wrought by the Industrial Revolution, in particular the societal struggle to deal with the resultant mass urban-based poverty and its related problems. Because poverty was the main focus of early social work, it was intricately linked with the idea of charity work.
With the decline of feudalism in 16th century England, the indigent poor came to be seen as a more direct threat to the social order. The first complete code of poor relief was made in the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1597 and some provision for the "deserving poor" was eventually made in the Elizabethan Poor Law of 1601. It created a system administered at parish level, paid for by levying local rates on rate payers. Relief for those too ill or old to work, the so-called 'impotent poor', was in the form of a payment or items of food ('the parish loaf') or clothing also known as outdoor relief.
The Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834 completely overhauled the existing system in Britain and established a Poor Law Commission to oversee the national operation of the system. This included the forming together of small parishes into Poor Law Unions and the building of workhouses in each union for the giving of poor relief.
The 19th century saw a great leap forward in technological and scientific achievement. There was also a great migration to urban areas throughout the Western world, which led to many social problems. This galvanised the socially active, prosperous middle and upper classes to search for ways to ameliorate the physical and spiritual conditions of the poor underclasses. A new philosophy of "scientific charity" emerged, which stated charity should be "secular, rational and empirical as opposed to sectarian, sentimental, and dogmatic."
Most historians identify the Charity Organization Society, founded by Helen Bosanquet and Octavia Hill in London in 1869, as the pioneering organization of the social theory that led to the emergence of social work as a professional occupation. COS had its main focus on individual casework. It supported the concept of self-help and limited government intervention to deal with the effects of poverty. The organisation claimed to use "scientific principles to root out scroungers and target relief where it was most needed".
Octavia Hill is regarded by many as the founder of modern social work. She believed in self-reliance, and made it a key part of her housing system that she and her assistants knew their tenants personally and encouraged them to better themselves. She was opposed to municipal provision of housing, believing it to be bureaucratic and impersonal. Under her guidance, the Charity Organisation Society organised charitable grants and pioneered a home-visiting service that formed the basis for modern social work.
A stress on social action that developed in the 1880s, was pioneered by the Settlement house movement. This Movement (creating integrated mixed communities of rich and poor) grew directly out of Octavia Hill's work. Her colleagues Samuel and Henrietta Barnett, founded Toynbee Hall, Oxford House in 1884 in Bethnal Green as the first university-sponsored settlement. Another early organization was Mansfield House Settlement, also in east London. In America, the settlement movement was established by founded by Jane Addams, a young medical student, and Ellen Gates Starr after Addams visited Toynbee Hall and was impressed by the system. She founded Chicago's Hull House in 1889, which focused on providing education and recreational facilities for European immigrant women and children. By 1913, there were 413 settlements in 32 states.
The concept of the Settlement house movement was to bring upper and middle class students into lower-class neighbourhoods, not only to provide education and social aid, but to actually live and work together with their inhabitants. This soon inspired a worldwide movement of university settlements. The idea was to help members of the future elite understand the problems of wider society; this was especially important at a time when class divisions were much stronger, social mobility was minimal, and the living conditions of the poor were completely unknown to many members of the upper class.
By the beginning of the 20th century, these different organizations with their diverse intellectual underpinnings were beginning to coalesce into modern social work. Foundations were established to examine the root causes of social problems such as poverty, and social workers became more professional and scientific in their methodology. The Quaker philanthropist and chocolate manufacturer Joseph Rowntree believed that social evils could be tackled by systematic research, and to that end founded the Joseph Rowntree Foundation in 1904. Rowntree wanted to tackle the root causes of social problems, rather than treating their symptoms. His Memorandum of 1904 stated: "I feel that much of the current philanthropic effort is directed to remedying the more superficial manifestations of weakness or evil, while little thought or effort is directed to search out their underlying causes ... [seek] to search out the under-lying causes of weakness or evil in the community, rather than ... remedying their more superficial manifestations."
The differing approaches to social work often led to heated debates. In the early 20th century, Mary Richmond of the Charity Organization Society (COS) and Jane Addams of the Settlement House Movement engaged in a public dispute over the optimal approach; whether the problem should be tackled with COS' traditional, scientific method that focused on efficiency and prevention, or whether the Settlement House Movement's immersion into the problem, blurring the lines of practitioner and client, was superior.
As the problem of poverty moved up the public agenda, it became increasingly clear that laissez-faire economic policies were not working and that governments had to take proactive measures to reduce poverty, rather than leave the task to privately run organizations. The principles of classical liberalism were being increasingly challenged by downturns in economic growth, a growing perception of the evils of poverty, unemployment and relative deprivation present within modern industrial cities, and the agitation of organized labour. In the early 1900s, the British Liberals under H.H. Asquith introduced various reforms, including health insurance, unemployment insurance, and pensions for elderly workers, thereby laying the groundwork for the future British welfare state.
William Beveridge, often called the 'architect of the welfare state', was pivotal in framing the debate about social work in the context of state welfare provision. His 1942 report on Social Insurance and Allied Services, known commonly as the Beveridge Report, identified five "Giant Evils" in society: squalor, ignorance, want, idleness, and disease, and went on to propose widespread reform to the system of social welfare to mitigate these problems. The report proved very popular with a war-weary public, and went on to form the basis to the post-war expansion of the Welfare State and the creation of the National Health Service, a free at the point of delivery healthcare provider.
Currently, social work is known for its critical and holistic approach to understanding and intervening in social problems. This has led, for example, to the recognition of poverty as having a social and economic basis rooted in social policies rather than representing a personal moral defect. This trend also points to another historical development in the evolution of social work: once a profession engages in social control, it is directed at social and personal empowerment.
Social work is an interdisciplinary profession, meaning it draws from a number of areas, such as (but not limited to) psychology, sociology, politics, criminology, economics, ecology, education, health, law, philosophy, anthropology and counseling, also known as psychotherapy. It is not a 'single model', such as that of health, followed by medical professional such as nurses and doctors, but like nurses and doctors, social work requires study and continued professional development to retain knowledge and skills in practice. Family therapy as a distinct professional practice within Western cultures can be argued to have had its origins in the social work movements of the 19th century in the United Kingdom and the United States. As an example, here are some of the social work models (or theories) used within practice:
- Brief therapy
- Mental health
- Crisis intervention
- Medical or clinical
- Person-centered therapy
- Body psychotherapy
- Radical[disambiguation needed]
- Social exchange
- Solution focused
- Strength-based practice
- Community intervention and development
Contemporary professional development
The International Federation of Social Workers says of social work today that
social work is a practice-based profession and an academic discipline that promotes social change and development, social cohesion, and the empowerment and liberation of people. Principles of social justice, human rights, collective responsibility and respect for diversities are central to social work. Underpinned by theories of social work, social sciences, humanities and indigenous knowledge, social work engages people and structures to address life challenges and enhance wellbeing.
Its seven core functions are described by Popple and Leighninger as:
- Engagement- the social worker must first engage the client in early meetings to promote a collaborative relationship.
- Assessment- data must be gathered that will guide and direct a plan of action to help the client
- Planning- negotiate and formulate an action plan
- Implementation- promote resource acquisition and enhance role performance
- Monitoring/Evaluation- on-going documentation through short-term goal attainment of extent to which client is following through
- Supportive Counseling- affirming, challenging, encouraging, informing, and exploring options
- Graduated Disengagement- Seeking to replace the social worker with a naturally occurring resource
Six other core values identified by the National Association of Social Workers' (NASW) Code of Ethics are:
- Service- help people in need and address social problems
- Social Justice- challenge social injustices
- Respect the dignity and worth of the person
- Give importance to human relationships
- Integrity- behave in a trustworthy manner
- Competence- practice within the areas of one's areas of expertise and develop and enhance professional skills
The education of social workers begins with a bachelor's degree (BA, BSc, BSSW, BSW, etc.) or diploma in Social Work. Some countries offer Postgraduate degrees in Social Work, such as a master's degree (MSW, MSS, MSSA, MA, MSc, MRes, MPhil.) or doctoral studies (PhD and DSW (Doctor of Social Work)). Increasingly, graduates of social work programs pursue post-masters and post-doctoral study, including training in psychotherapy.
In the United States, social work undergraduate and master's programs are accredited by the Council on Social Work Education. A CSWE-accredited degree is required for one to become a state-licensed social worker.
A number of countries and jurisdictions requires registration or licensure of people working as social workers, and there are mandated qualifications. In other places, a professional association sets academic requirements for admission to the profession. The success of these professional bodies' efforts is demonstrated in that these same requirements are recognized by employers as necessary for employment.
Social workers have a number of professional associations, which provide ethical guidance and other forms of support for their members and for social work in general. These associations may be international, continental, semi-continental, national, or regional. The main international associations are the International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW) and the International Association of Schools of Social Work (IASSW).
The largest professional social work association in the United States is the National Association of Social Workers. There also exist organizations that represent clinical social workers such as The American Association of Psychoanalysis in Clinical Social Work, AAPCSW is a national organization representing social workers who practice psychoanalytic social work and psychonalysis. There are also a number of states with Clinical Social Work Societies which represent all social workers who conduct psychotherapy from a variety of theoretical frameworks with families, groups and individuals.
In the United Kingdom, just over half of social workers are employed by local authorities, and many of these are represented by UNISON, the public sector employee union. Smaller numbers are members of the Unite the union and the GMB (trade union). The British Union of Social Work Employees (BUSWE) has been a section of the Community (trade union) since 2008. In 2011, the British Association of Social Workers launched a trade union arm for the second time (it first tried this in 1976) called the Social Workers' Union, but this body is not recognized by the TUC or by any employers.
Role of the professional
The main tasks of professional social workers may include a number of services such as case management (linking clients with agencies and programs that will meet their psychosocial needs - common in the US and the UK), counseling and psychotherapy, assessment and diagnosis of mental disorders, child protection/welfare, human services management, social welfare policy analysis, policy and practice development, community organizing, international, social and community development, advocacy, teaching (in schools of social work), and social and political research.
A historic and defining feature of social work is the profession's focus on individual well-being in a social context and the well-being of society. Social workers promote social justice and social change with and on behalf of clients. The term "client" is used to refer to individuals, families, groups, organizations, or communities. In the broadening scope of the modern social worker's role, some practitioners have in recent years traveled to war-torn countries to provide psychosocial assistance to families and survivors.
According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), professional social workers are the nation's largest group of mental health services providers. There are more clinically trained social workers—over 200,000—than psychiatrists, psychologists, and psychiatric nurses combined. Federal law and the National Institutes of Health recognize social work as one of five core mental health professions.
Social workers in literature
In 2011, a critic stated that "novels about social work are rare,"  and as recently as 2004, another critic claimed to have difficulty finding novels featuring a main character holding a Master of Social Work degree.
However, social workers have been the subject of many novels, including:
- Bohjalian, Chris (2007). The double bind: a novel (1st ed.). New York: Shaye Areheart Books. ISBN 9781400047468. 
- Cooper, Philip (2013). Social work man. Leicester: Matador. ISBN 9781780885087. 
- Barrington, Freya (2015). Known to Social Services (1st ed.). USA: FARAXA Publishing. ISBN 9789995782870.
- Desai, Kishwar (2010). Witness the night. London: Beautiful Books. ISBN 9781905636853. 
- Gaige, Amity (2007). The folded world. New York: Other Press. ISBN 1590512480. 
- Irish, Lola (1993). Streets of dust: a novel based on the life of Caroline Chisholm. Kirribilli, N.S.W: Eldorado. ISBN 1864120010.
- Greenlee, Sam (1990) . The spook who sat by the door: a novel. African American life. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0814322468.
- Konrád, György (1987). The case worker. Writers from the other Europe. New York, N.Y., U.S.A: Penguin Books. ISBN 0140099468. 
- Henderson, Smith (2014). Fourth of July Creek: a novel. ISBN 9780062286444. 
- Johnson, Greg (2011). A very famous social worker. Bloomington, IN: iUniverse Inc. ISBN 9781450285483. 
- Johnson, Kristin (2012). Unprotected: a novel. St. Butt, MN: North Star Press. ISBN 9780878395897. 
- Kalpakian, Laura (1992). Graced land (1st ed.). New York: Grove Weidenfeld. ISBN 0802114741. 
- Lewis, Sinclair (1933). Ann Vickers (First ed.). Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran & Company. OCLC 288770.
- Mengestu, Dinaw (2014). All our names (First ed.). New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 9780385349987. 
- Sapphire (1996). Push: a novel (1st ed.). New York: Alfred A. Knopf; Random House. ISBN 0679446265. The basis of the movie Precious.
- Smith, Ali (2011) There But For The, Hamish Hamilton, Pantheon.
- Ungar, Michael (2011). The social worker: a novel. Lawrencetown, N.S: Pottersfield Press. ISBN 9781897426265. 
- Weinbren, Martin (2010). King Welfare. Bakewell: Peakpublish. ISBN 9781907219184. 
Fictional Social Workers in Media
|Sam Healy||Michael Harney||Orange Is the New Black||2013-|
|Toby Flenderson||Paul Lieberstein||The Office||2005-2012|
|Emily Jenkins||Renée Zellweger||Case 39||2009|
|Mary Bell||Angelina Jolie||Pushing Tin||1999|
|Neil Brock||George C. Scott||East Side/West Side||1963/4|
- Approved Mental Health Professional
- Child welfare
- Child sexual abuse
- Clinical social work
- Community development
- Critical social work
- Humanistic social work
- Social work with groups
- Institute of Social Welfare and Research (Dhaka University)
- Mental Health Professional
- Social change
- Social development
- Social planning
- Social research
- Social Scientist
- Social Psychology
- Social theory
- Huff, Dan. "Chapter I. Scientific Philanthropy (1860-1900)". The Social Work History Station. Boise State University. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
- Lymbery. "The History and Development of Social Work" (PDF).
- Popple, Philip R. and Leighninger, Leslie. Socail Work, Social Welfare, American Society.Boston:Allyn&Bacon,2011.Print
- Peter Higginbotham. "www.workhouses.org.uk". www.workhouses.org.uk. Retrieved 2010-12-20.
- "The Old Poor Law 1795–1834". Historyhome.co.uk. 2009-01-19. Retrieved 2009-05-17.
- "A Short Explanation of the English Poor Law". Mdlp.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-05-17.
- "The 1601 Elizabethan Poor Law". Victorianweb.org. 2002-11-12. Retrieved 2009-07-22.
- "Changing attitudes towards poverty after 1815". Victorianweb.org. 2002-11-12. Retrieved 2009-05-17.
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- "Administrative Units Typology | Status definition: Poor Law Union". Visionofbritain.org.uk. Retrieved 2009-05-17.
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- "Social Work History". University of Edinburgh. Archived from the original on 2007-12-21. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
- Huff, Dan. "Chapter I.2 Missionaries & Volunteers". The Social Work History Station. Boise State University. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
- "1800s". Family Action: About Us. Retrieved 17 November 2010.
- Rees, Rosemary (2001). Poverty and Public Health 1815-1949. London: Heinemann.
- Huff, Dan. "Chapter II. Settlements (1880-1900)". The Social Work History Station. Boise State University. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
- Victor J. Danilov (26 September 2013). "Social Activists". Famous Americans: A Directory of Museums, Historic Sites, and Memorials. Scarecrow Press. pp. 356–357. ISBN 978-0-8108-9186-9.
- Husock, H. (1993). "Bringing back the settlement house". Public Welfare, 51(4).
- Alfred Marshall, "On Arnold Toynbee", ed. John K. Whitaker, Marshall Studies Bulletin 6 (1996): 45–48.
- History of JRF on official website
- JRF's Our heritage page
- Parker-Oliver, Debra; Demiris, George (April 2006). "Social Work Informatics: A New Specialty". Social Work (National Association of Social Workers) 51 (2): 127–134. doi:10.1093/sw/51.2.127. PMID 16858918. Retrieved 2008-02-19.
- Beveridge, William. "Social Insurance and Allied Services". British Library. BL. Retrieved 8 July 2014.
- Brian Abel‐Smith, "The Beveridge report: Its origins and outcomes." International Social Security Review (1992) 45#1‐2 pp 5-16.
- Payne, M. (2011). Humanistic Social Work: Core Principles in Practice. Chicago: Lyceum, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan.
- "Global Definition of Social Work". IFSW General Meeting and the IASSW General Assembly in July 2014. International Federation of Social Workers. August 6, 2014. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
- Popple & Leighninger, 2011
- The National Association of Social Workers (NASW, 2005). NASW Fact Sheet. Retrieved November 15, 2006 from http://www.socialworkers.org.
- "Catholic Social Workers National Association".
- Crisp, B.R., Beddoe, L. (December 2012). Promoting Health and Well-being in Social Work Education. Routledge, Retrieved April 16, 2015.
- Stefaroi, Petru. (December 2014). Humane & Spiritual Qualities of the Professional in Humanistic Social Work: Humanistic Social Work - The Third Way in Theory and Practice, Charleston: Createspace, Retrieved April 16, 2015.
- NASW, Code of Ethics
- Keough, Mary Ellen and Samuels, Margaret F. (October 2004). "The Kosovo Family Support Project:Offering Psychosocial Support for Families with Missing Persons". Social Work 49 (4): 587–594. doi:10.1093/sw/49.4.587.
- "National Association of Social Workers". NASW. Retrieved September 6, 2013.
- Bounds, Joy (January 4, 2011). "Book review: King Welfare". Community Care. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
- Marek, Kirsten (April 4, 2004). "Social Workers in Fiction". Blogcritics. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
- "THE DOUBLE BIND by Chris Bohjalian". Kirkus Reviews. February 1, 2007. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
- Greenwell, Faye (February 16, 2014). "BOOK REVIEW: Social Work Man". The Westmorland Gazette. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
- "Witness the Night by Kishwar Desai". Goodreads. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
- Turrentine, Jeff (August 5, 2007). "No Headline". The New York Times. p. 17.
- "The Case Worker by George Konrád". Goodreads. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
- "'Fourth of July Creek,' by Smith Henderson". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
- "A Very Famous Social Worker by Greg Johnson". Goodreads. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
- "Unprotected by Kristin Lee Johnson". Goodreads. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
- Kakutani, Michiko (March 3, 2014). "Out of Uganda, In the Midwest: Dinaw Mengestu's 'All Our Names' Describes Unexpected Love". New York Times. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
- "Exclusive: Interview with Author Sapphire". Social Workers Speak. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
- "Reviews". The Social Worker, a novel, by Michael Ungar. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
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