Socialist Republic of Serbia
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Socialist Republic of Serbia
Социјалистичка Република Србија
Socijalistička Republika Srbija
Serbia within Yugoslavia in 1990
|Status||Constituent republic of Yugoslavia|
|Common languages||Serbo-Croatian (Serbian standard)|
Marxist–Leninist one-party socialist republic
Titoist one-party socialist republic
|Head of state|
• 1944–1953 (first)
• 1989–1990 (last)
|Head of government|
• 1945–1948 (first)
• 1989–1990 (last)
|Historical era||Cold War, World War II|
|9–12 November 1944|
|8 May 1945|
|28 September 1990|
• Federal Republic of Yugoslavia declared
|27 April 1992|
|1981||88,361 km2 (34,116 sq mi)|
|ISO 3166 code||RS|
The Socialist Republic of Serbia (Serbian: Социјалистичка Република Србија, romanized: Socijalistička Republika Srbija), previously known as Federated State of Serbia and People's Republic of Serbia, commonly referred to as Socialist Serbia, or simply as Serbia, was one of the six constituent republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the nation state of the Serbs. It was the largest constituent republic in terms of population and territory. Its capital, Belgrade, was also the federal capital of Yugoslavia.
World War II
After the collapse of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in the April War (1941), the country was occupied and partitioned between Axis powers. The central territories of Serbia and the northern region of Banat were occupied by Nazi Germany, that enforced direct control over the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia, with a puppet Government installed in Belgrade. The regions of Metohija and Kosovo was occupied by Fascist Italy and annexed into the Italian Albania. Region of Bačka was annexed by Hungary, while Syrmia was occupied by the Independent State of Croatia. Southeastern parts of Serbia were occupied by Kingdom of Bulgaria.
In the beginning of the occupation there were two resistance movements: Chetniks and Partisans. By 1943, Chetniks started open collaboration with Axis forces. Partisans advocated transformation of Yugoslavia into a federation, with Serbia becoming one of its federal units. In the autumn of 1941, first provisional institutions were established by partisans in some liberated territories, headed by the Main National Liberation Committee for Serbia. It was seated in Užice, and thus the movement became known as the Republic of Užice. However, the German offensive crushed this proto-state in December of the same year. After this main partisan forces moved to Bosnia.
People's Republic of Serbia
Serbia was liberated in the autumn of 1944, by partisan and the Red Army forces. Soon after the liberation of Belgrade on 20 October, creation of new administration was initiated. In November 1944, the Anti-fascist Assembly for the People's Liberation of Serbia was convened, affirming the policy of reconstituting Yugoslavia as a federation, with Serbia as one of its federal units. Thus was laid the foundation for the creation of the Federated State of Serbia (Serbian: Федерална Држава Србија), as a federated state within new Democratic Federal Yugoslavia.
The process was formalized in In April 1945, when the provisional National Assembly of Serbia was created, also appointing the first Government. Within Serbia, two autonomous units were created: Autonomous Province of Vojvodina and Autonomous Region of Kosovo and Metohija. In January 1946, after the first constitution of federal Yugoslavia was adopted, the Federated State of Serbia was renamed to People's Republic of Serbia (Serbian: Народна Република Србија / Narodna Republika Srbija).
In January 1947, Constitution of Serbia was adopted, reaffirming its position within Yugoslav federation, and also regulating the position of autonomous units (Vojvodina as autonomous province; Kosovo and Metohija as autonomous region). In 1953, a constitutional law was adopted, introducing further social reforms.
Socialist Republic of Serbia
In 1963, new Yugoslav Constitution was adopted, renaming the federal state into the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and its federal units into socialist republics, thus introducing the name: Socialist Republic of Serbia (Serbian: Социјалистичка Република Србија).
In 1966 one of the most prominent Serbs in the Communist party and also vice-president of Yugoslavia and founder of Yugoslav intelligence agency OZNA, Aleksandar Ranković was removed from positions due to allegations of spying on SFRY President Josip Broz Tito.
After the Croatian Spring in 1971, almost whole party leadership of Serbia was removed from office, under the charge of being "liberal". Latinka Perović and Marko Nikezić were marked as leaders of this liberal movement inside League of Communists of Serbia.
In 1974 new constitution was adopted, increasing the powers of provinces, and making them de facto republics. For the first time the institution of president was formed, as President of the Presidency of Socialist Republic of Serbia. Assembly was electing 15 members of the presidency and one president for a 4 -year term, and later 2-year term. The new constitution practically suspended Serbia's authority over the provinces.
After the new constitution was adopted, mistakes became obvious. Dragoslav Marković, then President of Serbia ordered a secret study on this issue. The study was completed in 1977 and was named The Blue Book.
For most of its existence in the SFRY, Serbia was loyal and generally subordinate to the federal government. This changed after the death of Josip Broz Tito in 1980, when Albanian, as well as Serbian nationalism in Kosovo arose. In 1981 a major protests erupted in Kosovo demanding the status of republic. The League of Communists was split on how to respond. At the same time, economic crisis in Yugoslavia started. The leaders of the country were unable to make any reforms, thanks to the political instability.
President of League of Communists of Serbia Slobodan Milošević visited Kosovo in April 1987 and promised rapid action in order to protect peace and Serbs of Kosovo. Ethnic tensions in Kosovo were heated up when Kosovo Albanian soldier opened fire on his fellow soldiers in Paraćin, in an event known as Paraćin massacre. Then President of Serbia Ivan Stambolić wanted to make compromise, rather than fast solution. He found himself in a clash with Milošević. This conflict culminated with 8th Session and replacement of Stambolić with Petar Gračanin as President of Serbia.
In 1988, new amendments to the Yugoslav Constitution were adopted, initiating a process of democratization. During 1988 and 1989, a successful round of coups in the Communist party leadership, known as Antibureucratic revolution, in Vojvodina, Kosovo as well as Montenegro, replaced autonomous leaderships in this regions. The coups were led by Slobodan Milošević; supporter of Serbian nationalism. The events were condemned by the communist governments of the western Yugoslav republics (especially SR Slovenia and SR Croatia), who successfully resisted the attempts to expand the revolt onto their territories, and turned against Milošević. The rising antagonism eventually resulted in the dissolution of the ruling League of Communists of Yugoslavia in 1990, and subsequently in the breakup of Yugoslavia.
In 1989, Slobodan Milošević was elected as President of the State Presidency of Serbia. He demanded that the federal Yugoslav government act for the interests of Serbia in Kosovo by sending in the Yugoslav People's Army to suppress separatism in the province. At the same time, several reforms of federal electoral system were proposed, with Serbia supporting a "one-citizen, one-vote" system, which would have given a majority of votes to Serbs. By that time, ethnic tensions in Yugoslavia increased, and the ruling League of Communists of Yugoslavia collapsed, followed by the crisis of federal institutions. After these events, in 1989 Assembly of Socialist Republic of Serbia voted for constitution amendments that revoked high autonomy for provinces of Vojvodina and Kosovo.
After Slovenian authorities forbid a group of Serbs supporting his politics to gather in Ljubljana, Milosević started a trade war with Socialist Republic of Slovenia in late 1989. This Serbian-Slovenian conflict culminated in January 1990 on 14th Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia when Slovenians left the meeting followed by Croatian delegates.
After 1990, the state was known simply as Republic of Serbia (Serbian: Република Србија / Republika Srbija), and in December of the same year, Slobodan Milošević was elected as first President of the Republic. In 1992, when the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was formed, Serbia became one of its two constituent republics. In 2003 this state union was re-formed into Serbia and Montenegro, and in 2006 Serbia became an independent republic after Montenegro separated.
Within Socialist Republic of Serbia two autonomous provinces existed: Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina and Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo. The central part of the Socialist Republic of Serbia located outside of the two autonomous provinces was generally known as "Serbia proper" ("Uža Srbija").
Geographically SR Serbia bordered Hungary to the north, Romania and Bulgaria to the east and Albania to the south-west. Within Yugoslavia, it bordered SR Macedonia to the south and SR Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia to the west.
In 1971, total population of the Socialist Republic of Serbia numbered 8,446,591 people, including:
- Serbs = 6,142,071 (72.71%)
- Albanians = 984,761 (11.66%)
- Hungarians = 430,314 (5.10%)
- Croats = 184,913 (2.19%)
- ethnic Muslims = 154,330 (1.83%)
- ethnic Yugoslavs = 123,824 (1.47%)
- Slovaks = 76,733 (0.82%)
- Romanians = 57,419 (0.62%)
- Bulgarians = 53,800 (0.58%)
- Romani = 49,894 (0.54%)
- Macedonians = 42,675 (0.46%)
- Rusyns = 20,608 (0.22%)
- Turks = 18,220 (0.20%)
- Slovenes = 15,957 (0.17%)
- Vlachs = 14,724 (0.16%)
In 1981, total population of the Socialist Republic of Serbia numbered 9,313,677 people, including:
- Serbs = 6,331,527 (67.96%)
- Albanians = 1,303,032 (13.99%)
- Yugoslavs = 441,941 (4.75%)
- Hungarians = 390,468 (4.19%)
- Muslims = 215,166 (2.31%)
- Croats = 149,368 (1.60%)
- Romani = 110,956 (1.19%)
- Macedonians = 48,986 (0.53%)
- Slovenes = 12,006 (0.13%)
In the Socialist Republic, the only legal political party was the League of Communists of Serbia (SKS), which was part of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (SKJ). The party remained relatively stable and loyal to the federal party until the late 1980s, when the party became split over what action to take in Kosovo when protests and fights broke out between ethnic Albanians and Serbs.
The more traditional Communists supported President Ivan Stambolic, who advocated continued neutrality as a means to solve the dispute; while more radical and nationalist-leaning members supported Slobodan Milosevic, who advocated the protection of Kosovo Serbs, who had claimed that their population was being pressured to leave Kosovo by Albanian separatists. Milosevic utilized public sentiment and opposition to Kosovo Albanian separatism to rally large numbers of supporters to help him overthrow the Communist leadership in Vojvodina, Kosovo and the Socialist Republic of Montenegro in what was known as the anti-bureaucratic revolution. Afterward, the Serbian League of Communists selected Milosevic as its leader. Milosevic took a hard stand on Albanian nationalism in Kosovo and pressured the Yugoslav government to give him emergency powers to deal with Kosovo Albanian separatists. Furthermore, he reduced the autonomy of the autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina and installed politicians loyal to him to serve as their representatives.
In the congress of the Yugoslav League of Communists in 1990, Milosevic and his subordinate representatives for Vojvodina, Kosovo and the Socialist Republic of Montenegro attempted to silence opposition from the Socialist Republic of Slovenia who opposed the actions taken against Kosovo Albanian leadership, by blocking all reforms proposed by the Slovene representatives. The tactic failed and Slovenia, along with its ally Croatia, abdicated from the Yugoslav Communist Party. This caused the Yugoslav Communist party to fall apart, and then the state of Yugoslavia itself one year later.
Part of a series on the
|History of Serbia|
Until 1974, de facto head of state of SRS was President of Assembly (known as Presidium of the People's Assembly (1945-1953) and National Assembly (1953-1990)). In 1974 Constitution of Serbia collective presidency was formed. President of the Presidency served as the President of Socialist Republic of Serbia. Until 1982 President was elected on 4 years mandate, but after it was lowered to 2. In 1953 Executive Council (government) was formed. It served as the executive branch of the Assembly. President of the Executive Council had a role of Prime Minister.
Chairman of ASNOS (1944–1945)
- Siniša Stanković (12 November 1944 – 7 April 1945)
- President of the Presidium of the People's Assembly (1945–1953)
- Siniša Stanković (7 April 1945 – March 1953)
- Presidents of the National Assembly (1953–1974)
- Presidents of the Presidency (1974–1990)
- Dragoslav Marković (6 May 1974 – 5 May 1978)
- Dobrivoje Vidić (5 May 1978 – 5 May 1982)
- Nikola Ljubičić (5 May 1982 – 5 May 1984)
- Dušan Čkrebić (5 May 1984 – 5 May 1986)
- Ivan Stambolić (5 May 1986 – 14 December 1987)
- Petar Gračanin (14 December 1987 – 20 March 1989)
- Ljubiša Igić (20 March – 8 May 1989) (acting)
- Slobodan Milošević (8 May 1989 – 28 September 1990)
- Minister for Serbia in Yugoslav government
- Jaša Prodanović (7 March 1945 – 9 April 1945)
- President of the Government
- President of the Executive Council
- Petar Stambolić (5 February 1953 – 16 December 1953)
- Jovan Veselinov (16 December 1953 – 6 April 1957)
- Miloš Minić (6 April 1957 – 9 June 1962)
- Slobodan Penezić Krcun (9 June 1962 – 6 November 1964)
- Stevan Doronjski (Acting; 6 November 1964 – 17 November 1964)
- Dragi Stamenković (17 November 1964 – 6 June 1967)
- Đurica Jojkić (6 June 1967 – 7 May 1969)
- Milenko Bojanić (7 May 1969 – 6 May 1974)
- Dušan Čkrebić (6 May 1974 – 6 May 1978)
- Ivan Stambolić (6 May 1978 – 5 May 1982)
- Branislav Ikonić (5 May 1982 – 6 May 1986)
- Desimir Jevtić (6 May 1986 – 5 December 1989)
- Stanko Radmilović (5 December 1989 – 28 September 1990)
- Ćirković 2004, p. 260-270.
- Ćirković 2004, p. 270-271.
- Pavlowitch 2002, p. 153-154.
- Ćirković 2004, p. 273.
- Pavlowitch 2002, p. 159.
- Ćirković 2004, p. 274.
- "UPHEAVAL IN THE EAST: Yugoslavia; A Sign of Bad Times in Yugoslavia: Trade War Between Two Republics". The New York Times. 28 January 1990.
- Miller 2005, p. 529–581.
- Bataković, Dušan T., ed. (2005). Histoire du peuple serbe [History of the Serbian People] (in French). Lausanne: L’Age d’Homme.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Bokovoy, Melissa K.; Irvine, Jill A.; Lilly, Carol S., eds. (1997). State-Society Relations in Yugoslavia, 1945-1992. London: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9780312126902.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Ćirković, Sima (2004). The Serbs. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Dimić, Ljubodrag (2005). "Ideology and culture in Yugoslavia (1945-1955)". Velike sile i male države u hladnom ratu 1945-1955: Slučaj Jugoslavije. Beograd: Filozofski fakultet. pp. 303–320.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Miller, Nicholas (2005). "Serbia and Montenegro". Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture. 3. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. pp. 529–581.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Pavlowitch, Stevan K. (2002). Serbia: The History behind the Name. London: Hurst & Company.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Tomasevich, Jozo (2001). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. 2. San Francisco: Stanford University Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Media related to Socialist Republic of Serbia at Wikimedia Commons