List of socialist states
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Several past and present states have declared themselves socialist states or in the process of building socialism. The majority of self-declared socialist countries have been Marxist–Leninist states following the model of the Soviet Union or a variant of people's democracy. They share a common definition of socialism and they refer to themselves as socialist states on the road to communism with a leading vanguard party structure. For this reason, they are generally called communist states. Meanwhile, the countries in the non-Marxist–Leninist category represent a wide variety of different interpretations of the term socialism and in many cases the countries do not define what they mean by it. Modern uses of the term socialism are wide in meaning and interpretation.
A sovereign state is a different entity from the political party that rules that state at any given time, therefore a country may be ruled by a socialist party without the country itself claiming to be socialist. This has occurred in both one-party and multi-party political systems. In particular, there are numerous cases of social democratic and democratic socialist parties winning elections in liberal democratic states and ruling for a number of terms until a different party wins the elections. For example, socialist parties have won many elections around the world and most elections in the Nordic countries, but their countries did not adopt socialism as the state ideology.
Several countries with liberal democratic constitutions mention socialism. India is a liberal democracy that has been ruled by non-socialist parties on many occasions, but its constitution makes references to socialism. Certain other countries such as Croatia, Hungary, Myanmar and Poland have constitutions that make references to their communist and socialist past by recognizing or condemning it, but without claiming to be socialist in the present.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Current socialist states
- 3 Multi-party states with governing communist or socialist parties
- 4 Former socialist states
- 5 See also
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
Self-identification is the only criterion used by the list, therefore it includes all countries that have claimed to be socialist, even if their claims are disputed. All countries that have not claimed to be socialist are excluded, even in cases where certain outside observers regarded those countries as socialist. This list includes countries that assert in their constitutions that they are based on socialism, regardless of their economic or political system. It does not list countries that do not have constitutional references to socialism as socialist states, even in cases where the government is currently run by a socialist party or other left-wing (centre-left and far-left) parties. On the other hand, countries that do maintain constitutional references to socialism are listed, even when those countries are ruled by non-socialist parties. As a result, this list is best understood as a list of countries that explicitly claim to be socialist and it does not reflect the actual economic systems themselves. The following image is a combined map of all countries that declared themselves socialist states under any definition at some point in their history, color-coded for the number of years they said they were socialist:
|Country||Since||Duration||Form of government||Party||Head of party||Head of state||Head of government|
|People's Republic of China[nb 1]||1 October 1949||70 years, 118 days||Unitary one-party
|Communist Party of China||Xi Jinping
|Republic of Cuba||1 January 1959||61 years, 26 days||Unitary one-party
|Communist Party of Cuba||Raúl Castro
|Manuel Marrero Cruz|
|Lao People's Democratic Republic||2 December 1975||44 years, 56 days||Unitary one-party
|Lao People's Revolutionary Party||Bounnhang Vorachith
|Socialist Republic of Vietnam||2 September 1945||74 years, 147 days||Unitary one-party
|Communist Party of Vietnam||Nguyễn Phú Trọng
|Nguyễn Phú Trọng
|Nguyễn Xuân Phúc|
|Country||Since||Duration||Form of government||Constitutional statement|
|People's Democratic Republic of Algeria||28 November 1996||23 years, 60 days||Multi-party semi-presidential republic||Preamble: "Gathered in the national movement and later within the National Front of Liberation, the Algerian people have made great sacrifices in order to assume their collective destiny in the framework of recovered freedom and cultural identity and to build authentic people's democratic constitutional institutions. The National Front of Liberation crowned the sacrifices of the best sons of Algeria during the people's war of liberation with independence and built a modern and full sovereign State".|
The National Front of Liberation is a political party based on Arab socialism.
|People's Republic of Bangladesh||11 April 1971||48 years, 291 days||Multi-party parliamentary republic||Preamble: "Further pledging that it shall be a fundamental aim of the State to realise through the democratic process, a socialist society free from exploitation, a society in which the rule of law, fundamental human rights and freedoms, equality and justice, political, economic and social, will be secured for all citizens".|
|Co-operative Republic of Guyana||6 October 1980||39 years, 113 days||Multi-party presidential republic||Section 1, Article 1: "Guyana is an indivisible, secular, democratic sovereign state in the course of transition from capitalism to socialism and shall be known as the Co-operative Republic of Guyana".|
|Republic of India||18 December 1976||43 years, 40 days||Multi-party federal parliamentary republic||Preamble: "We, the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic and to secure to all its citizens".|
|Democratic People's Republic of Korea||19 February 1992||27 years, 342 days||Unitary one-party
|Preamble: "The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is the socialist motherland of Juche, which has applied the ideas and leadership of Kim Il-sung".|
Formerly a Marxist–Leninist state.[nb 2]
|Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal||20 September 2015||4 years, 129 days||Multi-party federal parliamentary republic||Section 1, Article 4: "Nepal is an independent, indivisible, sovereign, secular, inclusive democratic, socialism-oriented federal democratic republican state".|
|Republic of Nicaragua||1 January 1987||33 years, 26 days||Multi-party presidential republic||Section 1, Article 5: "Liberty, justice, respect for the dignity of the human person, political and social pluralism, the recognition of the distinct identity of the indigenous peoples and those of African descent within the framework of a unitary and indivisible state, the recognition of different forms of property, free international cooperation and respect for the free self-determination of peoples, Christian values, socialist ideals, and practices based on solidarity, and the values and ideals of the Nicaraguan culture and identity, are the principles of the Nicaraguan nation. [...] The socialist ideals promote the common good over individual egoism, seeking to create an ever more inclusive, just and fair society, promoting an economic democracy which redistributes national wealth and eliminates exploitation among human beings".|
|Portuguese Republic||2 April 1976||43 years, 300 days||Multi-party semi-presidential republic||Preamble: "The Constituent Assembly affirms the Portuguese people's decision to [...] open up a path towards a socialist society".|
|Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka||7 September 1978||41 years, 142 days||Multi-party semi-presidential republic||Preamble: "[...] to constitute Sri Lanka into a democratic socialist republic whilst ratifying the immutable republican principles of representative democracy, and assuring to all peoples freedom, equality, justice, fundamental human rights and the independence of the judiciary".|
|United Republic of Tanzania||26 April 1964||55 years, 276 days||Dominant-party semi-presidential republic||Section 1, Article 3: "The United Republic is a democratic, secular and socialist state which adheres to multi-party democracy".|
These are territories that have claimed independence or autonomy and have declared themselves socialist under some interpretation of the term. While these territories have created stable institutions of governance that have existed for a considerable period of time, they are not widely recognized as states by the international community and officially belong to other sovereign states under international law.
- Freetown Christiania (1971–present)
- Wa State (April 1989–present)
- Rebel Zapatista Autonomous Municipalities (December 1994–present)
- Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria (November 2013–present)
There are multi-party states with communist or socialist parties leading the government, sometimes together. Such states are not considered to be communist or socialist states because the countries themselves allow for multiple parties and do not provide a constitutional role for their communist parties or socialism.
Examples of direct communist party rule in multi-party democracies as well as democratic, constitutionally socialist states (Guyana and Nicaragua) include:
- Republic of Cyprus (Progressive Party of Working People, 2008–2013)
- Co-operative Republic of Guyana (People's Progressive Party, 1992–2015)
- Republic of Moldova (Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova, 2001–2009)
- Republic of Nepal (Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist), Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) and Nepal Communist Party, 1994–1998; 2008–present)
- Republic of Nicaragua (Sandinista National Liberation Front, 1984–1990)
- Republic of San Marino (Sammarinese Communist Party, 1945–1957)
|Country||Full name||From||Until||Duration||Ruling party||Constitutional statement|
|/ Afghanistan||Democratic Republic of Afghanistan||27 April 1978||30 November 1987||9 years, 217 days||People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan||Preamble: "In the present stage, the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan, as the initiator and coordinator of the policy of National Reconciliation, actively carries forward together with other political, national and democratic forces".|
|Republic of Afghanistan||30 November 1987||28 April 1992||4 years, 150 days|
|Total||27 April 1978||28 April 1992||14 years, 1 day|
|/ Albania||Democratic Government of Albania||29 November 1944||11 January 1946||1 year, 43 days||Party of Labour of Albania[nb 14]||Section 1, Article 1: "The People's Socialist Republic of Albania is a state of the dictatorship of the proletariat, which expresses and defends the interests of all the working people".|
|People's Republic of Albania||11 January 1946||28 December 1976||30 years, 352 days|
|People's Socialist Republic of Albania||28 December 1976||22 March 1992||15 years, 85 days|
|Total||29 November 1944||22 March 1992||47 years, 114 days|
|Angola||People's Republic of Angola||11 November 1975||27 August 1992||16 years, 290 days||Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola||Section 1, Article 2: "All sovereignty is vested in the Angolan people. The MPLA, their legitimate representative constituted from a broad front including all patriotic forces engaged in the anti-imperialist struggle, is responsible for the political, economic, and social leadership of the nation".|
|/ Belarus||Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic[nb 15]||31 July 1920||25 August 1991||70 years, 344 days||Communist Party of Byelorussia (part of the CPSU)||Section 1, Article 1: "The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic is a socialist state expressing the will and interests of the workers, peasants and intelligentsia, the working people of all nationalities of the republic".|
|Benin||People's Republic of Benin||30 November 1975||1 March 1990||14 years, 91 days||People's Revolutionary Party of Benin||The Marxist–Leninist People's Revolutionary Party of Benin became the sole legal political party on 30 November 1975.|
|Bulgaria||People's Republic of Bulgaria||15 September 1946||7 December 1990||44 years, 83 days||Bulgarian Communist Party||Section 1, Article 1: "The People's Republic of Bulgaria is a socialist state of the working people from town and village, headed by the working class".|
|// Cambodia||Democratic Kampuchea||17 April 1975||22 June 1982||7 years, 66 days||Khmer Rouge||Constitutionally a Marxist–Leninist state from 1975 to 1991, but it was not internationally recognized by some countries following the Cambodian–Vietnamese War.|
|People's Republic of Kampuchea||10 January 1979||1 May 1989||10 years, 111 days||People's Revolutionary Party of Kampuchea|
|State of Cambodia||1 May 1989||23 October 1991||2 years, 175 days|
|Total||17 April 1975||23 October 1991||16 years, 189 days|
|Congo||People's Republic of the Congo||3 January 1970||15 March 1992||22 years, 72 days||Congolese Labor Party||Presidential oath: "I swear allegiance to the Congolese people, to the Revolution and to the Congolese Labor Party. I shall [...] while guided by Marxist–Leninist principles [...] devote all my strength to the triumph of the proletarian ideals".|
|Czechoslovakia||Czechoslovak Republic||9 June 1948||11 July 1960||12 years, 32 days||Communist Party of Czechoslovakia||Section 1, Article 1: "The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic is a socialist state founded on the firm alliance of the workers, farmers and intelligentsia, with the working class as its head".|
|Czechoslovak Socialist Republic||11 July 1960||29 March 1990||29 years, 261 days|
|Total||9 June 1948||29 March 1990||41 years, 293 days|
|/ Ethiopia||Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia||28 June 1974||22 February 1987||12 years, 239 days||Commission for Organizing the Party of the Working People of Ethiopia[nb 16]||Country declared Marxist–Leninist in 1974, with the Workers' Party of Ethiopia becoming "the formulator of the country's development process and the leading force of the state and in society" in 1987.|
|Workers' Party of Ethiopia[nb 17]|
|People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia||22 February 1987||27 May 1991||4 years, 94 days|
|Total||28 June 1974||27 May 1991||16 years, 333 days|
|East Germany||German Democratic Republic||7 October 1949||3 October 1990||40 years, 361 days||Socialist Unity Party of Germany||Section 1, Article 1: "The German Democratic Republic is a socialist state of workers and peasants. It is the political organization of the working people of town and country under the leadership of the working class and its Marxist-Leninist party".|
|Grenada||People's Revolutionary Government||13 March 1979||25 October 1983||4 years, 226 days||New Jewel Movement||People's Law Number Two: "The People's Revolutionary Government, PRG, is hereby established as of Tuesday 13 March 1979, in accordance with the sovereign will of the Grenadian people, and in it shall be vested of executive and legislative power".|
The New Jewel Movement considered themselves a Marxist-Leninist vanguard party.
|Hungary||Hungarian People's Republic||20 August 1949||23 October 1989||40 years, 64 days||Hungarian Working People's Party[nb 18]||Section 1, Article 2: "The Hungarian People's Republic is a socialist state".|
|Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party[nb 19]|
|North Korea||Democratic People's Republic of Korea||9 September 1948||19 February 1992||43 years, 163 days||Workers' Party of Korea||Section 1, Article 1: "The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is an independent socialist state representing the interests of all the Korean people".|
Currently a non-Marxist–Leninist socialist state.[nb 20]
|/ Mongolia||Mongolian People's Republic||24 November 1924||12 February 1992||67 years, 80 days||Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party||Section 1, Article 2: "The Mongolian People's Republic is a state which exists and is developing in the form of people's democracy".|
|/ Mozambique||People's Republic of Mozambique||25 June 1975||1 December 1990||15 years, 159 days||FRELIMO||Section 1, Article 2: "Power belongs to the workers and peasants united and led by FRELIMO and organs of people's power".|
|Poland||Republic of Poland||28 June 1945||22 July 1952||7 years, 24 days||Polish Workers' Party[nb 21]||Section 1, Article 1: "The Polish People's Republic is a socialist state".|
|Polish United Worker's Party[nb 22]|
|Polish People's Republic||22 July 1952||30 December 1989||37 years, 161 days|
|Total||28 June 1945||30 December 1989||44 years, 185 days|
|Romania||Romanian People's Republic||30 December 1947||21 August 1965||17 years, 234 days||Romanian Workers' Party||Section 1, Article 3: "The leading force of society in the Socialist Republic of Romania is the Romanian Communist Party".|
|Socialist Republic of Romania||21 August 1965||30 December 1989||24 years, 131 days||Romanian Communist Party|
|Total||30 December 1947||30 December 1989||42 years, 0 days|
|Somalia||Somali Democratic Republic||21 October 1969||26 January 1991||21 years, 97 days||Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party||Section 1, Article 1: "The Somali Democratic Republic is a socialist state led by the working class and is an integral part of the Arab and African entities".|
|/ Tuva||Tannu Tuvan People's Republic||14 August 1921||24 November 1926||5 years, 102 days||Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party||Chapter 1: "[...] in international affairs, the state acts under the auspices of Soviet Russia".|
In October 1944, the country was annexed by the Soviet Union at the request of Tuva's parliament.
|Tuvan People's Republic||24 November 1926||11 October 1944||17 years, 322 days|
|Total||14 August 1921||11 October 1944||23 years, 58 days|
|Russia/ Soviet Union||Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic||9 November 1917||30 December 1922||5 years, 51 days||Communist Party of the Soviet Union[nb 23]||Section 1, Article 1, Chapter 2: "Bearing in mind as its fundamental problem the abolition of the exploitation of men by men, the entire abolition of the division of the people into classes, the suppression of exploiters, the establishment of a socialist society, and the victory of socialism in all lands".|
Section 1, Article 1: "The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is a socialist state of the whole people, expressing the will and interests of the workers, peasants and intelligentsia, the working people of all the nations and nationalities of the country".
The Soviet Union consisted of fifteen republics.
|Union of Soviet Socialist Republics||30 December 1922||26 December 1991||68 years, 361 days|
|Total||9 November 1917||26 December 1991||74 years, 47 days|
|Ukraine||Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic[nb 24]||10 March 1919||24 August 1991||72 years, 167 days||Communist Party of Ukraine (part of the CPSU)||Section 1, Article 1: "The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic is the whole peoples state that expresses the will and interests of the workers, peasants and intellectuals, workers of the republic of all nationalities".|
|North Vietnam||Democratic Republic of Vietnam||2 September 1945||2 July 1976||30 years, 304 days||Communist Party of Vietnam||Section 2, Article 9: "The Democratic Republic of Vietnam is advancing step by step from people's democracy to socialism by developing and transforming the national economy along socialist lines, transforming its backward economy into a socialist economy with modern industry and agriculture and an advanced science and technology".|
|South Yemen||People's Republic of South Yemen||30 November 1967||1 December 1970||3 years, 1 day||Yemeni Socialist Party||Section 1, Article 3: "The Yemeni Socialist Party, armed with the Scientific Socialism theory, is the leader and guide of society and state".|
|People's Democratic Republic of Yemen||1 December 1970||22 May 1990||19 years, 172 days|
|Total||30 November 1967||22 May 1990||22 years, 173 days|
|/ Yugoslavia||Democratic Federal Yugoslavia||29 November 1943||29 November 1945||2 years, 0 days||League of Communists of Yugoslavia[nb 25]||Section 1, Article 2: "The socialist system in Yugoslavia is based on relations between people acting as free and equal producers and creators, whose work serves exclusively to satisfy their personal and common needs".|
Yugoslavia consisted of six constituent Socialist republics.
|Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia||29 November 1945||7 April 1963||17 years, 129 days|
|Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia||7 April 1963||27 April 1992||29 years, 20 days|
|Total||29 November 1943||27 April 1992||48 years, 150 days|
|Country||Full name||From||Until||Duration||Constitutional statement|
|Burma||Union of Burma||2 March 1962||3 January 1974||11 years, 307 days||Chapter XVI General Provisions: "In order to overcome this deterioration and to build Socialism, the Revolutionary Council of the Union of Burma assumed responsibility as a historical mission, adopted the Burmese Way to Socialism and also formed the Burma Socialist Programme Party".|
|Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma||3 January 1974||18 September 1988||14 years, 259 days|
|Total||2 March 1962||18 September 1988||26 years, 200 days|
|Cape Verde||Republic of Cape Verde||5 July 1975||22 September 1992||17 years, 79 days||Chapter 1, Article 1: "Cape Verde is a sovereign, democratic, laic, unitary, anti-colonialist and anti-imperialist state".|
It was a one-party state ruled by the African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde, whose goal was the construction of a socialist society and which received support from other socialist states.
|Egypt||Republic of Egypt||18 June 1953||22 February 1958||4 years, 249 days||Preamble: "The Arab Republic of Egypt is a democratic, socialist state based on the alliance of the working forces of the people".|
|United Arab Republic||22 February 1958||28 September 1961||3 years, 218 days|
|Arab Republic of Egypt||28 September 1961||26 March 2007||45 years, 179 days|
|Total||18 June 1953||26 March 2007||53 years, 281 days|
|Ghana||Republic of Ghana||1 July 1960||24 February 1966||5 years, 238 days||Part 1, Article 2: "In the confident expectation of an early surrender of sovereignty to a union of African states and territories, the people now confer on Parliament the power to provide for the surrender of the whole or any part of the sovereignty of Ghana".|
See the 1960 Ghanaian constitutional referendum.
Kwame Nkrumah, the first President of Ghana, is mentioned in the constitution. Nkrumah and his party, the Convention People's Party, were African socialists, whose party constitution stated: "To establish a socialist state in which all men and women shall have equal opportunity and where there shall be no capital[ist] exploitation".
Ghana's Seven Year Development plan included the task to "[e]mbark upon the socialist transformation of the economy through the rapid development of state and co-operative sectors".
|/ Iraq||Iraqi Republic||17 July 1968||7 April 2005||36 years, 264 days||Chapter 1, Article 1: "Its [the country's] basic objective is the realization of one Arab State and the build-up of the socialist system".|
|/ Libya||Libyan Arab Republic||1 September 1969||2 March 1977||7 years, 182 days||Section 1, Article 6: "The aim of the state is the realization of socialism through the application of social justice which forbids any form of exploitation".|
|Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya||2 March 1977||15 April 1986||9 years, 44 days|
|Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya||15 April 1986||23 October 2011||25 years, 191 days|
|Total||1 September 1969||23 October 2011||42 years, 52 days|
|Madagascar||Democratic Republic of Madagascar||30 December 1975||12 September 1992||16 years, 257 days||See the 1975 Malagasy constitutional referendum.|
|Seychelles||Republic of Seychelles||5 June 1977||27 December 1991||14 years, 205 days||Preamble: "Seychelles is declared to be a sovereign socialist republic".|
|Sudan||Democratic Republic of the Sudan||25 May 1969||10 October 1985||16 years, 138 days||Preamble: "In the belief of our pursuit of freedom, socialism and democracy to achieve the society of sufficiency, justice and equality".|
|/ Syria||Syrian Arab Republic||8 March 1963||27 February 2012||48 years, 356 days||Section 1, Article 8: "The leading party in the society and the state is the Socialist Arab Ba'ath Party. It leads a patriotic and progressive front seeking to unify the resources of the people's masses and place them at the service of the Arab nation's goals".|
These are short-lived political entities that emerged during wars or revolutions and declared themselves socialist under some interpretation of the term, but which did not survive long enough to create a stable government or achieve international recognition.
- Paris Commune (18 March–28 May 1871)
- Strandzha Commune (18 August–8 September 1903)
- Soviet Republic of Soldiers and Fortress-Builders of Naissaar (December 1917–February 1918)
- Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic (28 January–29 April 1918)
- Odessa Soviet Republic (31 January–13 March 1918)
- Donetsk–Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic (12 February–May 1918)
- Alsace Soviet Republic (9–22 November 1918)
- Free Socialist Republic of Germany (9 November 1918 – 11 August 1919)
- Commune of the Working People of Estonia (29 November 1918 – 5 June 1919)
- Saxony Soviet (November 1918–March 1919)
- Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic (17 December 1918 – 13 January 1920)
- Free Territory (1918–1921)
- Lithuanian–Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (27 February–25 August 1919)
- Hungarian Soviet Republic (21 March–6 August 1919)
- Mughan Soviet Republic (March–June 1919)
- Bavarian Council Republic (6 April–3 May 1919)
- Limerick Soviet (15–27 April 1919)
- Crimean Socialist Soviet Republic (28 April–26 June 1919)
- Bessarabian Soviet Socialist Republic (May–September 1919; 15–18 September 1924)
- Slovak Soviet Republic (16 June–7 July 1919)
- Persian Socialist Soviet Republic (9 June 1920–September 1921)
- Galician Soviet Socialist Republic (8 July–21 September 1920)
- Hunan Soviet (September–October 1927)
- Guangzhou Commune (Guangzhou Soviet) (11 December 1927 – 13 December 1927)
- Shinmin Prefecture (1929–1932)
- Nghệ-Tĩnh Soviet (1930–1931)
- Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet (1931–1934)
- Chinese Soviet Republic (7 November 1931 – 22 September 1937)
- Socialist Republic of Chile (4 June–2 October 1932)
- People's Revolutionary Government of the Republic of China (22 November 1933 – 13 January 1934)
- Asturian Socialist Republic (October 1934)
- Anarchist Aragon (1936–1939)
- Revolutionary Catalonia (1936–1939)
- Finnish Democratic Republic (December 1939–March 1940)
- Inner Mongolian People's Republic (9 September–6 November 1945)
- Provisional Democratic Government of North Greece (10 March–28 August 1949)
- Second East Turkestan Republic (12 November–20 December 1949)
- People's Republic of Korea (1945–1946)
- Azerbaijan People's Government (November 1945–December 1946)
- Republic of Mahabad (22 January–15 December 1946)
- Provisional People's Committee for North Korea (1946–1948)
- Marquetalia Republic (1948–1958)
- Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam (8 June 1969 – 2 June 1976)
- National Revolutionary Council of Gambia (30 July–5 August 1981)
- Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea (22 June 1982 – 15 March 1992)
- Democratic Republic of Yemen (21 May–7 July 1994)
- Provisional Government of National Union and National Salvation of Cambodia (11 July 1994 – 22 June 1998)
- Hong Kong and Macau are administrated under the "One country, two systems" principle. For an overview of the princple, see "One Country, Two Systems".
- Although the government's official state ideology now incorporates the Juche element of Kim Il-sung's Kimilsungism–Kimjongilism policy as opposed to orthodox Marxism–Leninism, North Korea still considers itself a socialist state.
- Constitutionally a socialist state.
- Formerly a Marxist–Leninist state.
- Constitutionally a socialist state.
- Formerly a Marxist–Leninist state.
- Formerly a Marxist–Leninist state.
- Constitutionally a socialist state.
- Constitutionally a socialist state.
- Formerly a Marxist–Leninist state.
- Constitutionally a socialist state.
- Constitutionally a socialist state.
- Constitutionally a socialist state.
- Known as the Albanian Communist Party until 1948.
- Part of the Soviet Union but admitted into the United Nations as a separate entity.
- Until September 12, 1984.
- From 12 September 1984.
- Until 31 October 1956.
- From 1 November 1956.
- In 1992, all references to Marxism–Leninism in the constitution were dropped and replaced with Juche. In 2009, the constitution was quietly amended so that not only did it remove all Marxist–Leninist references present in the first draft, but it also dropped all reference to communism.
- Until 21 December 1948.
- From 21 December 1948.
- Known as the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (Bolsheviks) until March 1918, the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) until December 1925 and the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) until October 1952.
- Part of the Soviet Union, it was admitted into the United Nations as a separate entity.
- Known as the Communist Party of Yugoslavia until 1952.
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