Sodium bicarbonate

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Sodium hydrogen carbonate)
Jump to: navigation, search
Sodium bicarbonate
SodiumBicarbonate.png
Ball and stick model of a sodium cation
Ball and stick model of a bicarbonate anion
Sample of sodium bicarbonate
Names
IUPAC name
Sodium hydrogen carbonate
Other names
Baking soda, bicarb (laboratory slang), bicarbonate of soda, nahcolite
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
4153970
ChEBI
ChemSpider
DrugBank
ECHA InfoCard 100.005.122
EC Number 205-633-8
KEGG
MeSH Sodium+bicarbonate
RTECS number VZ0950000
UNII
Properties
NaHCO
3
Molar mass 84.0066 g mol−1
Appearance White crystals
Odor Odorless
Density
  • 2.20 g/cm3 as solid[1]
  • 1.1 to 1.3 as powder[2]
Melting point (Decomposes to sodium carbonate starting at 50 °C[7])
  • 69 g/L (0 °C)[3]
  • 96 g/L (20 °C)[4]
  • 165 g/L (60 °C)[4]
  • 236 g/L (100 °C)[3]
Solubility 0.02 wt% acetone, 2.13 wt% methanol @22 °C.[5] insoluble in ethanol
log P −0.82
Acidity (pKa)
  • 10.329[6]
  • 6.351 (carbonic acid)[6]
nα = 1.377 nβ = 1.501 nγ = 1.583
Structure
Monoclinic
Thermochemistry
87.61 J/mol K
102 J/mol K
−947.7 kJ/mol
−851.9 kJ/mol
Pharmacology
B05CB04 (WHO) B05XA02 (WHO), QG04BQ01 (WHO)
Intravenous, oral
Hazards
Main hazards Causes serious eye irritation
Safety data sheet External MSDS
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 0: Exposure under fire conditions would offer no hazard beyond that of ordinary combustible material. E.g., sodium chloride Reactivity code 1: Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures. E.g., calcium Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point Incombustible
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
4220 mg/kg (rat, oral)[8]
Related compounds
Other anions
Sodium carbonate
Other cations
Related compounds
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
YesY verify (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate) is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. It is a salt composed of sodium ions and bicarbonate ions. Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate). The natural mineral form is nahcolite. It is a component of the mineral natron and is found dissolved in many mineral springs. It is among the food additives encoded by the European Union, identified as E 500.

Nomenclature[edit]

Since it has long been known and is widely used, the salt has many related names such as baking soda, bread soda, cooking soda, and bicarbonate of soda. In colloquial usage, the names sodium bicarbonate and bicarbonate of soda are often truncated; forms such as sodium bicarb, bicarb soda, bicarbonate, and bicarb are common. The word saleratus, from Latin sal æratus meaning "aerated salt", was widely used in the 19th century for both sodium bicarbonate and potassium bicarbonate.

The prefix, bi, in bicarbonate comes from an outdated naming system and is based on the observation that there is twice as much carbonate (CO3) per sodium in sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) as there is carbonate per sodium in sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and other carbonates. The modern way of analyzing the situation based on the exact chemical composition (which was unknown when the name sodium bicarbonate was coined) says this the other way around: there is half as much sodium in NaHCO3 as in Na2CO3 (Na versus Na2).

Uses[edit]

Sodium bicarbonate has a wide variety of uses.

Cooking[edit]

In cooking, sodium bicarbonate, referred to as baking soda, is primarily used in baking as a leavening agent. It reacts with acidic components in batters, releasing carbon dioxide, which causes expansion of the batter and forms the characteristic texture and grain in pancakes, cakes, quick breads, soda bread, and other baked and fried foods. Acidic compounds that induce this reaction include phosphates, cream of tartar, lemon juice, yogurt, buttermilk, cocoa and vinegar. Baking soda may be used together with sourdough, which is acidic, making a lighter product with a less acid taste.[9]

Heat can also by itself cause sodium bicarbonate to act as a raising agent in baking because of thermal decomposition, releasing carbon dioxide. When used this way on its own, without the presence of an acidic component (whether in the batter or by the use of a baking powder containing acid), only half the available CO2 is released. Additionally, in the absence of acid, thermal decomposition of sodium bicarbonate also produces sodium carbonate, which is strongly alkaline and gives the baked product a bitter, "soapy" taste and a yellow color. To avoid an over-acidic taste from added acid, non-acid ingredients such as whole milk or Dutch-processed cocoa are often added to baked foods.[10]

Carbon dioxide production from exposure to heat starts at temperatures above 80 °C.[11]

2 NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2

Since the reaction occurs slowly at room temperature, mixtures (cake batter, etc.) can be allowed to stand without rising until they are heated in the oven.

Sodium bicarbonate was sometimes used in cooking green vegetables, as it gives them a bright green colour—which has been described as artificial-looking—due to its reacting with chlorophyll to produce chlorophyllin.[12] However, this tends to affect taste, texture and nutritional content, and is no longer common.[13] Baking soda is still used, though, in the traditional British mushy peas recipe for soaking the peas. It is also used in Asian and Latin American cuisine to tenderize meats. Baking soda may react with acids in food, including vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid). It is also used in breading such as for fried foods to enhance crispness and allow passages for steam to escape, so the breading is not blown off during cooking.

Baking powder[edit]

"Baking powder" is also sold for cooking; it contains around 30% of HCO3 and various acidic ingredients which are activated by the addition of water, without the need for additional acids in the cooking medium.[14][15][16]

Many forms of baking powder contain sodium bicarbonate combined with calcium acid phosphate, sodium aluminium phosphate or cream of tartar.[17] Baking soda is alkaline; the acid used in baking powder avoids a metallic taste when the chemical change during baking creates sodium carbonate.

Pest control[edit]

Sodium bicarbonate can be used to kill cockroaches. Once consumed, it causes internal organs of cockroaches to burst due to gas collection.[18]

Sodium bicarbonate can be an effective way of controlling fungal growth,[19] and in the United States is registered by the Environmental Protection Agency as a biopesticide.[20]

Paint and corrosion removal[edit]

Sodium bicarbonate is used in a process for removing paint and corrosion called sodablasting; the process is particularly suitable for cleaning aluminium panels which can be distorted by other types of abrasives.

Alkalinity/pH increase[edit]

Sodium bicarbonate can be administered to pools, spas, and garden ponds to raise the total alkalinity. This will also raise the pH level and make maintaining proper pH easier. In the event that the pH is low and the alkalinity is adequate or high, sodium bicarbonate should not be used to adjust the pH.[21]

Pyrotechnics[edit]

Sodium bicarbonate is one of the main components of the common incendiary "black snake" firework. The effect is caused by the thermal decomposition, which produces carbon dioxide gas to produce a long snake-like ash as a combustion product of the other main component, sucrose.

Mild disinfectant[edit]

It has weak disinfectant properties,[22][23] and it may be an effective fungicide against some organisms.[24] Because baking soda will absorb musty smells, it has become a reliable method for used-book sellers when making books less malodorous.[25]

Fire extinguisher[edit]

Sodium bicarbonate can be used to extinguish small grease or electrical fires by being thrown over the fire, as heating of sodium bicarbonate releases carbon dioxide.[26] However, it should not be applied to fires in deep fryers; the sudden release of gas may cause the grease to splatter.[26] Sodium bicarbonate is used in BC dry chemical fire extinguishers as an alternative to the more corrosive diammonium phosphate in ABC extinguishers. The alkaline nature of sodium bicarbonate makes it the only dry chemical agent, besides Purple-K, that was used in large-scale fire suppression systems installed in commercial kitchens. Because it can act as an alkali, the agent has a mild saponification effect on hot grease, which forms a smothering, soapy foam.

Neutralization of acids and bases[edit]

Sodium bicarbonate is amphoteric, reacting with acids and bases. It reacts violently with acids, releasing CO2 gas as a reaction product. It is commonly used to neutralize unwanted acid solutions or acid spills in chemical laboratories.

A wide variety of applications follows from its neutralization properties, including reducing the spread of white phosphorus from incendiary bullets inside an afflicted soldier's wounds.[27][medical citation needed]

Medical uses and health[edit]

Sodium bicarbonate mixed with water can be used as an antacid to treat acid indigestion and heartburn.[28] Its reaction with stomach acid produces salt, water, and carbon dioxide:

NaHCO3 + HCl → NaCl + H2O + CO2(g)

Intravenous sodium bicarbonate is an aqueous solution that is sometimes used for cases of acidosis, or when insufficient sodium or bicarbonate ions are in the blood.[29] In cases of respiratory acidosis, the infused bicarbonate ion drives the carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer of plasma to the left and, thus, raises the pH. It is for this reason that sodium bicarbonate is used in medically supervised cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Infusion of bicarbonate is indicated only when the blood pH is markedly (<7.1–7.0) low.[30]

HCO3 is used for treatment of hyperkalemia, as it will drive K+ back into cells during periods of acidosis.[31] Since sodium bicarbonate can cause alkalosis, it is sometimes used to treat aspirin overdoses. Aspirin requires an acidic environment for proper absorption, and the basic environment diminishes aspirin absorption in the case of an overdose.[32] Sodium bicarbonate has also been used in the treatment of tricyclic antidepressant overdose.[33] It can also be applied topically as a paste, with three parts baking soda to one part water, to relieve some kinds of insect bites and stings (as well as accompanying swelling).[34]

Sodium bicarbonate has been found to have no effect on the blood pressure of several types of rat models susceptible to salt-sensitive hypertension, in contrast with sodium chloride. This was ascribed to the high concentration of chloride, rather than the sodium content in dietary salts.[35]

Sodium bicarbonate can be used to treat an allergic reaction to plants such as poison ivy, poison oak, or poison sumac to relieve some of the associated itching.[36]

Bicarbonate of soda can also be useful in removing splinters from the skin.[37]

Some alternative practitioners, such as Tullio Simoncini, have promoted baking soda as a cancer cure, which the American Cancer Society has warned against due to both its unproven effectiveness and potential danger in use.[38]

Sodium bicarbonate can be added to local anaesthetics, to speed up the onset of their effects and make their injection less painful.[39] It is also a component of Moffett's solution, used in nasal surgery.

It was discovered as early as the 1920s that bicarbonate caused increase in bone strength in patients who were losing calcium in their urine. In 1968 it was suggested that diets producing too much acid might put bones at risk.[40] Experiments by Anthony Sebastian of the University of California in San Francisco starting in the late twentieth century found that the body was breaking down bones and muscles to release carbonates, phosphates and ammonia, which neutralize acid. Adding bicarbonate to the diet (he used potassium bicarbonate) reduced loss of calcium in post-menopausal women, amounting to the equivalent of "an arm-and-a-leg's worth" of bone if this continued for two decades.

Personal hygiene[edit]

Toothpaste containing sodium bicarbonate has in several studies been shown to have a better whitening[41][41][42][43] and plaque removal effect[44][45] than toothpastes without it.

Sodium bicarbonate is also used as an ingredient in some mouthwashes. It has anticaries and abrasive properties.[46] It works as a mechanical cleanser on the teeth and gums, neutralizes the production of acid in the mouth, and also acts as an antiseptic to help prevent infections.[22][24]

Sodium bicarbonate in combination with other ingredients can be used to make a dry or wet deodorant.[47][48]

Sodium bicarbonate may be used as a buffering agent, combined with table salt, when creating a solution for nasal irrigation.[49]

It is used in eye hygiene to treat blepharitis. This is done by addition of a teaspoon of sodium bicarbonate to cool water that was recently boiled, followed by gentle scrubbing of the eyelash base with a cotton swab dipped in the solution.[50]

In sports[edit]

Small amounts of sodium bicarbonate have been shown to be useful as a supplement for athletes in speed-based events, such as middle-distance running, lasting from about one to seven minutes.[51][52] However, overdose is a serious risk because sodium bicarbonate is slightly toxic;[53] and gastrointestinal irritation is of particular concern.[52] Additionally, this practice causes a significant increase in dietary sodium.

As a cleaning agent[edit]

A paste made from baking soda with minimal water is recommended by a manufacturer as a gentle scouring powder,[26] and is useful in removing surface rust, as the rust forms a water-soluble compound when in a concentrated alkaline solution;[54] cold water should be used, as hot water solutions can corrode steel. [55] Sodium bicarbonate attacks the thin unreactive protective oxide layer that forms on aluminium, making it unsuitable for cleaning this otherwise very reactive metal.[56] A solution in warm water will remove the tarnish from silver when the silver is in contact with a piece of aluminium foil.[56][57] Baking soda is commonly added to washing machines as a replacement for water-softener and to remove odors from clothes. Sodium bicarbonate is also effective in removing heavy tea and coffee stains from cups when diluted with warm water. Also, baking soda can be used as a multi purpose odor remover.[58]

During the Manhattan Project to develop the nuclear bomb in the early 1940s the chemical toxicity of uranium was an issue. It was found that uranium oxides stick very well to cotton cloth, and did not wash out with soap or laundry detergent. However, the uranium would wash out with a 2% solution of sodium bicarbonate. Clothing can become contaminated with toxic dust of depleted uranium (DU), which is very dense, and hence used for counterweights in a civilian context, and in armour-piercing projectiles. DU is not removed by normal laundering; washing with about 6 ounces (170 g) of baking soda in 2 gallons (7.5 l) of water will help to wash it out.[59]

Cattle feed supplements[edit]

Sodium bicarbonate is used as a cattle feed supplement, in particular as a buffering agent for the rumen.[60]

Chemistry[edit]

Sodium bicarbonate is an amphoteric compound. Aqueous solutions are very mildly alkaline due to the formation of carbonic acid and hydroxide ion:

HCO
3
+ H2O → H
2
CO
3
+ OH

Sodium bicarbonate can be used as a wash to remove any acidic impurities from a "crude" liquid, producing a purer sample. Reaction of sodium bicarbonate and an acid produces a salt and carbonic acid, which readily decomposes to carbon dioxide and water:

NaHCO3 + HCl → NaCl + H2CO3
H2CO3 → H2O + CO2(g)

Sodium bicarbonate reacts with acetic acid (found in vinegar), producing sodium acetate, water, and carbon dioxide:

NaHCO3 + CH3COOH → CH3COONa + H2O + CO2(g)

Sodium bicarbonate reacts with bases such as sodium hydroxide to form carbonates:

NaHCO3 + NaOH → Na2CO3 + H2O

Sodium bicarbonate reacts with carboxyl groups in proteins to give a brisk effervescence from the formation of CO
2
. This reaction is used to test for the presence of carboxylic groups in protein.[citation needed]

Thermal decomposition[edit]

Above 50 °C, sodium bicarbonate gradually decomposes into sodium carbonate, water and carbon dioxide. The conversion is fast at 200 °C:[61]

2 NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2

Most bicarbonates undergo this dehydration reaction. Further heating converts the carbonate into the oxide (above 850 °C):[61]

Na2CO3 → Na2O + CO2

These conversions are relevant to the use of NaHCO3 as a fire-suppression agent ("BC powder") in some dry powder fire extinguishers.

History[edit]

In 1791 French chemist Nicolas Leblanc produced sodium carbonate, also known as soda ash. In 1846 two New York bakers, John Dwight and Austin Church, established the first factory in the United States to produce baking soda from sodium carbonate and carbon dioxide.[62]

Saleratus, potassium or sodium bicarbonate, is mentioned in the novel Captains Courageous by Rudyard Kipling as being used extensively in the 1800s in commercial fishing to prevent freshly caught fish from spoiling.[63]

Production[edit]

NaHCO3 is mainly prepared by the Solvay process, which is the reaction of sodium chloride, ammonia, and carbon dioxide in water. Calcium carbonate is used as the source of CO2 and the resultant calcium oxide is used to recover the ammonia from the ammonium chloride. The product shows a low purity (75%). Pure product is obtained from sodium carbonate, water, and carbon dioxide as reported in one of the following reactions. It is produced on the scale of about 100,000 tonnes/year (as of 2001).[64]

NaHCO3 may be obtained by the reaction of carbon dioxide with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide. The initial reaction produces sodium carbonate:

CO2 + 2 NaOH → Na2CO3 + H2O

Further addition of carbon dioxide produces sodium bicarbonate, which at sufficiently high concentration will precipitate out of solution:

Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O → 2 NaHCO3

Commercial quantities of baking soda are also produced by a similar method: soda ash, mined in the form of the ore trona, is dissolved in water and treated with carbon dioxide. Sodium bicarbonate precipitates as a solid from this method:

Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O → 2 NaHCO3

Mining[edit]

Naturally occurring deposits of nahcolite (NaHCO3) are found in the Eocene-age (55.8–33.9 Mya) Green River Formation, Piceance Basin in Colorado. Nahcolite was deposited as beds during periods of high evaporation in the basin. It is commercially mined using common underground mining techniques such as bore, drum, and longwall mining in a fashion very similar to coal mining. A very small portion is also obtained using in situ leach techniques involving dissolution of the nahcolite by heated water pumped through the nahcolite beds that have previously been mined using the aforementioned techniques. It is then reconstituted through a natural cooling crystallization process. Currently only Tronox (formerly FMC) in the Green River Wyoming basin has successfully commercially solution mined the product.

Popular culture[edit]

Film[edit]

Sodium bicarbonate, as "bicarbonate of soda", was a frequent source of punch lines for Groucho Marx in Marx brothers movies. In Duck Soup, Marx plays the leader of a nation at war. In one scene, he receives a message from the battlefield that his general is reporting a gas attack, and Groucho tells his aide: "Tell him to take a teaspoonful of bicarbonate of soda and a half a glass of water."[65] In A Night at the Opera, Groucho's character addresses the opening night crowd at an opera by saying of the lead tenor: "Signor Lassparri comes from a very famous family. His mother was a well-known bass singer. His father was the first man to stuff spaghetti with bicarbonate of soda, thus causing and curing indigestion at the same time."[66]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds". CRC Handbook, p. 4-85.
  2. ^ "Densities of some Common Materials". Retrieved 3 March 2016. 
  3. ^ a b "Aqueous solubility of inorganic compounds at various temperatures". CRC Handbook, p. 8-116.
  4. ^ a b "Sodium Bicarbonate" (PDF). UNEP Publications. 
  5. ^ Ellingboe, J. L.; Runnels, J. H. (1966). "Solubilities of Sodium Carbonate and Sodium Bicarbonate in Acetone-Water and Methanol-Water Mixtures". J. Chem. Eng. Data. 11 (3): 323–324. doi:10.1021/je60030a009. 
  6. ^ a b Goldberg, Robert N.; Kishore, Nand; Lennen, Rebecca M. "Thermodynamic quantities for the ionization reactions of buffers in water". CRC Handbook. pp. 7–13. 
  7. ^ Pasquali, Irene; Bettini, R.; Giordano, F. (2007). "Thermal behaviour of diclofenac, diclofenac sodium and sodium bicarbonate compositions". Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. 90 (3): 903. doi:10.1007/s10973-006-8182-1. 
  8. ^ Chambers, Michael. "ChemIDplus - 144-55-8 - UIIMBOGNXHQVGW-UHFFFAOYSA-M - Sodium bicarbonate [USP:JAN] - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information". chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov. 
  9. ^ Sourdough, Julie Cascio, University of Alaska Fairbanks Cooperative Extension Service, 2 May 2017, pub. FNH-00061
  10. ^ "Baking 101: The Difference Between Baking Soda and Baking Powder". Joy the Baker. Retrieved 4 August 2015. 
  11. ^ "The Many Practical Uses of Baking Soda in the Kitchen". About.com Food. Retrieved 2017-01-22. 
  12. ^ B Srilakshmi (2003). Food Science. New Age International. p. 188. ISBN 978-81-224-1481-3. 
  13. ^ Sejal Sukhadwala. "Bicarbonate of soda recipes". BBC Food. Retrieved 20 July 2017. 
  14. ^ Czernohorsky, Hooker. "THE CHEMISTRY OF BAKING" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-01-22. 
  15. ^ "Baking Soda and Baking Powder". FineCooking.com. Retrieved 2017-01-22. 
  16. ^ "Arm & Hammer Multi-Brand - Baking Soda FAQs". Arm and Hammer. Retrieved 20 July 2017. See "What is the difference baking soda and baking powder?"
  17. ^ "Glossary Ingredients". Cooking.com. 
  18. ^ "Best Home Remedies To Kill And Control Cockroaches". HRT.whw1.com. Retrieved 2015-06-20. 
  19. ^ Potassium bicarbonate (073508) and Sodium bicarbonate (073505) Fact Sheet. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Updated 17 February 2011. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
  20. ^ Registered Biopesticides 04/29/02 United States Environmental Protection Agency. Updated 29 March 2002. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
  21. ^ "A pool owners guide by Arm & Hammer Baking soda" (PDF). Armandhammer.com. Retrieved 30 July 2009. 
  22. ^ a b Malik, Y; Goyal, S (May 2006). "Virucidal efficacy of sodium bicarbonate on a food contact surface against feline calicivirus, a norovirus surrogate". International Journal of Food Microbiology. 109 (1–2): 160–3. PMID 16540196. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2005.08.033. 
  23. ^ Rutala, W. A.; Barbee, S. L.; Aguiar, N. C.; Sobsey, M. D.; Weber, D. J. (2000). "Antimicrobial Activity of Home Disinfectants and Natural Products Against Potential Human Pathogens". Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. The University of Chicago Press on behalf of The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. 21 (1): 33–38. PMID 10656352. doi:10.1086/501694. 
  24. ^ a b Zamani, M; Sharifi, Tehrani, A; Ali, Abadi, Aa (2007). "Evaluation of antifungal activity of carbonate and bicarbonate salts alone or in combination with biocontrol agents in control of citrus green mold". Communications in agricultural and applied biological sciences. 72 (4): 773–7. PMID 18396809. 
  25. ^ Altman, Gail (2006-05-22). "Book Repair for BookThinkers: How To Remove Odors From Books". The BookThinker (69). 
  26. ^ a b c "Arm & Hammer Baking Soda – Basics – The Magic of Arm & Hammer Baking Soda". armandhammer.com. Archived from the original on 31 August 2009. Retrieved 30 July 2009. 
  27. ^ "White Phosphorus". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 2007-09-26. 
  28. ^ "Sodium Bicarbonate". Jackson Siegelbaum Gastroenterology. 1998. 
  29. ^ "Sodium Bicarbonate Intravenous Infusion" (PDF). Consumer Medicine Information. Better Health Channel. 2004-07-13. 
  30. ^ "Respiratory Acidosis: Treatment & Medication". emedicine. 
  31. ^ Dart, Richard C. (2004). Medical Toxicology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 910–. ISBN 978-0-7817-2845-4. 
  32. ^ Cloth Diapers. Donald C. Cooper Ph.D. pp. 46–. 
  33. ^ [old info]Knudsen, K; Abrahamsson, J (Apr 1997). "Epinephrine and sodium bicarbonate independently and additively increase survival in experimental amitriptyline poisoning". Critical Care Medicine. 25 (4): 669–74. PMID 9142034. doi:10.1097/00003246-199704000-00019. 
  34. ^ "Insect bites and stings: First aid". Mayo Clinic. 2008-01-15. 
  35. ^ Kotchen, Theodore A. (2005-05-01). "Contributions of Sodium and Chloride to NaCl-Induced Hypertension". Hypertension. 45 (5): 849–850. PMID 15837830. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.0000164629.94634.27. 
  36. ^ [unreliable medical source?]What is Sodium Bicarbonate Used For?. Virtuowl.com. Retrieved on 2010-09-24.
  37. ^ "How to Remove a Splinter with Baking Soda". wikiHow. Retrieved 4 August 2015. 
  38. ^ "Sodium Bicarbonate". American Cancer Society. 28 November 2008. Archived from the original on February 19, 2013. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
  39. ^ Edgcombe, Hilary and Hocking, Graham (2005). "Anaesthesia UK : Local Anaesthetic Pharmacology". John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK. 
  40. ^ Douglas Fox (15 December 2001). "Hard cheese". New Scientist. Retrieved 20 July 2017. 
  41. ^ a b Kleber, CJ; Moore, MH; Nelson, BJ (1998). "Laboratory assessment of tooth whitening by sodium bicarbonate dentifrices.". The Journal of clinical dentistry. 9 (3): 72–5. PMID 10518866. 
  42. ^ Koertge, TE; Brooks, CN; Sarbin, AG; Powers, D; Gunsolley, JC (1998). "A longitudinal comparison of tooth whitening resulting from dentifrice use.". The Journal of clinical dentistry. 9 (3): 67–71. PMID 10518865. 
  43. ^ Yankell, SL; Emling, RC; Petrone, ME; Rustogi, K; Volpe, AR; DeVizio, W; Chaknis, P; Proskin, HM (1999). "A six-week clinical efficacy study of four commercially available dentifrices for the removal of extrinsic tooth stain.". The Journal of clinical dentistry. 10 (3 Spec No): 115–8. PMID 10825858. 
  44. ^ Mankodi, S; Berkowitz, H; Durbin, K; Nelson, B (1998). "Evaluation of the effects of brushing on the removal of dental plaque.". The Journal of clinical dentistry. 9 (3): 57–60. PMID 10518862. 
  45. ^ Putt, MS; Milleman, KR; Ghassemi, A; Vorwerk, LM; Hooper, WJ; Soparkar, PM; Winston, AE; Proskin, HM (2008). "Enhancement of plaque removal efficacy by tooth brushing with baking soda dentifrices: results of five clinical studies.". The Journal of clinical dentistry. 19 (4): 111–9. PMID 19278079. 
  46. ^ Storehagen, Silje; Ose, Nanna and Midha, Shilpi. "Dentifrices and mouthwashes ingredients and their use" (PDF). Institutt for klinisk odontologi. Universitetet i Oslo. 
  47. ^ Lamb, John Henderson (31 May 1946). "Sodium Bicarbonate: An Excellent Deodorant". The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 7 (3): 131–133. doi:10.1038/jid.1946.13. 
  48. ^ "Bicarb soda: natural body deodorant". Retrieved 5 May 2012. 
  49. ^ Ralph B. Metson, M.D., The Harvard Medical School Guide to Healing Your Sinues (McGraw Hill 2005), at p. 68.
  50. ^ "Blepharitis. Treatment and Causes. Eye lid inflammation | Patient". Patient. Retrieved 2016-05-31. 
  51. ^ Bee, Peta (2008-08-16). "Is bicarbonate of soda a performance enhancing drug". The Times. London. Retrieved 2010-05-23. 
  52. ^ a b Ergogenic Aids. U. Retrieved on 2011-09-11.
  53. ^ Baking soda overdose – All Information. Umm.edu (2009-10-19). Retrieved on 2010-09-24.
  54. ^ Housecroft, Catherine E.; Sharpe, Alan G. (2008). "Chapter 22: d-block metal chemistry: the first row elements". Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd Edition. Pearson. p. 716. ISBN 978-0-13-175553-6. 
  55. ^ "Science Lab.com". MSDS- Sodium carbonate. sciencelab.com. 
  56. ^ a b Art, Philadelphia Museum of. "Finishing Techniques in Metalwork". 
  57. ^ "Put a Shine on It". scifun.chem.wisc.edu. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  58. ^ Raymond, Jessica (June 10, 2016). "Kitchen Odor Eliminating Candles, Products, and Tricks". cravedujour.com. 
  59. ^ Orcutt, JA. "Depleted Uranium and Health: Facts and Helpful Suggestions". Pharmacology and Toxicology of Uranium Compounds. McGraw-Hill. Retrieved 21 March 2012. 
  60. ^ "Acidosis Health Warning for Livestock Farmers". Retrieved 5 May 2012. 
  61. ^ a b "Decomposition of Carbonates". General Chemistry Online. 
  62. ^ "Company History". Church & Dwight Co. Archived from the original on 16 October 2011. 
  63. ^ Kipling, Rudyard. Captains Courageous. p. 25. 
  64. ^ Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.
  65. ^ "Duck Soup (1933)". IMDb. Retrieved 4 August 2015. 
  66. ^ "A Night at the Opera (1935)". IMDb. Retrieved 4 August 2015. 

External links[edit]