Sodium perchlorate

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Sodium perchlorate
Sodium perchlorte
Other names
Sodium chlorate(VII)
Sodium hyperchlorate
Perchloric acid, sodium salt
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.028.647
EC Number 231-511-9
RTECS number SC9800000
UN number 1502
NaClO4.H2O (monohydrate)
Molar mass 122.44 g/mol
Appearance White crystalline solid
Density 2.4994 g/cm3
2.02 g/cm3 (monohydrate)
Melting point 468 °C (874 °F; 741 K) (decomposes, anhydrous)
130 °C (monohydrate)
Boiling point 482 °C (900 °F; 755 K) (decomposes, monohydrate)
209.6 g/100 mL (25 °C, anhydrous)
209 g/100 mL (15 °C, monohydrate)
Safety data sheet ICSC 0715
Oxidant (O)
Harmful (Xn)
R-phrases (outdated) R9, R22
S-phrases (outdated) (S2), S13, S22, S27
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroform Reactivity code 1: Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures. E.g., calcium Special hazard OX: Oxidizer. E.g., potassium perchlorateNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point 400 °C (752 °F; 673 K)
Related compounds
Other anions
Sodium chloride
Sodium hypochlorite
Sodium chlorite
Sodium chlorate
Other cations
Lithium perchlorate
Potassium perchlorate
Ammonium perchlorate
Caesium perchlorate
Related compounds
Perchloric acid
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Sodium perchlorate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaClO4. It is the most soluble of the common perchlorate salts. It is a white crystalline, hygroscopic solid that is highly soluble in water and in alcohol. It usually comes as the monohydrate, which has a rhombic crystal system.[1]

Its heat of formation is −382.75 kJ/mol, meaning that it would be thermodynamically favorable for it to decompose into sodium chloride and dioxygen.[2]


Sodium perchlorate is the precursor to many other perchlorate salts, often taking advantage of their low solubility relative to NaClO4 (209 g/100 mL at 25 °C). Perchloric acid is made by treating NaClO4 with HCl.

NaClO4 finds only minimal use in pyrotechnics because it is hygroscopic; ammonium and potassium perchlorates are preferred. These salts are prepared by double decomposition from a solution of sodium perchlorate and potassium or ammonium chlorides.

Laboratory applications[edit]

NaClO4 has a variety of uses in the laboratory, often as an unreactive electrolyte. For example, it is used in standard DNA extraction and hybridization reactions in molecular biology.

In medicine[edit]

Sodium perchlorate can be used to block iodine uptake before administration of iodinated contrast agents in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism (suppressed TSH).[3]

In animal training[edit]

Sodium perchlorate may also be used as a material to train canines to detect bomb materials.[4]


Sodium perchlorate is produced by anodic oxidation of sodium chlorate at an inert electrode, such as platinum.[5]

ClO3(aq) + H2O(l) → ClO4(aq) + 2H+(aq) + 2e (acidic medium)

ClO3(aq) + 2OH(aq) → ClO4(aq)+ H2O(l) + 2e (alkaline medium)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Eagleson, Mary (1994). Concise Encyclopedia Chemistry. revised, illustrated. Walter de Gruyter. p. 1000. ISBN 9783110114515. Retrieved March 7, 2013. 
  2. ^ WebBook page for NaClO4
  3. ^ Becker C. [Prophylaxis and treatment of side effects due to iodinated contrast media relevant to radiological practice]. Radiologe. 2007 Sep;47(9):768-73.
  4. ^ "Explosives Detection Dogs". (in German). Retrieved 2017-07-24. 
  5. ^ Helmut Vogt, Jan Balej, John E. Bennett, Peter Wintzer, Saeed Akbar Sheikh, Patrizio Gallone "Chlorine Oxides and Chlorine Oxygen Acids" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2002, Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_483

External links[edit]