„Св. Климент Охридски“
Ipsa scientia potestas est|
("Knowledge itself is power")
1 October 1888 O.S.|
(129 years ago)
The University of Sofia "St. Kliment Ohridski" (Bulgarian: Софийски университет „Св. Климент Охридски“, Sofiyski universitet „Sv. Kliment Ohridski“) is the oldest higher education institution in Bulgaria.
Founded on 1 October 1888, the edifice of the university was constructed between 1924 and 1934 with the financial support of the brothers Evlogi Georgiev and Hristo Georgiev (whose sculptures are now featured on its façade) and has an area of 18,624 m² and a total of 324 premises. The university has 16 faculties and three departments, where over 21,000 students receive their education. The current rector is Anastas Gerdzhikov.
It has been consistently ranked as the top university in Bulgaria according to national and international rankings—it is constantly among the best four percent of world universities according to QS World University Rankings.
The university was founded on 1 October 1888, ten years after the liberation of Bulgaria, to serve as Bulgaria's primary institution of higher education. Initially, it had 4 regular and 3 additional lecturers and 49 students. It was founded as a higher pedagogical course, it became a higher school after a few months and a university in 1904. The first rector was Bulgarian linguist Aleksandar Teodorov-Balan.
During Sofia University's first years, it had three faculties: a Faculty of History and Philology (since 1888), a Faculty of Mathematics and Physics (since 1889) and a Faculty of Law (since 1892). History, geography, Slavic philology, philosophy and pedagogics, mathematics and physics, chemistry, natural sciences and law were taught. The first women, 16 in number, were welcomed to the university in 1901 and 25 November (8 December N.S.), the day of St. Kliment of Ohrid, became the university's official holiday the following year.
In 1907, as Prince Ferdinand opened the National Theatre, he was booed by Sofia University students, for which the university was closed for six months and all lecturers were fired. Not until a new government with Aleksandar Malinov at the head came into power in January 1908 was the crisis resolved.
At the beginning of the Balkan Wars, 1,379 students (725 men and 654 women) were recorded to attend the university. A fourth faculty was established in 1917, the Faculty of Medicine, the fifth, the Faculty of Agronomy following in 1921, the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and the Faculty of Theology being founded in 1923. In 1922–1923, Sofia University had 111 chairs, 205 lecturers and assistants and 2,388 students, of which 1,702 men and 686 women.
The foundation stone of Sofia University's new edifice was laid on 30 June 1924. Funds were secured by the brothers Evlogi Georgiev and Hristo Georgiev. The rectorate was built according to the initial plans of the French architect Henri Bréançon, who had won a competition for the purpose in 1907. The plans were developed by Nikola Lazarov and revised by Yordan Milanov, who also directed the construction, but died before the official opening on 16 December 1934.
On 27 October 1929, the first doctoral thesis in natural science of the university was defended by geologist Vassil Tzankov. The second one in chemistry followed on 1 July 1930 and the title doctor was granted to Aleksandar Spasov. In 1930–1931, the university had four more doctors.
After the political changes of 9 September 1944 and the emergence of the People's Republic of Bulgaria, radical alterations were made in the university system of the country. At that time in 1944–1945, 13,627 students attended the university, taught by 182 professors and readers and 286 assistants. Communist professors were introduced to the higher ranks of university authority, with others that did not share these views being removed. Specific party-related chairs were established and the university was restricted after the Soviet model. Three new faculties were founded in 1947, one of forestry, one of zootechnics and one of economics and major changes occurred, with many departments seceding in later years to form separate institutions.
The Sofia University Mountains on Alexander Island, Antarctica were named for the university in commemoration of its centennial celebrated in 1988 and in appreciation of the university’s contribution to the Antarctic exploration.
Faculties and departments
The Sofia University offers a wide range of degrees in 16 faculties:
- Faculty of Biology
- Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy
- Faculty of Classical and Modern Philology
- Faculty of Economics and Business Administration
- Faculty of Education
- Faculty of Geology and Geography
- Faculty of History
- Faculty of Journalism and Mass Communication
- Faculty of Law
- Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics
- Faculty of Philosophy
- Faculty of Physics
- Faculty of Pre-school and Primary School Education
- Faculty of Slavic Studies
- Faculty of Theology
- Faculty of Medicine
- Department of Language Learning
- Department for Information and In-service Training of Teachers
- Sports Department
- Orlin D. Velev, professor and scientist
- Elisaveta Bagryana, poet
- Anthony Bailey, businessman
- Kiril Bratanov, scientist
- Ljubomir Chakaloff, mathematician
- Boris Christoff, opera singer
- Raymond Detrez, historian
- Khristo Ivanov, scientist
- Rostislaw Kaischew, scientist
- / Julia Kristeva, philosopher and writer
- Maxim, cleric and head of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church
- Georgi Nadjakov, physicist
- Ivan Kostov Nikolov, geologist and mineralogist
- Ya'akov Nitzani, politician, Knesset member
- Georgi Parvanov, former President of Bulgaria
- Assen Razcvetnikov, poet, writer and translator
- Dimitar Sasselov, astronomer
- Petar Stoyanov, former President of Bulgaria
- / Tzvetan Todorov, philosopher
- Mikhail Wehbe, diplomat
- Zhelyu Zhelev, former President of Bulgaria
- Lyudmila Zhivkova, politician
- Ivaylo Ditchev, cultural anthropologist
- Snejina Gogova, sinologist, sociolinguist and psycholinguist, Professor of Chinese linguistics
- Nelly Ognyanova, media law expert
Notes and references
- "World University Rankings 2016-17". THE Education Ltd. Retrieved September 21, 2016.
- J. D. B. (1910). "Bulgaria (Education)". The Encyclopaedia Britannica; A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information. IV (BISHARIN to CALGARY) (11th ed.). Cambridge, England: At the University Press. p. 779. Retrieved 31 July 2018 – via Internet Archive.
- Pundeff, Marin (September 1968). "The University of Sofia at Eighty". Slavic Review. 27 (3): 440. JSTOR 2493343.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bulgaria/Description". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sofia University.|
- Sofia University website (in Bulgarian) (in English)
- "Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski"" (in Bulgarian). Sofia municipality website. Archived from the original on 17 March 2003. Retrieved 4 April 2006.
- Efficiency and public funding for higher education in Bulgaria