Soft Machine

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Soft Machine
Group photo circa 1970: l-r: Elton Dean, Mike Ratledge, Robert Wyatt, Hugh Hopper
Group photo circa 1970:
l-r: Elton Dean, Mike Ratledge, Robert Wyatt, Hugh Hopper
Background information
OriginCanterbury, England
Genres
Years active1966–1968,
1969–1978,
1980
1984
2015–present

1978–1988[2] (as Soft Heap / Soft Head),
1999–2002 (as Soft Ware),
2002–2004 (as Soft Works),
2003 (as Soft Mountain),
2004 (as Soft Bounds),
2004–2015 (as Soft Machine Legacy)
LabelsABC Probe, Columbia, Harvest, EMI, Major League Productions (MLP)
Associated actsThe Wilde Flowers, Nucleus, Planet Earth, Soft Heap / Soft Head, Soft Ware, Rubba, 2nd Vision, Rollercoaster, Soft Works, Soft Mountain, Soft Bounds, Soft Machine Legacy
Websitesoftmachine.org
MembersJohn Marshall
Roy Babbington
John Etheridge
Theo Travis
Past membersSee: Members

Soft Machine are an English rock band from Canterbury formed in mid-1966, currently consisting of John Marshall (drums), Roy Babbington (bass), John Etheridge (guitar), and Theo Travis (saxophone, flutes, keyboards). As a central band of the Canterbury scene, the group became one of the first British psychedelic acts and later moved into progressive and jazz-rock.[3] Their varying lineups have included prominent former members such as Mike Ratledge (organ, 1966–76), Robert Wyatt (drums & vocals, 1966–71), Kevin Ayers (bass, guitar & vocals, 1966–68), and Hugh Hopper (bass, 1969–1973).

Though they achieved little commercial success, the Soft Machine are considered by critics to have been influential in rock music,[4][5][6] Dave Lynch at AllMusic called them "one of the more influential bands of their era, and certainly one of the most influential underground ones".[3] The group were named after the novel The Soft Machine by William S. Burroughs.

History[edit]

Beginnings, psychedelic, jazz fusion (1966–68, 1969–1971)[edit]

Soft Machine (billed as The Soft Machine up to 1969 or 1970)[7] were formed in mid-1966 by Robert Wyatt (drums, vocals), Kevin Ayers (bass, guitar, vocals), Daevid Allen (guitar) and Mike Ratledge (organ) plus, for the first few gigs only, American guitarist Larry Nowlin.[8] Allen, Wyatt and future bassist Hugh Hopper first played together in the Daevid Allen Trio in 1963, occasionally accompanied by Ratledge. Wyatt, Ayers, and Hopper had been founding members of The Wilde Flowers, incarnations of which would include members of another Canterbury band, Caravan.

This first Soft Machine line-up became involved in the early UK underground, performing at the UFO Club and other London clubs like the Speakeasy Club and Middle Earth. Their first single, "Love Makes Sweet Music" (recorded 5 February 1967, produced by Chas Chandler), was released by Polydor in February, backed with "Feelin' Reelin' Squeelin'" (January 1967, produced by Kim Fowley). In April 1967 they recorded seven demo songs with producer Giorgio Gomelsky in De Lane Lea Studios that remained unreleased until 1971 in a dispute over studio costs.[9] They also played in the Netherlands, Germany, and on the French Riviera. During July and August 1967, Gomelsky booked shows along the Côte d'Azur with the band's most famous early gig taking place in the village square of Saint-Tropez. This led to an invitation to perform at producer Eddie Barclay's trendy "Nuit Psychédélique", performing a forty-minute rendering of "We Did It Again", singing the refrain over and over in a trance-like quality. This made them instant darlings of the Parisian "in" crowd, resulting in invitations to appear on television shows and at the Paris Biennale in October 1967. After their return from France, Allen (an Australian) was denied re-entry to the United Kingdom, so the group continued as a trio, while he returned to Paris to form Gong.

Sharing the same management as Jimi Hendrix, the band supported the Jimi Hendrix Experience's North America tour throughout 1968.[8] Soft Machine's first album was recorded in New York City in April at the end of the first leg of the tour. Back in London, guitarist Andy Summers, later of The Police, joined the group following the breakup of Dantalian's Chariot (previously Zoot Money's Big Roll Band). After a few weeks of rehearsals, the quartet began a tour of the U.S. with some solo shows before reuniting with Hendrix during August and September 1968. Summers was fired at the insistence of Ayers,[10] who departed amicably after the final tour date at the Hollywood Bowl in mid-September, and for the remainder of 1968 Soft Machine were no more. Wyatt stayed in the U.S. to record solo demos, while Ratledge returned to London and began composing in earnest. One of Wyatt's demos, Slow Walkin' Talk, allowed Wyatt to make use of his multi-instrumentalist skills (Hammond organ, piano, drums and vocals) and featured Hendrix on bass guitar.[11]

In December 1968, to fulfill contractual obligations, Soft Machine re-formed with former road manager and composer Hugh Hopper on bass added to Wyatt and Ratledge and recorded their second album, Volume Two (1969), which started a transition toward jazz fusion. In May 1969 this line-up acted as the uncredited backing band on two tracks of The Madcap Laughs, the debut album by Syd Barrett. In 1969 the trio was expanded to a septet with the addition of four horn players, though only saxophonist Elton Dean remained beyond a few months, the resulting Soft Machine quartet (Wyatt, Hopper, Ratledge and Dean) running through Third (1970) and Fourth (1971), with various guests, mostly jazz players (Lyn Dobson, Nick Evans, Mark Charig, Jimmy Hastings, Roy Babbington, Rab Spall). Fourth was the first of their fully instrumental albums and the last one featuring Wyatt.

Their propensity for building extended suites from regular sized compositions, both live and in the studio (already in the Ayers suite in their first album), reached its apogee in the 1970 album Third, unusual for its time with each of the four sides featuring one suite. Third was also unusual for remaining in print for more than ten years in the U.S., and is the best-selling Soft Machine recording.[12]

They received unprecedented acclaim across Europe, and they made history by becoming the first rock band invited to play at London's Proms in August 1970. The show was broadcast live on national TV and later appeared as a live album.

Post-Wyatt era (1971–72)[edit]

After differences over the group's musical direction, Wyatt left (or was fired from)[13] the band in August 1971 and formed Matching Mole (a pun on machine molle, French for soft machine; also said at the time to have been taken from stage lighting equipment "Matching Mole"). He was briefly replaced by Australian drummer Phil Howard. This line-up toured extensively in Europe during the end of 1971 (attested by the 2008 release, Drop) and attended the recording of their next album, but further musical disagreements led to Howard's dismissal after the recording of the first LP side of Fifth (1972) before the end of 1971 and some months later in 1972 to Dean's departure. They were replaced respectively in 1971 by John Marshall (drums) and in 1972 by Karl Jenkins (reeds, keyboards), both former members of Ian Carr's Nucleus, for the recording of Six (1973), and the band's sound developed even more towards jazz fusion.

Jenkins era part #1 (1972–78)[edit]

In 1973, after the release of Six, Hopper left and was replaced by Roy Babbington, another former Nucleus member, who had already contributed double bass on Fourth (1971) and Fifth (1972) and took up (6-string) bass guitar successfully, while Karl Jenkins took over as bandleader and composer. After they released Seven (1973) without additional musicians, the band switched record labels from Columbia to Harvest. On their 1975 album, Bundles, a significant musical change occurred with Allan Holdsworth adding guitar as a prominent melody instrument to the band's sound, sometimes reminiscent of John McLaughlin's Mahavishnu Orchestra, setting the album apart from previous Soft Machine albums which had rarely featured guitars. Holdsworth was replaced by John Etheridge for the next album Softs (1976). Ratledge, the last remaining original member of the band, had left during the early stages of recording. Other musicians in the band during the later period were bassists Percy Jones (of Brand X) and Steve Cook,[14] saxophonists Alan Wakeman and Ray Warleigh, and violinist Ric Sanders. Their 1977 performances and record (titled Alive and Well, ironically) were among the last for Soft Machine as a working band, their last performance (until the 1984 reformation) being the only Soft Machine concert of 1978.[15][nb 1]

Jenkins era part #2 (1980–81; 1984)[edit]

The Soft Machine name was used for the 1981 record Land of Cockayne (with Jack Bruce on bass and, again, Allan Holdsworth on guitar, plus Ray Warleigh and Dick Morrissey on saxes and John Taylor on electric piano), and for a final series of dates at London's Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club in the summer of 1984,[nb 2] featuring Jenkins and Marshall leading an ad hoc lineup of Etheridge, Warleigh, pianist Dave MacRae and bassist Paul Carmichael.

Alternative bands: Soft Heap / Soft Head, Soft Ware, Soft Mountain, Soft Works, Soft Bounds and Soft Machine Legacy (1978–2015)[edit]

Soft Machine having been a much loved band since their inception in the late 1960s and having always been at the cutting edge of many music genres (including the early progressive and psychedelic rock scene and then the burgeoning jazz rock and fusion scene), it was inevitable that former Soft Machine members would reconvene over the years, to continue on their legacy.[16]

Soft Heap / Soft Head (1978–1988)[edit]

The first such conception was the band Soft Heap, formed in January 1978, which featured Hugh Hopper and Elton Dean from Soft Machine, and Alan Gowen and Pip Pyle from the band National Health. The newly formed band soon toured in Spring/Summer 1978 as Soft Head as Dave Sheen replaced Pip Pyle due to the latter's commitments with the band National Health.[2] The live album Rogue Element was recorded on that tour and was released in 1978.

The original Soft Heap line-up reconvened in October 1978 to record their eponymous studio album Soft Heap which was released in 1979.

After 2 line-up changes that occurred in 1979–81, the new line-up toured intermittently throughout the 1980s, embarking on four tours during the decade with a total of 25 European concerts, culminating with a gig on 11 May 1988 at the Festival "Jazz sous les pommiers" in Coutances, France.[2]

Soft Ware (1999–2002), Soft Works (2002–04), Soft Mountain (2003) and Soft Bounds (2004)[edit]

The second such conception was the band Soft Ware, formed in September 1999, which featured Elton Dean, Hugh Hopper, John Marshall (on drums) and long-time friend Keith Tippett. This line-up would only remain together briefly. Then in 2002, another former Soft Machine member, Allan Holdsworth (on guitar), joined the remaining three members of Soft Ware who would rename themselves Soft Works[16] in June 2002.[15] They had changed their name to avoid confusion with Peter Mergener's band Software. As Soft Works, they made their world live debut on 17 August 2002 at the Progman Cometh Festival (at the Moore Theater in Seattle, Washington), released (on 29 July 2003)[17] their only (studio) album, Abracadabra, consisting of all new material recorded at the Eastcote Studios in London on 5–7 June 2002, and toured Japan in August 2003, Italy in January and February 2004, and Mexico in March 2004.[15]

During a Japanese Soft Works tour in August 2003, Elton Dean (on saxophone) and Hugh Hopper (on bass) formed the (very) short-lived band Soft Mountain along with Japanese musicians Hoppy Kamiyama (on keyboards) (who Hopper had met a couple of years earlier) and Yoshida Tatsuya (on drums). Indeed, looking for a break from relatively fixed setlists and song forms, Hugh Hopper had contacted Kamiyama with the idea of hitting a studio for a day to see what might happen. Kamiyama brought in Tatsuya, and, with no discussion, the quartet dove right in, playing two 45-minute improvisations. In 2007, a year after Elton Dean unexpectedly passed at the age of sixty, the one-time meeting band released their eponymous album Soft Mountain that they had recorded on that 10 August 2003 day in Tokyo, Japan.[18] The two-part "Soft Mountain Suite" extracts the best thirty minutes from each improvisation.[19] Soft Mountain named themselves after Hoppy Kamiyama, whose name translates into "God Mountain" in English.[18]

On the occasion of a unique concert that occurred on 17 June 2004 during the Festival "Les Tritonales" at Le Triton in Les Lilas, France[2] (a suburb in the North-East of Paris), Elton Dean and Hugh Hopper formed the (very) short-lived band Soft Bounds along with new comers Sophia Domancich (on piano & Fender Rhodes) and Simon Goubert (on drums). This concert was partially released as the (unique Soft Bounds) album Live at Le Triton in 2005.

Soft Machine Legacy (2004–2015)[edit]

In October 2004, a new variant of Soft Works, with John Etheridge permanently replacing Holdsworth, took the name of "Soft Machine Legacy" and performed their first two gigs (two Festival shows on 9 October in Turkey and 15 October in Czech Republic), Liam Genockey temporarily replacing John Marshall who had ligament problems (the first Soft Machine Legacy line-up being consequently: Elton Dean, John Etheridge, Hugh Hopper and Liam Genockey).[15] Later on, Soft Machine Legacy released three albums: Live in Zaandam[20] (2005), the studio album Soft Machine Legacy[20] (2006) recorded in September 2005 and featuring fresh material[16] and the album Live at the New Morning[21] (2006). After Elton Dean died in February 2006, the band continued with British saxophonist and flautist Theo Travis, formerly of Gong and The Tangent.

In December 2006, the new Legacy line-up recorded the album Steam[22][23][24] in Jon Hiseman's studio. Steam was released in August 2007 by Moonjune before a European tour.

Hopper left in 2008 because he was suffering from leukaemia, so the band continued live performances with Fred Baker. Following Hopper's death in 2009, the band announced that they would continue with Roy Babbington again replacing Hugh Hopper on bass.[25]

Soft Machine Legacy released their fifth album in October 2010: a 58-minute album entitled Live Adventures recorded live in October 2009 in Austria and Germany during a European tour.[26]

Founding Soft Machine bassist Kevin Ayers died in February 2013, aged 68,[27][28] while Daevid Allen died in March 2015 following a short battle with cancer, aged 77.[29][30]

On 18 March 2013, the Legacy band released a new studio album, titled Burden of Proof.[31] Travis stated that "legally we could actually be called Soft Machine but for various reasons it was decided to be one step removed."[32]

A return to the name "Soft Machine" (2015–present)[edit]

In September and October 2015, it was announced that the band Soft Machine Legacy (made of guitarist John Etheridge, drummer John Marshall, bass player Roy Babbington and sax, flute and keyboard player Theo Travis) would be performing under the name "Soft Machine" in late 2015 and early 2016: two shows in the Netherlands and Belgium in early December 2015[33][nb 3] and a series of seven UK shows in March–April 2016.[33][35][nb 4]

In December 2015, it was confirmed that the band had dropped the "Legacy" tag from their name, as the band featured three of the group's 1970s era members – John Etheridge, John Marshall and Roy Babbington – joined by Theo Travis on sax, flute and keyboard.[35]

On 7 September 2018, Soft Machine released Hidden Details, their first new studio album in five years (first album under "Soft Machine" moniker since 1981). In Fall and Winter 2018, they toured the world as part of their 50th anniversary celebration and in support of the new album, and the US in January and February 2019.[nb 5]

On 25 June 2019, The New York Times Magazine listed Soft Machine among hundreds of artists whose material was reportedly destroyed in the 2008 Universal fire.[40]

On 20 March 2020, Soft Machine released Live at The Baked Potato (on Tonefloat Records), their first new original live album in decades. Recorded live at The Baked Potato, Los Angeles, CA on 1 February 2019 and only available as a twelve-track only-200-numbered-copy limited edition double vinyl LP, it documents their extensive 2018–2019 world tour.[41][42]

Style[edit]

Soft Machine's music has been described by critics and journalists as progressive rock,[3][28][43][44][45] experimental rock,[46][47] jazz rock,[48][49] jazz,[3][50] psychedelic rock[28] and art rock,[51] as well as being a part of the Canterbury scene of progressive rock.[3][45] According to Hugh Hopper, "We weren't consciously playing jazz rock, it was more a case of not wanting to sound like other bands; we certainly didn't want a guitarist."[52]

Members[edit]

Current members

  • Theo Travis – saxophones, flutes, keyboards, piano (2015–present; Soft Machine Legacy 2006–2015)
  • John Etheridge – guitar (1975–1978, 1984, 2015–present; Soft Machine Legacy 2004–2015)
  • Roy Babbington – bass (1973–1976, 2015–present; Soft Machine Legacy 2009–2015)
  • John Marshall – drums, percussion (1972–1978, 1980, 1984, 2015–present; spin-off bands 1999–2015)

Notable former members

  • Mike Ratledge - keyboards, piano, synthesizers, flute (1966-1976)
  • Robert Wyatt - drums, percussion, lead and backing vocals (1966-1971)
  • Kevin Ayers - bass, guitars, backing and lead vocals (1966-1968)
  • Hugh Hopper - bass, guitars, alto saxophone (1968-1973)
  • Elton Dean - alto saxophone, saxello, flute, keyboards (1969-1972)
  • Karl Jenkins - baritone and soprano saxophones, recorder, flute, oboe, keyboards, piano, synthesizers (1972-1978, 1980, 1984)
  • Allan Holdsworth - guitars, backing vocals (1973-1975), Session musician: 1980

Discography[edit]

Studio albums[edit]

Year Album Line-up Additional musicians
1968 The Soft Machine Ratledge, Wyatt, Ayers Hugh Hopper
1969 Volume Two Ratledge, Wyatt, Hopper Brian Hopper
1970 Third Ratledge, Wyatt, Hopper, Dean Lyn Dobson, Nick Evans, Jimmy Hastings, Rab Spall
1971 Fourth Ratledge, Wyatt, Hopper, Dean Evans, Hastings, Mark Charig, Roy Babbington, Alan Skidmore
1972 Fifth Ratledge, Howard/Marshall, Hopper, Dean Babbington
1973 Six Ratledge, Marshall, Hopper, Jenkins
1973 Seven Ratledge, Marshall, Babbington, Jenkins
1975 Bundles Ratledge, Marshall, Babbington, Jenkins, Holdsworth Ray Warleigh
1976 Softs Jenkins, Marshall, Babbington, Wakeman, Etheridge Ratledge
1981 Land of Cockayne Jenkins, Marshall Holdsworth, Warleigh, Alan Parker, John Taylor, Jack Bruce, Dick Morrissey
2018 Hidden Details[53][54][55] Travis, Marshall, Babbington, Etheridge Nick Utteridge

Related bands, projects & tributes discography[edit]

Discography[edit]

Year Album Soft Machine members involved
The Wilde Flowers
1965–69 The Wilde Flowers (released in 1994) Ayers, Hopper, Wyatt
Planet Earth
1978 Planet Earth Ratledge, Jenkins
Soft Head
1978 Rogue Element Hopper, Dean
Soft Heap
1979 Soft Heap Hopper, Dean
1979 Al Dente (released in 2008) Hopper, Dean
1982-83 A Veritable Centaur (released in 1995) Dean
Rubba
1979 Push Button Ratledge, Jenkins
2nd Vision
1980 First Steps Etheridge, Sanders
Rollercoaster
1980 Wonderin' Ratledge, Jenkins
Soft Works
2002 Abracadabra (released in 2003) Hopper, Dean, Holdsworth, Marshall
Soft Mountain
2003 Soft Mountain (released in 2007) Hopper, Dean
Soft Bounds
2004 Live at Le Triton (released in 2005) Hopper, Dean
Soft Machine Legacy
2005 Live In Zaandam Hopper, Dean, Etheridge, Marshall
2006 Soft Machine Legacy Hopper, Dean, Etheridge, Marshall
2006 Live at the New Morning Hopper, Dean, Etheridge, Marshall
2007 Steam Hopper, Travis, Etheridge, Marshall
2010 Live Adventures Babbington, Travis, Etheridge, Marshall
2013 Burden of Proof Babbington, Travis, Etheridge, Marshall
Delta Saxophone Quartet
2007 Dedicated To You But You Weren't Listening: The Music Of Soft Machine Hopper (as a guest on some tracks)

Filmography[edit]

  • Soft Machine Legacy: New Morning - The Paris Concert, available in DVD format (2006)
  • Alive in Paris 1970, available in DVD format (2008)
  • Romantic Warriors III: Canterbury Tales, available in DVD format (2015)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ On 8 December 1978 at the Sound & Musik Festival in Dortmund, Germany; the then probable line-up being: Karl Jenkins, John Marshall, Ric Sanders, Steve Cook and Allan Holdsworth.[15]
  2. ^ A week of gigs from 30 July to 4 August 1984.[15]
  3. ^ On 2 December 2015 at Cultuurpodium Boerderij in Zoetermeer, Netherlands[34] and on 4 December 2015 at N9 Villa in Eeklo, Belgium.[33]
  4. ^ On 18 March 2016[36] as part of the HRH Prog 4 Festival (scheduled from 17 to 20 March) at Camp HRH (Hafan y Môr Holiday Park), Pwllheli, North Wales, UK,[37] on 19 March at the Brewery Arts Centre, Kendal, UK, on 20 March at the Bristol Jazz Festival, Bristol, UK (once scheduled then cancelled and rescheduled for 16 November 2016 at The Robin 2, Wolverhampton, UK), on 24 March 2016 at the Talking Heads in Southampton, UK, on 26 March 2016 at Trading Boundaries, Sheffield Green, East Sussex, UK, on 30 March at the Assembly Rooms, Leamington Spa, UK, on 31 March 2016 at the Band on the Wall in Manchester, UK, on 1 April 2016 at Nell's Jazz & Blues Club in London, UK.[33]
  5. ^ .Soft Machine embarked on 6 September 2018 in Oslo, Norway on a world tour starting with a 10-date Europe leg (ended on 19 September 2018 in Jena, Germany); followed on 6 October in Baltimore by a 12-date North-American leg – their first North American tour since 1974 (ended on 23 October in Saint Paul, Minnesota); followed on 3 November in Canterbury by an 11-date second European leg (ended on 16 December 2018 in Bonn, Germany); and embarked on 21 January 2019 on a 14-date second North-American leg (ended by a 5-date residency from 4 to 8 February 2019 at Key West, Florida through Cozumel, Mexico at the Cruise To The Edge festival).[38][39]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Greene, Doyle (2016). Rock, Counterculture and the Avant-Garde, 1966–1970: How the Beatles, Frank Zappa and the Velvet Underground Defined an Era. McFarland. p. 182. ISBN 978-1-4766-2403-7.
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  4. ^ Jones, Mikey IQ (24 March 2015). "A beginner's guide to Daevid Allen". FACT. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  5. ^ Keepnews, Peter (16 March 2015). "Daevid Allen, Guitarist and Singer in Progressive Rock, Dies at 77". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  6. ^ Lynch, Joe (13 March 2015). "Soft Machine & Gong Co-Founder Daevid Allen Dead at 77". Billboard. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  7. ^ "Prom 26, Thursday 13 August at 10". BBC Proms Prospectus. 1970.
  8. ^ a b "Soft Machine-Chronology". Canterbury Music website. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
  9. ^ "Jet Propelled Photographs" liner notes
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  20. ^ a b "Live in Zaandam – Soft Machine Legacy | Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". AllMusic. 10 May 2005. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
  21. ^ "Live at the New Morning". AllMusic. 1 July 2006. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
  22. ^ Lynch, Dave. "Steam – Soft Machine Legacy | Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
  23. ^ "Soft Machine Legacy: Steam". AllAboutJazz.com. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
  24. ^ "Soft Machine Legacy: Steam". AllAboutJazz.com. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
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  27. ^ "Kevin Ayers Has Died | News | Clash Magazine". Clashmusic.com. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
  28. ^ a b c "R.I.P. Daevid Allen, founder of Gong and Soft Machine, has died" by Ben Kaye, Consequence of Sound, 13 March 2015
  29. ^ "Gong founder Daevid Allen has died, aged 77", The Guardian, 13 March 2015
  30. ^ "R.I.P. Daevid Allen Of Soft Machine and Gong 1938-2015" by Paul Cashmere, Noise 11, 13 March 2015
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  37. ^ "HRH Prog 4 Festival 2016 2016 (Line-up: Soft Machine, Caravan, The Crazy World of Arthur Brown, Curved Air...)". songkick.com. 2015. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
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  39. ^ "John Etheridge / Events". john-etheridge.com. October 2018. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  40. ^ Rosen, Jody (25 June 2019). "Here Are Hundreds More Artists Whose Tapes Were Destroyed in the UMG Fire". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  41. ^ Cite error: The named reference tonefloat.com Soft Machine Live at The Baked Potato was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  42. ^ Cite error: The named reference theotravis.com Soft Machine Live at The Baked Potato was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
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  49. ^ Rupprecht, Philip. British Musical Modernism: The Manchester Group and their Contemporaries; Cambridge University Press; 18 August 2015; ISBN 978-0521844482; p.425
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  51. ^ Dougan, John. "Robert Wyatt | Biography & History". AllMusic. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  52. ^ Irvin, Jim. The MOJO Collection: The Ultimate Music Companion; Canongate Books Ltd; 4th edition: 1 November 2007; ISBN 978-1841959733; p.208
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  54. ^ Brian Morton (October 2018). "Soft Machine - Hidden Details (review)". The Wire.
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]