|This article is part of a series on|
Myofascial release (MFR, self-myofascial release) is an alternative medicine therapy claimed to be useful for treating skeletal muscle immobility and pain by relaxing contracted muscles, improving blood, oxygen, and lymphatic circulation, and stimulating the stretch reflex in muscles.
Fascia is a thin, tough, elastic type of connective tissue that wraps most structures within the human body, including muscle. Fascia supports and protects these structures. Osteopathy claims that this soft tissue can become restricted due to psychogenic disease, overuse, trauma, infectious agents, or inactivity, often resulting in pain, muscle tension, and corresponding diminished blood flow.
The use of myofascial release as a treatment for orthopedic conditions is not supported by good evidence. Like all alternative treatments, as a replacement for conventional treatment for cancer, it risks causing harm. In the form of foam rolling, evidence suggests myofascial release may be effective in preventing and recovering from pain associated with exercise.
The American Cancer Society states that "There is little scientific evidence available to support proponents' claims that myofascial release relieves pain or restores flexibility" and cautions against using it as a substitute for conventional cancer treatment. The poor quality of research into the use of myofascial release for orthopaedic conditions precludes any conclusions being drawn about its usefulness for this purpose.
In 2011, the UK Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) upheld a complaint regarding the effectiveness claims published in an advertising leaflet produced by the Myofascial Release UK health care service. The ASA Council ruled that materials presented by Myofascial Release UK in support of the claims made in their ad were inadequate to establish a "body of robust scientific evidence" to substantiate Myofascial Release UK's range of claims. In addition, the ASA determined that the ad breached advertising rules by introducing a risk that readers might be discouraged from seeking other essential medical treatments.
Reviews published in 2013 and 2015 evaluating evidence for MFR efficacy found that clinical trials that had been conducted varied in quality, technique, outcome measurements, and had mixed outcomes; the 2015 review noted: "it is time for scientific evidences on MFR to support its clinical use." Another review concluded that the use of foam rollers or a roller massager before or after exercise for self-myofascial release appears to be helpful with regard to range of motion and soreness, but the optimal timing and duration of use requires further study.
The approach was promulgated as an alternative medicine concept by Andrew Taylor Still, inventor of osteopathy, and his early students. The exact phrase "myofascial release" was coined in the 1960s by Robert Ward, an osteopath who studied with Ida Rolf, the originator of Rolfing. Ward, along with physical therapist John Barnes, are considered the two primary founders of Myofascial Release.
- Spinaris T, DiGiovanna EL (2005). Chapter 12: Myofascial release. An Osteopathic Approach to Diagnosis and Treatment (3rd ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 80–82. ISBN 978-0-7817-4293-1.
- McKenney, K; Elder, AS; Elder, C; Hutchins, A (2013). "Myofascial release as a treatment for orthopaedic conditions: a systematic review". J Athl Train (Systematic review). 48 (4): 522–7. doi:10.4085/1062-6050-48.3.17. PMC 3718355. PMID 23725488.
- Ades, TB, ed. (2009). "Myofascial release". American Cancer Society Complete Guide to Complementary and Alternative Cancer Therapies (2nd ed.). American Cancer Society. pp. 226–228. ISBN 978-0-944235-71-3.
- Schroeder, AN; Best, TM (2015). "Is self myofascial release an effective preexercise and recovery strategy? A literature review". Current Sports Medicine Reports. 14 (3): 200–8. doi:10.1249/JSR.0000000000000148. PMID 25968853.
- "ASA Adjudication on Myofascial Release UK". Advertising Standards Authority (United Kingdom). 2011-03-16. Retrieved 2015-04-21.
- Ajimsha, M.S.; Al-Mudahka, Noora R.; Al-Madzhar, J.A. (January 2015). "Effectiveness of myofascial release: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials". Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 19 (1): 102–112. doi:10.1016/j.jbmt.2014.06.001. PMID 25603749.
- "Glossary of Osteopathic Terminology". American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine. April 2009. p. 28. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- Stillerman, Elaine (2009). Modalities for Massage and Bodywork. Mosby. pp. 151–2. ISBN 978-0-323-05255-9.
- Knaster, Mirka (1996). Discovering the Body's Wisdom: A Comprehensive Guide to More Than Fifty Mind-Body Practices. Bantam. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-307-57550-0.