||It has been suggested that Sweetened beverage be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since August 2016.|
A soft drink (see terminology for other names) is a drink that typically contains carbonated water, a sweetener, and a natural or artificial flavoring. The sweetener may be sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit juice, sugar substitutes (in the case of diet drinks), or some combination of these. Soft drinks may also contain caffeine, colorings, preservatives, and other ingredients.
Soft drinks are called "soft" in contrast to "hard drinks" (alcoholic beverages). Small amounts of alcohol may be present in a soft drink, but the alcohol content must be less than 0.5% of the total volume if the drink is to be considered non-alcoholic. Fruit juice, tea, and other such non-alcoholic beverages are technically soft drinks by this definition but are not generally referred to as such.
Soft drinks may be served chilled, over ice cubes or at room temperature. In rare cases, some soft drinks, such as Dr Pepper, can be served warm. Soft drinks are available in many formats, including cans, glass bottles, and plastic bottles (the latter in a variety of sizes ranging from small bottles to large 2-liter containers). Soft drinks are also widely available at fast food restaurants, movie theaters, convenience stores, casual dining restaurants, and bars from soda fountain machines. Soda fountain drinks are typically served in paper or plastic disposable cups in the first three venues. In casual dining restaurants and bars, soft drinks are often served in glasses. Soft drinks may be drunk with straws or sipped directly from the cups.
Soft drinks are mixed with other ingredients in several contexts. In Western countries, in bars and other places where alcohol is served (e.g., airplanes, restaurants and nightclubs) many mixed drinks are made by blending a soft drink with hard liquor and serving the drink over ice. One well-known example is the rum and coke, which may also contain lime juice. Some homemade fruit punch recipes, which may or may not contain alcohol, contain a mixture of various fruit juices and soda pop (e.g., ginger ale). At ice cream parlours and 1950s-themed diners, ice cream floats are often sold. Two popular ice cream floats are the coke float and the root beer float, which consist of a scoop of ice cream placed in a tall glass of the respectively named soft drinks.
- 1 Terminology
- 2 History
- 3 Production
- 4 Producers
- 5 Health concerns
- 6 Government regulation
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
While the term "soft drink" is commonly used in product labeling and on restaurant menus, in many countries these drinks are more commonly referred to by regional names, including carbonated beverage, coke, fizzy drink, fizzy juice, cool drink, cold drink, lolly water, pop, seltzer, soda, soda pop, tonic, and mineral. Due to the high sugar content in typical soft drinks, they may also be called sugary drinks.
In the United States, the 2003 Harvard Dialect Survey tracked the usage of the nine most common names. Over half of the survey respondents preferred the term "soda", which was dominant in the Northeastern United States, California, and the areas surrounding Milwaukee and St. Louis. The term "pop", which was preferred by 25% of the respondents, was most popular in the Midwest and Pacific Northwest, while the genericized trademark "coke", used by 12% of the respondents, was most popular in the Southern United States. The term "tonic" is hyperlocal to eastern Massachusetts, although usage is declining.
In the United Kingdom and Ireland, the terms "fizzy drink" and the genericized trademark "coke" are common. "Pop" and "fizzy pop" are used in northern England, while "mineral" is used in Ireland. In Australia and New Zealand, "soft drink" is typically used. In South African English, "cool drink" and "cold drink" are used.
The origins of soft drinks lie in the development of fruit-flavored drinks. In Tudor England 'water imperial' was widely drunk; it was a sweetened drink with lemon flavor and containing cream of tartar. 'Manays Cryste' was a sweetened cordial flavored with rosewater, violets or cinnamon.
Another early type of soft drink was lemonade, made of water and lemon juice sweetened with honey, but without carbonated water. The Compagnie des Limonadiers of Paris was granted a monopoly for the sale of lemonade soft drinks in 1676. Vendors carried tanks of lemonade on their backs and dispensed cups of the soft drink to Parisians.
In the late 18th century, scientists made important progress in replicating naturally carbonated mineral waters. In 1767, Englishman Joseph Priestley first discovered a method of infusing water with carbon dioxide to make carbonated water when he suspended a bowl of distilled water above a beer vat at a local brewery in Leeds, England. His invention of carbonated water (also known as soda water) is the major and defining component of most soft drinks.
Priestley found that water treated in this manner had a pleasant taste, and he offered it to his friends as a refreshing drink. In 1772, Priestley published a paper entitled Impregnating Water with Fixed Air in which he describes dripping oil of vitriol (or sulfuric acid as it is now called) onto chalk to produce carbon dioxide gas, and encouraging the gas to dissolve into an agitated bowl of water.
Another Englishman, John Mervin Nooth, improved Priestley's design and sold his apparatus for commercial use in pharmacies. Swedish chemist Torbern Bergman invented a generating apparatus that made carbonated water from chalk by the use of sulfuric acid. Bergman's apparatus allowed imitation mineral water to be produced in large amounts. Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius started to add flavors (spices, juices, and wine) to carbonated water in the late eighteenth century.
Thomas Henry, an apothecary from Manchester, was the first to sell artificial mineral water to the general public for medicinal purposes, beginning in the 1770s. His recipe for 'Bewley's Mephitic Julep' consisted of 3 drachms of fossil alkali to a quart of water, and the manufacture had to 'throw in streams of fixed air until all the alkaline taste is destroyed'.
Johann Jacob Schweppe developed a similar process to manufacture carbonated mineral water at the same time. He founded the Schweppes Company in Geneva in 1783 to sell carbonated water, and relocated his business to London in 1792. His drink soon gained in popularity; among his new found patrons was Erasmus Darwin. In 1843, Schweppes commercialised Malvern Water at the Holywell Spring in the Malvern Hills, and was appointed the official supplier to the Royal Family.
It was not long before flavoring was combined with carbonated water. The earliest reference to carbonated ginger beer is in a Practical Treatise on Brewing. published in 1809. The drinking of either natural or artificial mineral water was considered at the time to be a healthy practice, and was promoted by advocates of temperance. Pharmacists selling mineral waters began to add herbs and chemicals to unflavored mineral water. They used birch bark (see birch beer), dandelion, sarsaparilla, fruit extracts, and other substances. Flavorings were also added to improve the taste.
Mass market and industrialization
Soft drinks soon outgrew their origins in the medical world and became a widely consumed beverage, available cheaply for the masses. By the 1840s there were more than fifty soft drinks manufacturers - an increase from just ten in the previous decade. For the Great Exhibition of 1851, Schweppes was designated the official drink supplier and sold over a million bottles of lemonade, ginger beer, Seltzer water and soda-water. There was even a Schweppes soda water fountain, situated directly at the entrance to the Exhibition.
Mixer drinks became popular in the second half of the century. Tonic water was originally quinine added to water as a prophylactic against malaria and was consumed by British officials stationed in the tropical areas of South Asia and Africa. As the quinine powder was so bitter people began mixing the powder with soda and sugar, and a basic tonic water was created. The first commercial tonic water was produced in 1858. The mixed drink gin and tonic also originated in British colonial India, when the British population would mix their medicinal quinine tonic with gin.
A persistent problem in the soft drinks industry was the lack of an effective sealing of the bottles. Carbonated drink bottles are under great pressure from the gas, so inventors tried to find the best way to prevent the carbon dioxide or bubbles from escaping. The bottles could also explode if the pressure was too great. Hiram Codd devised a patented bottling machine while working at a small mineral water works in the Caledonian Road, Islington, in London in 1870. His Codd-neck bottle was designed to enclose a marble and a rubber washer in the neck. The bottles were filled upside down, and pressure of the gas in the bottle forced the marble against the washer, sealing in the carbonation. The bottle was pinched into a special shape to provide a chamber into which the marble was pushed to open the bottle. This prevented the marble from blocking the neck as the drink was poured.
By mid-1873 he had granted 20 licences and received a further 50 applications. This was boosted further by a Trade Show held in London in the same year. By 1874 the licence was free to bottle manufacturers as long as they purchased the marbles, sealing rings and used his groove tool, and the mineral water firms they traded with had already bought a licence to use his bottle.
In 1892, the "Crown Cork Bottle Seal" was patented by William Painter, a Baltimore, Maryland machine shop operator. It was the first bottle top to successfully keep the bubbles in the bottle. In 1899, the first patent was issued for a glass-blowing machine for the automatic production of glass bottles. Earlier glass bottles had all been hand-blown. Four years later, the new bottle-blowing machine was in operation. It was first operated by the inventor, Michael Owens, an employee of Libby Glass Company. Within a few years, glass bottle production increased from 1,400 bottles a day to about 58,000 bottles a day.
In America, soda fountains were initially more popular, and many Americans would frequent the soda fountain daily. Beginning in 1806, Yale University chemistry professor Benjamin Silliman sold soda waters in New Haven, Connecticut. He used a Nooth apparatus to produce his waters. Businessmen in Philadelphia and New York City also began selling soda water in the early 19th century. In the 1830s, John Matthews of New York City and John Lippincott of Philadelphia began manufacturing soda fountains. Both men were successful and built large factories for fabricating fountains. Due to problems in the U.S. glass industry, bottled drinks remained a small portion of the market throughout much of the 19th century. (However, they were known in England. In The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, published in 1848, the caddish Huntingdon, recovering from months of debauchery, wakes at noon and gulps a bottle of soda-water.)
In the early 20th century, sales of bottled soda increased exponentially, and in the second half of the 20th century, canned soft drinks became an important share of the market.
During the 1920s, "Home-Paks" were invented. "Home-Paks" are the familiar six-pack cartons made from cardboard. Vending machines also began to appear in the 1920s. Since then, soft drink vending machines have become increasingly popular. Both hot and cold drinks are sold in these self-service machines throughout the world.
Soft drink production
Soft drinks are made by mixing dry ingredients and/or fresh ingredients with water. Production of soft drinks can be done at factories or at home.
Soft drinks can be made at home by mixing a syrup or dry ingredients with carbonated water, or by lacto-fermentation. Carbonated water is made using a soda siphon or a home carbonation system or by dropping dry ice into water. Syrups are commercially sold by companies such as Soda-Club; dry ingredients are often sold in pouches, in the style of the popular U.S. drink mix Kool-Aid.
Of most importance is that the ingredient meets the agreed specification on all major parameters. This is not only the functional parameter (in other words, the level of the major constituent), but the level of impurities, the microbiological status, and physical parameters such as color, particle size, etc.
Potential alcohol content
Some soft drinks contain measurable amounts of alcohol. In some older preparations, this resulted from natural fermentation used to build the carbonation. In the United States, soft drinks (as well as other beverages such as non-alcoholic beer) are allowed by law to contain up to 0.5% alcohol by volume. Modern drinks introduce carbon dioxide for carbonation, but there is some speculation that alcohol might result from fermentation of sugars in a non-sterile environment. A small amount of alcohol is introduced in some soft drinks where alcohol is used in the preparation of the flavoring extracts such as vanilla extract.
In every area of the world there are major soft drink producers. However a few major North American companies are present in most of the countries of the world, such as Pepsi and Coca Cola. Major North American producers other than the two previously-named companies include Cott, Dr. Pepper Snapple Group, and Jones Soda.
||The neutrality of this section is disputed. (May 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
The over-consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, dental caries, and low nutrient levels. Experimental studies tend to support a causal role for sugar-sweetened soft drinks in these ailments, though this is challenged by other researchers. "Sugar-sweetened" includes drinks that use high-fructose corn syrup, as well as those using sucrose.
Many soft drinks contain ingredients that are themselves sources of concern: caffeine is linked to anxiety and sleep disruption when consumed in excess, and some critics question the health effects of added sugars and artificial sweeteners. Sodium benzoate has been investigated by researchers at University of Sheffield as a possible cause of DNA damage and hyperactivity. Other substances have negative health effects, but are present in such small quantities that they are unlikely to pose any substantial health risk provided that the beverages are consumed only in moderation.
In 1998, the Center for Science in the Public Interest published a report titled Liquid Candy: How Soft Drinks are Harming Americans' Health. The report examined statistics relating to the increase in soft drink consumption and claimed that consumption is "likely contributing to health problems". It also criticized marketing efforts by soft drink companies.
From 1977 to 2002, Americans doubled their consumption of sweetened beverages—a trend that was paralleled by doubling the prevalence of obesity. The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with weight and obesity, and changes in consumption can help predict changes in weight.
It remains possible that the correlation is due to a third factor: people who lead unhealthy lifestyles might consume more soft drinks. If so, then the association between soft drink consumption and weight gain could reflect the consequences of an unhealthy lifestyle rather than the consequences of consuming soft drinks. Experimental evidence is needed to definitively establish the causal role of soft drink consumption. Reviews of the experimental evidence suggest that soft drink consumption does cause weight gain, but the effect is often small except for overweight individuals.
Many of these experiments examined the influence of sugar-sweetened soft drinks on weight gain in children and adolescents. In one experiment, adolescents replaced sugar-sweetened soft drinks in their diet with artificially sweetened soft drinks that were sent to their homes over 25 weeks. Compared with children in a control group, children who received the artificially sweetened drinks saw a smaller increase in their BMI (by −0.14 kg/m2), but this effect was only statistically significant among the heaviest children (who saw a benefit of −0.75 kg/m2). In another study, an educational program encouraged schoolchildren to consume fewer soft drinks. During the school year, the prevalence of obesity decreased among children in the program by 0.2%, compared to a 7.5% increase among children in the control group. Another study, published in Pediatrics in 2013, concluded that for children from the age of 2 to 5, their risk of obesity increased by 43% if they were regular soft drink consumers as opposed to those who rarely or never consumed them.
Sugar-sweetened drinks have also been speculated to cause weight gain in adults. In one study, overweight individuals consumed a daily supplement of sucrose-sweetened or artificially sweetened drinks or foods for a 10-week period. Most of the supplement was in the form of soft drinks. Individuals in the sucrose group gained 1.6 kg, and individuals in the artificial-sweetener group lost 1.0 kg. A two-week study had participants supplement their diet with sugar-sweetened soft drinks, artificially sweetened soft drinks, or neither. Although the participants gained the most weight when consuming the sugar-sweetened drinks, some of the differences were unreliable: the differences between men who consumed sugar-sweetened drinks or no drinks was not statistically significant.
Other research suggests that soft drinks could play a special role in weight gain. One four-week experiment compared a 450 calorie/day supplement of sugar-sweetened soft drinks to a 450 calorie/day supplement of jelly beans. The jelly bean supplement did not lead to weight gain, but the soft drink supplement did. The likely reason for the difference in weight gain is that people who consumed the jelly beans lowered their caloric intake at subsequent meals, while people who consumed soft drinks did not. Thus, the low levels of satiety provided by sugar-sweetened soft drinks may explain their association with obesity. That is, people who consume calories in sugar-sweetened beverages may fail to adequately reduce their intake of calories from other sources. Indeed, people consume more total calories in meals and on days when they are given sugar-sweetened beverages than when they are given artificially sweetened beverages or water. However, these results are contradicted by a study by Adam Drewnowski published in 2004, in which "32 subjects consumed a 300-calorie snack of fat-free raspberry cookies or regular cola on two occasions each – either two hours ("early") or 20 minutes ("late") before lunch." It found that "...the calories eaten at lunch were not affected by whether the snack was cookies or cola."
The consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks can also be associated with many weight-related diseases, including diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors, and elevated blood pressure.
According to research presented at the American Heart Association's Epidemiology and Prevention/Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism 2013 Scientific Sessions by researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health, sugar-sweetened beverages may be responsible for 180,000 deaths every year worldwide.
Most soft drinks contain high concentrations of simple carbohydrates: glucose, fructose, sucrose and other simple sugars. If oral bacteria ferment carbohydrates and produce acids that may dissolve tooth enamel and induce dental decay, then sweetened drinks may increase the risk of dental caries. The risk would be greater if the frequency of consumption is high.
A large number of soft drinks are acidic, and some may have a pH of 3.0 or even lower. Drinking acidic drinks over a long period and continuous sipping may erode the tooth enamel. A 2007 study determined that some soft drinks are at least as erosive as orange juice. Some scientific evidence indicates Coca-Cola's acidity causes no immediate harm under normal conditions.[not in citation given]
Using a drinking straw is often advised by dentists as the drink does not come into as much contact with the teeth. It has also been suggested that brushing teeth right after drinking soft drinks should be avoided as this can result in additional erosion to the teeth due to the presence of acid.
In a meta-analysis of 88 studies, drinking soda correlates with a decrease in milk consumption along with the vitamin D, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, calcium, protein and other micronutrients. Phosphorus, a micronutrient, can be found in cola-type beverages, but there may be a risk in consuming too much. Phosphorus and calcium are used in the body to create calcium-phosphate, which is the main component of bone. However, the combination of too much phosphorus with too little calcium in the body can lead to a degeneration of bone mass. Research suggests a statistically significant inverse relationship between consumption of carbonated beverages and bone mineral density in young girls, which places them at increased risk of fractures.
One hypothesis to explain this relationship is that the phosphoric acid contained in some soft drinks (colas) displaces calcium from the bones, lowering bone density of the skeleton and leading to weakened bones, or osteoporosis. However, calcium metabolism studies by Dr. Robert Heaney suggested that the net effect of carbonated soft drinks, (including colas, which use phosphoric acid as the acidulant) on calcium excretion in urine was negligible. Heaney concluded that carbonated soft drinks, which do not contain the nutrients needed for bone health, may displace other foods which do, and that the real issue is that people who drink a lot of soft drinks also tend to have an overall diet that is low in calcium. In the 1950s and 1960s there were attempts in France and Japan to ban the sale of Coca-Cola as dangerous since phosphates can block calcium absorption. However, these were unsuccessful as the amounts of phosphate were shown to be too small to have a significant effect.
The USDA's recommended daily intake (RDI) of added sugars is less than 10 teaspoons per day for a 2,000-calorie diet. High caloric intake contributes to obesity if not balanced with exercise, with a large amount of exercise being required to offset even small but calorie-rich food and drinks.
Until 1985, most of the calories in soft drinks came from sugar or corn syrup. As of 2010, in the United States high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is used nearly exclusively as a sweetener because of its lower cost, while in Europe, sucrose dominates, because EU agricultural policies favor production of sugar beets in Europe proper and sugarcane in the former colonies over the production of corn. HFCS has been criticized as having a number of detrimental effects on human health, such as promoting diabetes, hyperactivity, hypertension, and a host of other problems. Although anecdotal evidence has been presented to support such claims, it is well known that the human body breaks sucrose down into glucose and fructose before it is absorbed by the intestines. Simple sugars such as fructose are converted into the same intermediates as in glucose metabolism. However, metabolism of fructose is extremely rapid and is initiated by fructokinase. Fructokinase activity is not regulated by metabolism or hormones and proceeds rapidly after intake of fructose. While the intermediates of fructose metabolism are similar to those of glucose, the rates of formation are excessive. This fact promotes fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis in the liver, leading to accumulation of fat throughout the body and possibly non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Increased blood lipid levels also seem to follow fructose ingestion over time. A sugar drink or high-sugar drink may refer to any beverage consisting primarily of water and sugar (often cane sugar or high-fructose corn syrup), including some soft drinks, some fruit juices, and energy drinks.
In 2006, the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency published the results of its survey of benzene levels in soft drinks, which tested 150 products and found that four contained benzene levels above the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water.
The United States Food and Drug Administration released its own test results of several soft drinks containing benzoates and ascorbic or erythorbic acid. Five tested drinks contained benzene levels above the Environmental Protection Agency's recommended standard of 5 ppb. The Environmental Working Group has uncovered additional FDA test results that showed the following results: Of 24 samples of diet soda tested between 1995 and 2001 for the presence of benzene, 19 (79%) had amounts of benzene in excess of the federal tap water standard of 5 ppb. Average benzene levels were 19 ppb, about four times tap water standard. One sample contained 55 ppb of benzene, 11 fold tap water standards. Despite these findings, as of 2006, the FDA stated its belief that "the levels of benzene found in soft drinks and other beverages to date do not pose a safety concern for consumers".
Pesticides in India
In 2003, the Delhi non-profit Centre for Science and Environment published a disputed report finding pesticide levels in Coke and Pepsi soft drinks sold in India at levels 30 times that considered safe by the European Economic Commission. This was found in primarily 12 cold drink brands sold in and around New Delhi. The Indian Health Minister said the CSE tests were inaccurate, and said that the government's tests found pesticide levels within India's standards but above EU standards.
A similar CSE report in August 2006 prompted many state governments to have issued a ban of the sale of soft drinks in schools. Kerala issued a complete ban on the sale or manufacture of soft drinks altogether. (These were later struck down in court.) In return, the soft drink companies like Coca-Cola and Pepsi have issued ads in the media regarding the safety of consumption of the drinks.
The UK-based Central Science Laboratory, commissioned by Coke, found its products met EU standards in 2006. Coke and the University of Michigan commissioned an independent study of its bottling plants by The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), which reported in 2008 no unsafe chemicals in the water supply used.
A study published in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology in 2013 concluded that consumption of soft drinks was associated with a 23% higher risk of developing kidney stones.
In recent years, debate on whether high-calorie soft drink vending machines should be allowed in schools has been on the rise. Opponents of the (soft drink) vending machines believe that soft drinks are a significant contributor to childhood obesity and tooth decay, and that allowing soft drink sales in schools encourages children to believe they are safe to consume in moderate to large quantities. Opponents argue that schools have a responsibility to look after the health of the children in their care, and that allowing children easy access to soft drinks violates that responsibility. Vending machine proponents believe that obesity is a complex issue and soft drinks are not the only cause. They also note the immense amount of funding that soft drink sales bring to schools. Some people[who?] take a more moderate stance, saying that soft drink machines should be allowed in schools, but that they should not be the only option available. They propose that when soft drink vending machines are made available on school grounds, the schools should be required to provide children with a choice of alternative drinks (such as fruit juice, flavored water and milk) at a comparable price. Some lawmakers debating the issue in different states have argued that parents—not the government—should be responsible for children's beverage choices.
On May 3, 2006, the Alliance for a Healthier Generation, Cadbury Schweppes, The Coca-Cola Company, PepsiCo, and the American Beverage Association announced new School Beverage Guidelines that will voluntarily remove high-calorie soft drinks from all U.S. schools.
On 19 May 2006, the British Education Secretary, Alan Johnson, announced new minimum nutrition standards for school food. Among a wide range of measures, from September 2006, school lunches will be free from carbonated drinks. Schools will also end the sale of junk food (including carbonated drinks) in vending machines and tuck shops.
In 2008, Samantha K Graff, published an article in the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science regarding the First Amendment Implications of Restricting Food and Beverages Marketing in Schools. The article examines a school district's policy regarding limiting the sale and marketing of soda in public schools, and how certain policies can invoke a violation of the First Amendment. Due to district budget cuts and loss in state funding, many school districts allow commercial businesses to market and advertise their product (including junk food and soda) to public school students for additional revenue. Junk food and soda companies have acquired exclusive rights to vending machines throughout many public school campuses. Opponents of corporate marketing and advertising on school grounds urge school officials to restrict or limit a corporation's power to promote, market, and sell their product to school students. In the 1970s, the Supreme Court ruled that advertising was not a form of free expression, but a form of business practices which should be regulated by the government. In a 1976 case of Virginia State Board of Pharmacy v. Virginia Citizens Consumer Council, a decision by the Supreme Court ruled that advertising, or "commercial speech," to some degree is protected under the First Amendment. To avoid a First Amendment challenge by corporations, public schools could create contracts that restrict the sale of certain product and advertising. Public schools can also ban the selling of all food and beverage products on campus, while not infringing on a corporation's right to free speech.
On December 13, 2010, President Obama signed the Healthy Hunger Free Kids Act of 2010 (effective in 2014) that mandates schools that receive federal funding to offer healthy snacks and beverages to students. The Act bans the selling of soft drinks to students and requires schools to provide healthier options such as water, unflavored low fat milk, 100% fruit and veggie drinks or sugar free carbonated beverages. The portion sizes available to students will be based on age: eight ounces for elementary schools, twelve ounces for middle and high schools. Proponents of the act predict the new mandate it will make it easier for students to make healthy beverage choices while at school.
In 2015, Terry-McElarth and colleagues published a study in the American Journal of Preventative Medicine on regular soda policies and their affect on school beverage availability and student consumption. The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of a recent program beginning in the 2014-2015 school year, that requires schools participating in federally reimbursable meal programs to remove all competitive venues (a la carte cafeteria sales, vending machines, and stores/snack bars/carts), on the availability of unhealthy beverages at schools and student consumption. The study analyzed state- and school district-level policies mandating soda bans and found that state bans were associated with significantly lower school soda availability but district bans showed no significant associations. In addition, no significant correlation was observed between state policies and student consumption. Among student populations, state policy was directly associated with significantly lower school soda availability and indirectly associated with lower student consumption. The same was not observed for other student populations.
In the United States, legislators, health experts and consumer advocates are considering levying higher taxes on the sale of soft drinks and other sweetened beverages to help curb the epidemic of obesity among Americans, and its harmful impact on overall health. Some speculate that higher taxes could help reduce soda consumption. Others say that taxes should help fund education to increase consumer awareness of the unhealthy effects of excessive soft drink consumption, and also help cover costs of caring for conditions resulting from overconsumption. The food and beverage industry holds considerable clout in Washington, DC, as it has contributed more than $50 million to legislators since 2000.
In January 2013, a British lobby group called for the price of sugary fizzy drinks to be increased, with the money raised (an estimated £1 billion at 20p per litre) to be put towards a "Children's Future Fund", overseen by an independent body, which would encourage children to eat healthily in school.
In March 2013, New York City's mayor Michael Bloomberg proposed to ban the sale of non-diet soft drinks larger than 16 ounces, except in convenience stores and supermarkets. A lawsuit against the ban was upheld by a state judge, who voiced concerns that the ban was "fraught with arbitrary and capricious consequences". Bloomberg announced that he would be appealing the verdict.
- "Electronic Code of Federal Regulations". United States Government. Retrieved 25 February 2011. See §7.71, paragraphs (e) and (f).
- "What Is Meant By Alcohol-Free? : The Alcohol-Free Shop". Alcoholfree.co.uk. 2012-01-08. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- Bangor Daily News, April 8, 2010. http://www.bangordailynews.com/detail/126224.html
- Jed Portman (2013-01-11). "Have You Ever Tried Hot Dr. Pepper? | Serious Eats: Drinks". Drinks.seriouseats.com. Retrieved 2013-05-08.
- Vaux, Bert (2003). "105. What is your generic term for a sweetened carbonated beverage?". Harvard Dialect Survey. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
- "Funny Irish Words and Phrases". Grammar.yourdictionary.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- "In Boston, the word 'tonic' gives way to 'soda'". BostonGlobe.com. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
- "Why do some places say 'pop' and others say 'soda'? Your questions answered". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
- "The Best of British". effingpot.com. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
- For example, in "Coca-Cola Amatil admits cutting back on sugar as attitudes change on health and investment" – The Sydney Morning Herald, 11 September 2015. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- "Definition of "cool drink"". Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
- Colin Emmins. "SOFT DRINKS Their origins and history" (PDF).
- "Soft Drink". Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/552397/soft-drink.
- Mary Bellis (2009-03-06). "Joseph Priestley — Soda Water — Joseph Priestley". Inventors.about.com. Retrieved 2009-06-08.
- "Impregnating Water with Fixed Air" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-05-08.
- Morgenthaler, Jeffrey (2014). Bar Book: Elements of Cocktail Technique. Chronicle Books. p. 54.
- "Heritage:Meet Jacob Schweppe".
- Raustiala, Kal. "The Imperial Cocktail". Slate (magazine). The Slate Group. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- ''Wildfell Hall'', ch. 30. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- Ashurst, P. (2009). Soft drink and fruit juice problems solved. Woodhead Publishing Limited. ISBN 978-1-84569-326-8.
- "[myMasjid.com.my] Alcohol: In soft drinks". Mail-archive.com. 2004-11-08. Retrieved 2009-06-08.
- Malik, V.S.; Schulze, M.B.; Hu, F.B. (2006). "Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 84 (2): 274–328. PMC . PMID 16895873.
- Vartanian, L.R.; Schwartz, M.B.; Brownell, K.D. (2007). "Effects of soft drink consumption on nutrition and health: a systematic review and meta-analysis" (PDF). American Journal of Public Health. 97 (4): 667–675. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2005.083782. PMC . PMID 17329656.
- Woodward-Lopez, G.; Kao, J.; Ritchie, L. (2010). "To what extent have sweetened beverages contributed to the obesity epidemic?". Public Health Nutrition. 14 (3): 499–509. doi:10.1017/S1368980010002375. PMID 20860886.
- Imamura, F; O'Connor, L; Ye, Z; Mursu, J; Hayashino, Y; Bhupathiraju, SN; Forouhi, NG (21 July 2015). "Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction". BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 351: h3576. doi:10.1136/bmj.h3576. PMID 26199070.
- Gibson, Sigrid (2008). "Sugar-sweetened soft drinks and obesity: a systematic review of the evidence from observational studies and interventions". Nutrition Research Reviews. 21 (2): 134–147. doi:10.1017/S0954422408110976. PMID 19087367.
- Wolff, E.; Dangsinger, M.L. (2008), "Soft drinks and weight gain: How strong is the link?", Medscape Journal of Medicine, 10 (8): 189, PMID 18924641
- Trumbo, PR; Rivers, CR (Sep 2014). "Systematic review of the evidence for an association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and risk of obesity.". Nutrition Reviews. 72 (9): 566–74. doi:10.1111/nure.12128. PMID 25091794.
- BBC Fizzy drinks 'affect children's sleep' 8 January 2003
- David B. Samadi. "The sweeter side: Benefits and risks of artificial sweeteners". Fox News.
- Martin Hickman Caution: Some soft drinks may seriously harm your health at the Wayback Machine (archived January 15, 2008) The Independent on Sunday 27 May 2007
- Michael F Jacobson PhD, Liquid Candy: How Soft Drinks are Harming Americans' Health, (CSPI, Washington DC 1998; 2nd Ed. 2005).
- Nielsen, S.; Popkin, B. (2004). "Changes in beverage intake between 1977 and 2001.". American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 27 (3): 205–210. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2004.05.005. PMID 15450632.
- Flegal, K.M.; Carroll, M.D.; Ogden, C.L.; Johnson, C.L. (2002). "Prevalence and trends in overweight among US adults, 1999-2000" (PDF). Journal of the American Medical Association. 288 (14): 1723–1727. doi:10.1001/jama.288.14.1723. PMID 12365955. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 15, 2013.
- Ebbeling, C.B.; Feldman, H.A.; Osganian, S.K.; Chomitz, V.R.; Ellenbogen, S.J.; Ludwig, D.S. (2006). "Effects of decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on body weight in adolescents: A randomized, controlled pilot study". Pediatrics. 117 (3): 673–680. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-0983. PMID 16510646.
- James, J.; Thomas, P.; Cavan, D.; Kerr, D. (2004). "Preventing childhood obesity by reducing consumption of carbonated drinks: Cluster randomised controlled trial". BMJ. 328 (7450): 1237. doi:10.1136/bmj.38077.458438.EE. PMC . PMID 15107313.
- Deboer, M. D.; Scharf, R. J.; Demmer, R. T. (2013). "Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Weight Gain in 2- to 5-Year-Old Children". Pediatrics. 132 (3): 413–20. doi:10.1542/peds.2013-0570. PMID 23918897.
- de Rutyer, Janne C, et al. A Trial of Sugar-free or Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Body Weight in Children. The new England Journal of Medicine, 2012, p. 1.
- Raben, A.; Vasilaras, T.H.; Moller, A.C.; Astrup, A. (2002). "Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners: different effects on ad libitum food intake and body weight after 10 weeks of supplementation in overweight subjects.". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 76 (4): 721–729. PMID 12324283.
- Tordoff, M.G.; Alleva, AM. (1990). "Effect of drinking soda sweetened with aspartame or high-fructose corn syrup on food intake and body weight.". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 51 (6): 963–969. PMID 2349932.
- DiMeglio, D.P.; Mattes, R.D. (2000). "Liquid versus solid carbohydrate: effects on food intake and body weight.". Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 24 (6): 794–800. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0801229. PMID 10878689.
- Van Wymelbeke, V.; Beridot-Therond, M.E.; de La Gueronniere, V.; Fantino, M. (2004). "Influence of repeated consumption of beverages containing sucrose or intense sweeteners on food intake". Eur J Clin Nutr. 58 (1): 154–161. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601762. PMID 14679381.
- Rolls, B.J.; Kim, S.; Fedoroff, I.C. (1990). "Effects of drinks sweetened with sucrose or aspartame on hunger, thirst and food intake in men". Physiol. Behav. 48 (1): 19–26. doi:10.1016/0031-9384(90)90254-2. PMID 2236270.
- Almiron-Roig; Flores; Drewnowski (2004). "No difference in satiety or in subsequent energy intakes between a beverage and a solid food". Physiol. Behav. 82 (4): 19–26. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2004.06.003. PMID 15327915.
- Yoo, S.; Nicklas, T.; Baranowski, T.; Yang, SJ; Srinivasan, SR; Berenson, GS; et al. (2004). "Comparison of dietary intakes associated with metabolic syndrome risk factors in young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study". Am J Clin Nutr. 80 (4): 841–848. PMID 15447888.
|last4=in Authors list (help)
- "180,000 deaths worldwide may be associated with sugary soft drinks". heart.org.
- Marshall TA, Levy SM, Broffitt B, Warren JJ, Eichenberger-Gilmore JM, Burns TL, Stumbo PJ. "Dental caries and beverage consumption in young children" Pediatrics 2003 Sep;112(3 Pt 1) e184-91 
- "Acids". British Soft Drinks Association. Retrieved 2006-09-12.
- Brown, Catronia J.; Smith, Gay; Shaw, Linda; Parry, Jason; Smith, Anthony J. (March 2007). "The erosive potential of flavoured sparkling water drinks". International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry. British Paedodontic Society and the International Association of Dentistry for Children. 17 (2): 86–91. doi:10.1111/j.1365-263X.2006.00784.x. PMID 17263857. Retrieved 2012-10-26.
- Mikkelson, Barbara & Mikkelson, David P. (2004). "Acid Slip". Retrieved June 10, 2005.
- M. A. Bassiouny; J. Yang (2005). "Influence of drinking patterns of carbonated beverages on dental erosion". General Dentistry (May–June, vol. 53, no. 3). Archived from the original on September 26, 2006.
- "Saved By A Straw? Sipping Soft Drinks And Other Beverages Reduces Risk Of Decay". June 17, 2005: ScienceDaily.
- Tsimihodimos V, Kakaidi V, Elisaf M (June 2009). "Cola-induced hypokalaemia: pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical implications". International Journal of Clinical Practice. 63 (6): 900–2. doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2009.02051.x. PMID 19490200.free full text(subscription required)
- "Sugary Drinks or Diet Drinks: What's the Best Choice?". Harvard School of Public Health. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
- J Bone Miner Res. 2003 Sep;18(9) 1563-9
- Heaney RP, Rafferty K (September 2001). "Carbonated beverages and urinary calcium excretion". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 74 (3): 343–347. PMID 11522558.
- Phosphates, in Smith, Andrew. The Oxford companion to American food and drink. Oxford University Press US, 2007, ISBN 0-19-530796-8, p.451
- Kasper, Dr. Joe, Tasty Tuesdays #13, Stay Far, Far Away, 2012
- "Pure Cane Sugar Vs. High Fructose Corn Syrup". livestrong.com. Retrieved 2012-04-23.
- "The Dangers of High Fructose Corn Syrup". diabeteshealth.org.
- "The Murky World of High Fructose Corn Syrup". Westonaprice.org. Archived from the original on March 5, 2010. Retrieved 2009-06-08.
- "Pathways for the Interconversion of Sugars, University of Illinois Chicago, Medical Biochemistry 531, Lecture 21" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-04-09. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- "of benzene levels in soft drinks". Food.gov.uk. 2006-03-31. Retrieved 2009-06-08.
- EWG Issues - Toxics at the Wayback Machine (archived June 10, 2007)[dead link]
- US FDA/CFSAN - Questions and Answers on the Occurrence of Benzene in Soft Drinks and Other Beverages at the Wayback Machine (archived March 26, 2008)
- "Centre for Science and Environment, Pesticides in coke". Cseindia.org. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- "Down to Earth, Magazine, Pesticides in coke". Downtoearth.org.in. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- Our Corporate Bureau (October 29, 2003). "Coke sales fall 11% on pesticide controversy". New Delhi: Business-standard.com. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
- "Pepsi: Repairing a Poisoned Reputation in India". Businessweek.com. 2007-05-31. Archived from the original on 2010-01-17. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
- "Toxic Pesticides Found in India's Soft Drinks". Ens-newswire.com. 2003-08-05. Retrieved 2013-05-08.
- "CNN.com — India gives cola giants all-clear — Aug. 22, 2003". Edition.cnn.com. 2003-08-22. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
- George, Nirmala (2003-08-22). "Colas called safe, but not at EU standards". The San Diego Union. Archived from the original on 2010-09-05.
- BBC (Sanjoy Majumder) Indian state bans Pepsi and Coke 9 August 2006
- "South Asia | UK experts say Indian Coke 'safe'". BBC News. 2006-08-14. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
- Sharma, Ashok (2008-01-15). "Water in Coca-Cola in India pesticide free". Usatoday.Com. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
- Ferraro, P. M.; Taylor, E. N.; Gambaro, G.; Curhan, G. C. (2013). "Soda and Other Beverages and the Risk of Kidney Stones". Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 8 (8): 1389–1395. doi:10.2215/CJN.11661112.
- "Non-diet sodas to be pulled from schools". Associated Press. May 5, 2006.
- "Issue 17: Debates from four states over selling soda in schools". Berkeley Media Studies Group. November 1, 2008.
- "State's soda tax plan falls flat". Daily Democrat. May 29, 2013.
- "Soda tax nixed in state assembly committee". ABC News Los Angeles. April 25, 2011.
- Graff, Samantha K. (2008-01-01). "First Amendment Implications of Restricting Food and Beverage Marketing in Schools". The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 615 (1): 157–177. doi:10.1177/0002716207308398. ISSN 0002-7162.
- "Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act | Food and Nutrition Service". www.fns.usda.gov. Retrieved 2016-03-04.
- Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Johnston, Lloyd D. (2015-04-01). "Regular soda policies, school availability, and high school student consumption". American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 48 (4): 436–444. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2014.10.022. ISSN 1873-2607. PMC . PMID 25576493.
- Duffey; Gordon-Larsen, P; Shikany, JM; Guilkey, D; Jacobs Jr, DR; Popkin, BM; et al. (8 Mar 2010). "Food Price and Diet and Health Outcomes". Archives of Internal Medicine. 170 (5): 420–6. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2009.545. PMC . PMID 20212177.
- "USA Today, Experts: penny per ounce to fight obesity, health costs. Sept 18 2009". 2009-09-18. Retrieved 2010-04-11.
- "Center for Responsive Politics, Food and Beverage industry profile". Opensecrets.org. 2013-02-18. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- "61 organisations call for a sugary drinks duty". Govtoday.co.uk. 2013-01-29. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- "New York Soda Ban Struck Down, Bloomberg Promises Appeal - US News and World Report". Usnews.com. 2013-03-11. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Soft drink.|
|Look up soft drink in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikibooks has more on the topic of: Soft drink|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Soft drink.|
- State Laws & Regulations Governing Beverage Sales in Schools at the Wayback Machine, American Beverage Association (PDF format)
- "Beverage group: Pull soda from primary schools", USAToday, August 17, 2005
- "After soda ban nutritionists say more can be done", Boston Globe, May 4, 2006
- "Critics Say Soda Policy for Schools Lacks Teeth New York Times, August 22, 2006
- "Soft Drinks in Schools", American Academy of Pediatrics,