Solanum physalifolium

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Solanum physalifolium
Solanum physalifolium 002.jpg
Naturalized in Belgium
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Solanales
Family: Solanaceae
Genus: Solanum
Species: S. physalifolium
Binomial name
Solanum physalifolium
  • Solanum nitidibaccatum Bitter[2]
  • Solanum sarachoides auct. non Sendtner [misapplied][3]
  • Solanum villosum auct. non (L.) P. Mill. [misapplied][3]

Solanum physalifolium, known as hoe nightshade,[4] Argentine nightshade, green nightshade and hairy nightshade, is a species in the family Solanaceae (the nightshade family). Native to Argentina, Bolivia and Chile, it is widely naturalized in Australia, New Zealand, Europe, western Canada and the north western United States.[5] Solanum physalifolium has been widely but incorrectly known as Solanum sarrachoides, a different species.[3][6] It has been listed as a noxious weed in the US states of Kansas and Michigan under this misapplied name.[6]

Two varieties have been recognized:[1]

  • S. physalifolium var. nitidibaccatum (Bitter) Edmonds, syn. S. nitidibaccatum Bitter
  • S. physalifolium var. physalifolium


Solanum physalifolium is an annual herbaceous plant growing from a taproot. It reaches a height of 10–90 cm (4–35 in). There are no leaves at the base of the stem. The leaves along the stem are ovoid to deltoid (egg-shaped to triangular), 2–8 cm (0.8–3.1 in) long by 1.5–5 cm (0.6–2.0 in) across. The leaf margins are variable and may be toothed, untoothed or wavy. Both the stems and leaves have soft hairs, often somewhat sticky. The flowers are arranged in small clusters and have white to pale blue petals, each 5–10 mm (0.2–0.4 in) wide with lobes that are angled outwards or backwards. The sepals form a cup around the fruit, which is a yellowish globular berry about 6–7 mm (0.2–0.3 in) in diameter.[3]


  1. ^ a b "Solanum physalifolium", The Plant List, retrieved 2014-11-28 
  2. ^ "Solanum nitidibaccatum", The Plant List, retrieved 2014-11-28 
  3. ^ a b c d Klinkenberg, Brian, ed. (2014), "Solanum physalifolium Rusby", E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia, Lab for Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, retrieved 2014-11-28 
  4. ^ "Solanum physalifolium". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 17 November 2015. 
  5. ^ United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) (2011), "Solanum physalifolium information from NPGS/GRIN", GRIN Taxonomy for Plants, retrieved 2014-11-28 
  6. ^ a b United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) (2010), "Solanum saccaroides information from NPGS/GRIN", GRIN Taxonomy for Plants, retrieved 2014-11-28