Solapur district

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Solapur district
सोलापूर जिल्हा
District of Maharashtra
Location of Solapur district in Maharashtra
Location of Solapur district in Maharashtra
Country India
State Maharashtra
Administrative division Pune Division[1]
Headquarters Solapur
Tehsils 1. Akkalkot, 2. Barshi, 3. Karmala, 4. Madha, 5. Malshiras, 6. Mangalwedha, 7. Mohol, 8. Pandharpur, 9. Sangola, 10. Solapur North and 11. Solapur South
 • Lok Sabha constituencies 1. Solapur (SC), 2. Madha (shared with Satara district), 3. Osmanabad (shared with Osmanabad district) (Based on Election Commission website)
 • Assembly seats 10
 • Total 14,845 km2 (5,732 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 4,315,527
 • Density 290/km2 (750/sq mi)
 • Urban 31.83%
 • Literacy 71.2%
 • Sex ratio 935
Major highways National Highways 65,52,204,361,465,150E
Coordinates 17°50′N 75°30′E / 17.833°N 75.500°E / 17.833; 75.500Coordinates: 17°50′N 75°30′E / 17.833°N 75.500°E / 17.833; 75.500
Average annual precipitation 545.4 mm
Website Official website

Solapur District (सोलापूर जिल्हा) is a district in Maharashtra state of India. The city of Solapur is the district headquarters. It is located on the south east edge of the state and lies entirely in the Bhima and Seena basins.[2] The entire district is drained by the Bhima River.[3]

Solapur district leads Maharashtra in production of Indian cigarettes known as beedi.[4]

Solapur is an ancient historical and religious place with Shri Shivyogi Siddharameshwar as its Gramadevata. Shri Siddharameshwar was a historical figure of the 12th century whose "Karmayoga" on his own native land-Solapur, turned him into a God-figure over the course of time. Siddharama was a great contributor to Lingayata religion and he is considered as one of the six prophets of Lingayat religion. He had gained the "Siddhi". As Solapur was a drought prone area, Shri Siddharameshwar dug a lake with the help of 4000 "Sharanas" to solve the problem of potable water. He entombed himself alive (Shivyogsamadhi) at Solapur.

During the Indian independence movement, the people of Solapur enjoyed full freedom on 9, 10 and 11 May 1930. However, this resulted in the executions of Shri Mallappa Dhanshetti, Shri Kurban Hussein, Shri Jagannath Shinde and Shri Kisan Sarda who were hanged on 12 January 1931, in the prison at Pune. This resulted in the city becoming recognized as "The City of Hutatmas".

The presiding deity of Maharashtra, Lord Vitthal is at Pandharpur in this district. Swami Samarth of Akkalkot has followers from all walks of life. Solapur is famous as a textile town, especially owing to its talented weavers’ community, and is an important railway junction on the North-South train line.

Barshi City is the second biggest and populous city of solapur district. Barshi is situated on the boundary of Marathwada(Aurangabad Division).Barshi is very important part of solapur district.Barshi has its own additional district court. Barshi is the only city which has A grade municipal council in whole solapur district.



The Early Badami Chalukyas and the Later Kalyani Chalukyas, whose capitals were situated in the Kannada country, were known as Kuntaleshvaras (the lords of Kuntala). Their capital was situated at Manapura (modern Man in the Satara district). The neighbouring territory now comprised in the Satara and Solapur districts came to be known as Mana-desha, which is named in some records of the age of the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri. The Kuntala country constituting the Solapur District was included in the Empire of Ashoka the Great.

Mananka, the founder of the early Rashtrakuta family, flourished in circa A.D. 350. He founded Manapura, which he made his capital. He is described in one of his grants as the illustrious ruler of the Kuntala country. Kuntala was the name of the upper Krishna valley in ancient times. The places mentioned in some of the grants can be identified in the Satara and Solapur Districts. Their capital Manapura is probably identical with Man, the chief town of the Man taluka of the Satara district. These Rashtrakutas of Manapura often came into conflict with the Vakatakas of the Vatsagulma branch. The Pandarangapalli plates of Avidheya state that Mananka harassed the rulers of Ashmaka and Vidarbha. On the other hand, an inscription in Cave XVI at Ajanta states that the Vakataka king Vindhyasena (i.e., Vindhyashakti II) defeated the king of Kuntala, who evidently belonged to this Rashtrakuta family. A stone inscription at Mardi in the Solapur District mentions several grants made to the god Yogeshvara during the reigns of the Seuna (Yadava) kings Bhillama V, Jaitugi and Singhana II (1173 C.E. to 1247 C.E.).[5] From the particulars of the regnal fourth year of Bhillama mentioned therein it seems that he had come to the throne in Shaka 1106 (A.D. 1184). He conquered the Solapur territory from the Kalachuris sometime after Shaka 1102 in which some grant had been made to the same temple during the reign of the Kalachuri king Sankamadeva. The inscription mentions Marudhi as the ancient name of modern Mardi. Several inscriptions in the Solapur District record gifts made in the reign of Singhana. The aforementioned Mardi inscription mentions the Shaka year 1134 as the thirteenth regnal year of Singhana. Two other inscriptions of the reign of Singhana have been found at Pulunj[6] about 12 miles (19 km) east of Pandharpur in the Solapur District. One of them mentioning the Siddharatha cyclic year corresponding to Shaka 1121 records Singhana's grant of the village to Ammugidevara, a devotee of the god Siddhasomanatha at the town of Purnajapura (modern Pulunj). The inscription mentions several other places in the neighbourhood of Pulunj such as Soijana (Sowdane), Kuruvalage (Kurul), Degave (Degaon), Lalige (Nulee), Pattharige (Pathari), Koravalli (Kuroli), Chinchavalli (Chincholi), Asuthige (Ashti), Revalapala (Ropale), Tungatuha (Tungat), Eventige (Yevati) and Poragave (Pohargaon). Many of these names are Kannada and the inscription also is written in the Kannada language. Some inscriptions of the reign of Ramachandra have been found at Velapur, ten miles (16 km) south-east of Malshiras in the Solapur District.[7]


By 1351 Ala-ud-din Hasan Gangu Bahamani, by treating the local authorities in a liberal and friendly spirit, had brought under his power every part of the Deccan which had before been subject to the throne of Delhi. Hasan Gangu declared his independence in 1347, and made Gulbarga his capital. He seized the frontier fortresses of Karnataka and Telangana. The new kingdom which he founded comprised the Maratha country, and was divided into the following four provinces: Daulatabad and Berar on the north, and Gulbarga and the ceded districts of Telangana on the south. In 1357 Ala-ud-din had divided his kingdom into four provinces or tarafs over each of which he set a provincial governor or tarafdar. Solapur formed part of the province of Gulbarga, which, besides Solapur, included Gulbarga, Bijapur, Raichur, Mudgal, Sagar and Naldurg. The next king, Humayun, entered on a campaign into Telangana in 1459, and during his absence an insurrection broke out at Bidar. He returned, and having quelled the disturbance, put his brothers to a cruel death and was very severe with the insurgents. In 1460, a famine known as Damajipant's famine again wasted the Deccan. According to the local story a Brahman named Damajipant was employed at Mangalvedha about twelve miles (19 km) south of Pandharpur, as a revenue officer under the Bidar Government. He had charge of a large store of Government grain at Mangalvedha. Hundreds of Brahmans and others flocked to Mangalvedha and were fed by Damajipant out of the Government stores. Hearing of his breach of trust the Bidar king issued orders that Damaji should be seized and brought before him. While Damaji was on his way to Bidar, the god Vithoba, whom Damaji worshipped, took pity on his devotee and appearing as a village Mahar at Bidar paid the price of the grain distributed by Damaji.[8]

Under the partition treaty of 1497, between Malik Ahmad, the Nizam Shahi king of Ahmadnagar, Yusuf Adil Shah of Bijapur, and Fathullah Imad-ul-Mulk of Berar, the whole province of Daulatabad, which must have included Paranda and its eleven districts became part of Malik Ahmad's dominions. Khwaja Jahan of Parenda and his brother Zain Khan, though excluded from this partition treaty, continued to hold Parenda and the eleven surrounding districts in subjection to Ahmadnagar. Zain Khan, the younger brother, who was governor of Solapur, laid claim to half of the eleven districts and endeavoured to obtain a grant from Bidar to that effect.

On the death of Yusuf Adil Shah (1510) the Bijapur regent Kamal Khan imprisoned the young king Ismail Adil Shah and his mother Bubuji Khanam, and marched with a force to Solapur which he besieged for three months. As no aid came from Ahmadnagar. Zain Khan, on receiving security for the safety of his family and wealth, delivered (1511) Solapur into Kamal Khan's hands together with the five and a half districts of which he had charge. Parenda and its five and a half districts, including perhaps Karmala, Madha and Barshi, the three northern sub-divisions of the present district of Solapur, remained for many years under Khwaja Jahan who seems to have been a half-independent vassal of the king of Ahmadnagar.

In 1623 Malik Ambar collected an excellent army, and, bringing grain from Daulatabad laid siege to Solapur and took it by storm. In 1635, the Moghal general Shaista Khan marched towards the Bijapur borders, reduced Naldurg, and occupied the districts between Solapur and Bidar. In 1636, under a treaty between the Bijapur king and the Moghals, the Nizam Shahi dynasty came to an end, and it was settled that the forts of Parenda and Solapur with their dependent districts should be given to the Bijapur king Mahmud Adil Shah.

In 1689, Aurangzeb retired from Bijapur and encamped at Akluj on the Bhima near Pandharpur about eight miles (13 km) north-east of Malshiras in order to concentrate all his power and energy against Sambhaji. After his arrival at Akluj he was harassed by plundering parties of Marathas and detachments were sent to Sambhaji's territories. One of these under Muqarrab Khan was sent to Kolhapur. Muqarrab Khan succeeded in capturing Sambhaji and twenty-six others at Sangameshvar in Ratnagiri and marched with the prisoners to the Moghal camp. The news of Sambhaji's capture reached Aurangzeb first through the news reports and was received at Akluj with great rejoicing.

Nizam and Maratha periods[edit]

At the time of the death of Aurangzeb the Deccan was divided into the provinces of Berar, Aurangabad, Bidar and Bijapur. Solapur which formed part of the province of Bijapur passed to Kam Baksha, Aurangzeb's son, who had been appointed governor of Bijapur and continued under him till in 1708 he was killed in an engagement with his brother Bahadur Shah (1707–1712).

In the contest for the imperial throne among Aurangzeb's sons, prince Azam on promise of steadfast allegiance, released Shahu, Sambhaji's son, who had been a prisoner in the Moghal camp since Sambhaji's execution in 1689. Shahu was also promised the tract conquered by Shivaji from Bijapur with additional territory between the Bhima and the Godavari. This tract included Solapur; but Azam's defeat and death at Agra by Bahadur Shah prevented Shahu, when master of Satara, from taking possession of the country promised by Azam.

In 1719, in reward for the help given to Sayyad Husain Khan and his brother in deposing the Emperor Farrukhsiyar Shahu received, besides two grants for levying chauth or one-fourth and sardeshmukhi or ten per cent of the revenues of the six Deccan provinces, the country east of Pandharpur as part of his home rule or swarajya. The country watered by the Nira and the Man which includes east and part of south Solapur, and which was noted for good horses, hardy soldiers, and some ancient and independent Maratha families was also placed under the authority of Shahu.[9]

Nizam-ul-Mulk who had seized power in the Deccan was appointed Wazir in January 1722. He was soon tired of the court intrigues. In 1724, he marched towards the South outwardly professing allegiance to the emperor but in reality determined to establish himself permanently in the Deccan. In the battle of Fatch Kharda fought in October 1724, Mubariz Khan, the Subhedar of Deccan, was killed. The emperor had then little choice but to confirm Nizam-ul-Mulk to the subha of the Deccan. He now became the master of the Moghal dominions south of the Narmada. The fort and town of Solapur, Karmala, and other portions of north and west Solapur, which did not form part of the Maratha home rule or swarajya, then passed on to the Nizam. After the Battle of Kharda in 1795 Nizam was forced to Solapur to Marathas with Daulatabad and Aurangabad, Nizam's first capital between 1724 and 1763. But Nizam recaptured Daulatabad and Aurangabad in 1803 with British aid.

In 1802, Yashwantrao Holkar who in exasperation moved south. He sacked Ahmadnagar and burnt Shinde's palaces at Shrigonda and Jambgaon. One of his officers, Fattesinh Mane, descended upon Pandharpur when the priests and religious managers of the place held a large congregation for a week conducting fervent prayers night and day for the safety of the Shinde from spoliation. Mane arrived at Pandharpur but refrained from doing any harm and even gave some present to the deity. Bajirao now followed delaying tactics hoping for the arrival of Shinde's troops. Yeshwantrao proceeded towards Baramati and wrote to Bajirao in cordial terms. Still he did not relent. On 25 October 1802 Yeshwantrao completely overwhelmed Shinde. Bajirao II, terror-stricken, fled Pune, and in spite of the hand of friendship again offered by Yeshwantrao sought protection of the English. He signed with them, on 31 December 1802, the treaty of Bassein under the terms of which he practically surrendered the sovereignty of the Maratha State to the English. The issue now became a general one, of a conflict between the English and the Maratha State. In April 1803 in accordance with the treaty of Bassein, General Arthur Wellesley passed through Pandharpur and Akluj to Pune to reinstate Bajirao Peshwa who had been driven away from Pune by Yeshwantrao Holkar in October 1802. At Akluj, General Wellesley was joined by Colonel Stevenson, the detachment under whose command was reinforced by the Scotch Brigade.

Now dispute arose between Bajirao and Fatesing Gaikwad of Baroda in regard to the payment of yearly tribute amounting to 24 lakhs and which had accumulated considerably. To settle this dispute with Bajirao, Fatesing sent his agent Gangadhar Shastri to Pune. Bajirao's love of intrigue and the influence which Trimbakji Dengle had over him made the Gaikwad so afraid of treachery that before sending Gangadhar Shastri to Pune he obtained from the English a formal guarantee of Gangadhar Shastri's safety. Finding his efforts at Pune fruitless Gangadhar Shastri determined to return to Baroda and leave the settlement to the English arbitration. This disconcerted Bajirao's plans whose real object was to arrange a union with the Gaikwad against the English and he and Trimbakji Dengle after much persuasion induced Gangadhar Shastri to stay. In order to put Gangadhar Shastri off his guard Bajirao proposed to accompany him on a tour of pilgrimage to Nasik, Trimbak and Pandharpur and to have his son's marriage performed at Nasik. Gangadhar Shastri was killed at Pandharpur.

Post 1818[edit]

Solapur district 1896

On the plains of Ashti, the devoted Maratha general Bapu Gokhale fought a battle with General Smith on 19 February 1818 and died a hero's death for his master Peshwa Bajirao II who in his anxiety to escape had no patience to look after his fallen hero and his associates. Young Pratapsinh, the Chhatrapati and his party who were similarly left helpless on the camping ground with all Bajirao's treasure valued at about one crore, fell into British hands. The Chhatrapati was soon handed over by General Smith to Elphinstone, the Commissioner of the Deccan. The Marathas still put up a last-ditch fight at the Sholapur fort under the direction of Ganpatrao Panse who used his ammunitions with effect, but he also fell wounded and the resistance was over.

When Bajirao left Maharashtra for good in 1818, one Bhagwantrao became the first Mamlatdar of Sholapur under the British, Venkatappa, Shriniwasrao and Bhagwantrao acting as administrators. In the course of the arrangements that followed subsequently, the western part of the present Solapur district including Pandharpur fell within the jurisdiction of the Raja of Satara and the southern part including Mangalwedha remained with the Patwardhan Sardars of Sangli.

The areas which now form Solapur district were formerly included in Ahmednagar, Pune and Satara. Karmala was in Ahmednagar, Mohol in Pune and Pandharpur, Malshiras and Sangola in Satara (which was then an Indian State). Barshi and Solapur frequently changed between Ahmednagar and Pune districts. The sub-collectorate of Solapur was formed under Ahmednagar district in 1830. The district of Solapur was formed in 1838 and consisted of the following sub-divisions, viz., Solapur, Barshi, Mohol, Madha, Karmala, Indi, Hippargi and Muddebihal. The district was, however, abolished in 1864. In 1869 the sub-divisions of Solapur, Barshi, Mohol, Madha and Karmala together with Pandharpur and Sangola from Satara district were again formed into Solapur district to which Malshiras was transferred from Satara district in 1875. There were no major changes in the district or taluka boundaries between 1891 and 1941. Consequent upon the merger of the former Indian States two villages of Jamkhindi, 21 villages of Jath State, thirteen villages and one town of Kurundwad State, thirteen villages of Miraj Senior State, three villages of Miraj Junior State, 28 villages and one town of Sangli State and a part of Akkalkot State were added and three talukas of Mohol, Akkalkot and Mangalwedha were newly formed in 1949. The Solapur taluka was split up in two talukas, viz., South Solapur and North Solapur.

In 1950, 53 enclave villages were transferred from Hyderabad State and included in the district in exchange for twelve enclave villages belonging to this district transferred to Osmanabad and Gulbarga districts. One village from Indi taluka of Bijapur district was also added to Mangalwedha taluka of this district in 1950. With the re-organisation of States in 1956 the district was included in the then Bombay State and since 1960, it forms part of Maharashtra. According to the old Gazetteer of Solapur, in 1884 the district was divided into seven sub-divisions covering on an average an area of 646 square miles, 102 villages and 83,212 people. For administration purposes the district is at present divided into eleven talukas.


Solapur has the top sugar factory' s in India.The number is 36 in 2016 and can go to 40 in next year .The production of to sugar is 8% to total production in India and 17% in state. The copower production of sugar mill will reach 750 mv in next 3 years which is 500 mv now.The industry is given 40000 employers in this district. Also NTPC is setting 1320 mv power plant of in south solapur of investment 10000 cr. Due to growing demand of cement in state four cement factory are start production of cement in south Solapur namely ultratech cement of investments of 1000 cr, chettinad cement to investment 1500 cr, birla cement to investment 1000cr and zuari cement of investment 500 cr.

It is, however, a redeeming feature of the economy of Solapur that there has been a remarkable growth of industrialisation. Solapur occupies an important place in the industrial map of Maharashtra and ranks fourth in the State as regards industrialisation. Sholapur city is a centre of cotton textile mills and powerloom industry which have earned it a reputation not only in the State but also in the entire western India. The textile industry and other ancillary industries as well as agro-industries form an important segment of the district economy as they provide employment to over 30,000 workers and contribute to the general prosperity of the city.

Besides the growth of industrialisation, there are other remarkable facts which should be considered in the context of the economic development of Solapur district. The irrigation facilities available from the Nira Right Bank Canal have thrown open very good opportunities for the cultivation of sugarcane in the areas around Malshiras, Malinagar, Akluj, Borgaon, Chitalenagar and Natepute. A virtually revolutionary change in the economic face of these areas appears to have crystallised during the last about twenty years. The dry stretches of wilderness, which were frequented by ravaging famines, have been transformed into rich and luxuriant sugarcane plantation. These areas formerly presented a gloomy spectacle of uneconomic cultivation much below the subsistence level and very often exposed to famines and starvation. Human efforts in the form of irrigation facilities, however, have brought about unprecedented prosperity to the same areas. Hostile and capricious Nature is harnessed to the goal of economic development.

The economic trends in the district are described below in the context of the imbalance in the economic growth of the district. The imbalance may be conceived to be in respect of the prosperity of the sugarcane-growing belt, the utter backwardness of the traditionally famine-stricken areas, and the growth of industrialisation in Sholapur and Barshi.[10]


According to the 2011 census Solapur District has a population of 4,315,527,[11] the 43rd largest for a district in India. [11]

The district has a population density of 290 inhabitants per square kilometre (750/sq mi).[11] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 12.1%.[11] Solapur has a sex ratio of 932 females for every 1000 males,[11] and a literacy rate of 77.72%.[11]


Tehsils of Solapur District

Revenue Sub-divisions - Solapur, Madha (Kurduwadi), Pandharpur

Talukas - Akkalkot, Barshi, Karmala, Madha, Malshiras, Mangalwedha, Mohol, Pandharpur, Sangola, Solapur North and Solapur South.

Proposal for a separate Phandarpur District The Solapur District is under proposal to be divided and a separate Pandharpur District be carved out of existing Solapur district, comprising talukas of Pandharpur, Sangola, Karmala, Mangalwedha, Malshiras and Madha in Solapur District and also talukas of Jath and Atpadi from neighbouring Sangli district, to create a new Pandharpur district.

Means of transport - Railway stations -Solapur, Mohol, Kurduwadi, Madha, Akkalkot Road, Barshi.ST Buses. SMT (Solapur Municipal Transportation), Auto-Rikshaws. Solapur station has daily train service to Mumbai via Pune known as Siddheshwar Express Also, daily shuttle from Solapur to Pune known as Hutatma Express and one more daily super fast train Solapur to Mumbai via Pune known as Indrayani Express. Solapur is connected to NEW DELHI by means of Karnataka Express (runs daily) takes approximately 27hrs journey. Nearest airports are Pune, Mumbai and Hyderabad.

Area under irrigation - 4,839.15 km2

Irrigation projects Major-1 Medium-2 Minor-69 Imp. Projs.- Bhima Ujjani


Big-98 Small-8986

Languages/dialects - Marathi, Kannada, Urdu, Telugu

Folk-Arts - Lavani, Gondhal, Dhangari, Aradhi and Bhalari songs

Weather Temperature Max: 44.10 °C Min: 4.4 °C Rainfall-759.80 mm (Average)

Main crops - Jowar, wheat, sugarcane Solapur district especially Mangalwedha taluka is known for Jowar. Maldandi Jowar is famous in all over Maharashtra. In December - January agriculturists celebrates Hurda Party. This is also famous event in Solapur. Hurda means pre-stage of Jowar. Agriculturists sow special breed of Hurda, named as Dudhmogra, Gulbhendi etc.

Area under horticulture - 600 km2

Health infrastructure PHCs-67 Rural Hosp.-14 Dist. Hosp.-1 Big Hosp.-30

Tourist places - Pandharpur, Kundalsangam, Akkalkot, Akluj, Barshi, Karmala, Nanaj (North Solapur taluka). In Pandharpur, warkaris come for having darshan of Lord Vitthal and Rukmini without any invitation on Aashadhi Ekadashi and Kartiki Ekadashi. Lakhs of warkari come by walking in scorching sunny or rainy days. They walk hundreds of miles with chanting of Dnyanoba-Tukaram. Jai Jai Vitthal Jai hari Vitthal. Lord Vitthal's temple is of ancient time. This is unique case in world to which statue devotee can touch. Mangalwedha is known as a land of saints like Damaji, Kanhopatra, and Tikacharya. For Damaji, Lord Vitthal came at Mangalwedha as a Vithoo Mahar. Damaji was head clerk of Badshah of Beedar (now in Karnataka), opened doors of warehouses of Jawari in scarcity days and saved thousands of lives. People also visit Solapur during the festival of Makar Sankranti for enjoying Gadda yatra and the Nandidhwaj Rally. The swami samarth maharaj Mandir located at Akkalkoat is also an attraction for tourist. There is also a museum in Akkalkot.

Educational Institutions Universities - Solapur University Medical Colleges - Dr. Vaishampayan Memorial Medical College Colleges-30 School For Mentally Handicapped - Jivala School for Mentally Handicapped, Barsi, Solapur

Primary schools - 2838 Secondary schools - 637

Places of interest[edit]


  1. ^ Sushant Kulkarni (3 July 2015). "Anti-Corruption Bureau: Pune Unit records highest number of bribery traps in state". The Indian Express. Pune. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  2. ^ Shri Mahadev Dada Tonpe, Mahavir Shah. "सोलापूर जिल्हा" [Solapur Jilha]. Solapur Pune Pravasi Sanghatna (in Marathi). Solapur. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  3. ^ "Solapur District Geographical Information". Archived from the original on 23 February 2007. Retrieved 11 December 2006. 
  4. ^ Meena Menon (21 June 2006). "A dream come true for beedi workers of Solapur". The Hindu. Mumbai. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  5. ^ [Khare, Sources of the Mediaeval History of the Deccan (Marathi), Vol. I, p. 43 f.]
  6. ^ [2. Loc. Cit.]
  7. ^ [Tulpule, Ancient Marathi Inscriptions (Marathi), p. 229 f.]
  8. ^ [Colonel Etheridge's Famine Report (1868), 99-100. The village priests at Mangalvedha point out the site of Damaji's house and of the corn cellars. Ditto.]
  9. ^ [Grant Duff's Marathas, 200.]
  10. ^
  11. ^ a b c d e f "District Census 2011". 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011. 

External links[edit]