Solar prominence

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Solar Prominence with images of Jupiter and Earth for size comparison.

A prominence is a large, bright, gaseous feature extending outward from the Sun's surface, often in a loop shape. Prominences are anchored to the Sun's surface in the photosphere, and extend outwards into the Sun's corona. While the corona consists of extremely hot ionized gases, known as plasma, which do not emit much visible light, prominences contain much cooler plasma, similar in composition to that of the chromosphere. The prominence plasma is typically a hundred times cooler and denser than the coronal plasma. A prominence forms over timescales of about a day, and prominences may persist in the corona for several weeks or months. Some prominences break apart and may then give rise to coronal mass ejections. Scientists are currently researching how and why prominences are formed.

A typical prominence extends over many thousands of kilometers; the largest on record was estimated at over 800,000 kilometres (500,000 mi) long[1] – roughly the radius of the Sun.

When a prominence is viewed from a different perspective so that it is against the sun instead of against space, it appears darker than the surrounding background. This formation is instead called a solar filament.[1] It is possible for a projection to be both a filament and a prominence. Some prominences are so powerful that they throw out matter from the Sun into space at speeds ranging from 600 km/s to more than 1000 km/s. Other prominences form huge loops or arching columns of glowing gases over sunspots that can reach heights of hundreds of thousands of kilometers. Prominences may last for a few days or even for a few months.[2]


Solar prominence video clip.
An eclipse followed by an unusually large, dark prominence.
On September 23, 2012 the sun emitted a large blast of plasma in the form of a prominence.
On September 16, 2012 the sun had a beautiful prominence that slowly twisted and dissipated over several hours.
On the final day of 2012, the sun presented a beautiful twisting prominence that rose high into the corona for about 3 hours.


See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Atkinson, Nancy (6 August 2012). "Huge Solar Filament Stretches Across the Sun". Universe Today. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  2. ^ "About Filaments and Prominences". Retrieved 2 January 2010. 

Further reading[edit]