Solar power in Australia
Solar power in Australia is a relatively recent phenomenon. Currently, it has over 4,100 megawatts (MW) of installed photovoltaic (PV) solar power (March 2015), and 760 MW of PV was installed in the preceding 12 months. At a capacity factor of 14 percent, this would contribute 1.1 percent of Australia's electrical energy. The amount of installed PV capacity in Australia has increased 10-fold between 2009 and 2011. Feed-in tariffs and mandatory renewable energy targets designed to assist renewable energy commercialisation in Australia have largely been responsible for the rapid increase.
In South Australia, Premier Mike Rann introduced a solar feed in tariff for households and an educational program that involved installing photovoltaics on the roofs of major public buildings such as the Adelaide Airport, State Parliament, Museum, Art Gallery and several hundred public schools. In 2008 Premier Rann announced funding for $8 million worth of solar panels on the roof of the new Goyder Pavilion at the Royal Adelaide Showgrounds, the largest roof top solar installation in Australia, qualifying it for official "power station" status. South Australia has the highest per capita take up of household solar power in Australia.
The first commercial-scale PV power plant was opened in 2011, the Uterne Solar Power Station, a 1 MW capacity grid-connected solar photovoltaic system located 5 km south of Alice Springs in the Northern Territory. The second opened in 2012 at Greenough River Solar Farm with a capacity of 10 MW. The price of photovoltaics has been decreasing, and in January 2013, was less than half the cost of using grid electricity in Australia.
- 1 Potential
- 2 Incentives
- 3 Projects
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
The combination of Australia's dry climate and latitude give it a high benefits and potential for solar energy production. Most of the Australian continent receives in excess of 4 kWh per square metre per day of insolation during winter months, with a region in the north exceeding 6 kWh/day.
Australia's insolation greatly exceeds the average values in Europe, Russia, and most of North America. Comparable levels are found in desert areas of northern and southern Africa, south western United States and adjacent area of Mexico, and regions on the Pacific coast of South America. However, the areas of highest insolation are distant to the country's population centers.
With an installed photovoltaic capacity of 3,300 megawatts by the end of 2013, Australia ranks among the world's top ten solar countries.
There is considerable academic and commercial interest in a new form of Concentrated Solar Power, called STEM, for off-grid applications to produce 24-hour industrial scale power for remote communities and mining sites. STEM uses fluidized silica sand as a thermal storage and heat transfer medium for CSP systems. It has been developed by Italy's Magaldi Industries. The first commercial application of STEM will take place in Sicily in late 2015.
The Australian Government provided a rebate program that offered up to A$8,000 rebates for installing solar panels on homes and community use buildings (other than schools), through the Solar Homes and Communities Plan. However, on 8 June 2009, this program was phased out, to be replaced by the Solar Credits Program, where an installation of a solar system would receive 5 times as many Renewable Energy Certificates for the first 1.5 kilowatts of capacity under the Renewable Energy Target (see below)
Schools were eligible to apply for grants of up to A$50,000 to install 2 kW solar panels and other measures through the National Solar Schools Program beginning 1 July 2008, which replaced the Green Vouchers for Schools program. Applications for the program ended 21 November 2012. A total of 2,870 schools have installed solar panels. The output of each array can be viewed, and compared with that of up to four other schools.
Feed in tariffs were introduced by a number of states to increase the amount of solar PV power generated. They can be classified by a number of factors including the price paid, whether it is on a net or gross export basis, the length of time payments are guaranteed, the maximum size of installation allowed and the type of customer allowed to participate. Many Australian state feed-in tariffs were net export tariffs, whereas conservation groups argued for gross feed-in tariffs. In March 2009, the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) started a solar gross feed-in tariff. For systems up to 10 kW the payment was 50.05 cents per kWh. For systems from 10 kW to 30 kW the payment was 40.04 cents per kWh. The payment was revised downward once before an overall capacity cap was reached and the scheme closed. Payments are made quarterly based on energy generated and the payment rate is guaranteed for 20 years. In Germany, a guaranteed PV tariff means that Germany now has the highest PV capacity per capita – at 10 W for every person in Germany compared to Australia at 2.6 W per capita.
Mandatory renewable energy target
The Federal Government MRET will ensure renewable energy obtains a 20% share of electricity supply in Australia by 2020. The MRET will increase from 9,500 gigawatt-hours to 45,000 gigawatt-hours by 2020. The scheme lasts until 2030.
The MRET requires wholesale purchasers of electricity (such as electricity retailers or industrial operations) to purchase Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs), created through the generation of electricity from renewable sources. These sources include Wind, Hydro, Landfill Gas and Geothermal, as well as Solar PV and Solar Thermal, providing a stimulus and additional revenue for these technologies.
The Solar Flagships program sets aside $1.6 billion for solar power over a period of six years. The government funding is for 4 new solar plants that produce coal plant scale power (in total up to 1000 MW - coal plants typically produce 500 to 2,000 MW). This subsidy would need additional funding from the plant builders and/or operators. As a comparison Abengoa Solar, a company currently constructing solar thermal plants, put the cost of a 300 MW plant at 1.2 billion euros in 2007. In 2009, the Arizona state government announced a 200 MW plant for 1 billion US dollars.
Status by state
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2012)|
The list of solar power projects below is not complete as there are many more sites that have solar power or hybrid solar/wind systems to generate their own power needs. Projects with a power rating less than 30 kW are not listed.
|NSW||Sydney Markets Limited||170||Commissioned 2014||Sydney||Autonomous Energy||Pioneering the construction of solar car ports in Australia. Finalist nomination for 2014 Clean Energy Week Awards in the over 100 kW category|
|VIC||Toyota Altona North||500||Commissioned 2013-2014||Melbourne||Autonomous Energy||Largest rooftop system in Victoria|
|VIC||Hilton Manufacturing||100||Commissioned 2015||Melbourne||Metpro Green Energy||Photovoltaic|
|NSW||Newington College||108||Commissioned 2014||Sydney||Autonomous Energy||Leading private school adopting solar photovoltaics|
|NSW||Pymble Ladies' College||145||Commissioned 2012-2014||Sydney||Autonomous Energy||3 stage implementation 145 kW photovoltaic modules, another leading private school|
|NSW||Methodist Ladies' College||113||Commissioned 2013-2014||Sydney||Autonomous Energy||2 stage implementation of photovoltaic modules, another leading private school|
|NSW||Sydney Corporate Park, Alexandria||120||Commissioned 2013||Sydney||Autonomous Energy||Custom designed steel frames|
|NSW||Ace Gutters||225||Commissioned 2013||Sydney||Autonomous Energy||Specifically designed mounting structures due to unique wind loading factors|
|NSW||Blacktown Workers and Sports Clubs||200||Commissioned 2012-2013||Sydney||Autonomous Energy||Nomination and collection of Clean Energy Week Award 2013 "Best Grid-Connected Solar PV Power System Design and Installation Award" (15 kW - 100 kW category)|
|NSW||Southern Cross Care||150||Commissioned 2012||Sydney||Autonomous Energy||Large system to provide power needs for aged care facility|
|NSW||Various Residential||1-10||Ongoing venture||Sydney||Autonomous Energy||Equipping residential properties with lighting and solar to become independent of grid-sourced energy|
|QLD||Coorparoo DC||100||Completed December 2012||SEQ Energy Solutions Pty Ltd||Photovoltaic|
|NSW||Johnson & Johnson Medical||200||Commissioned September 2010||Energy Matters||Photovoltaic|
|NSW||Dubbo||50||Commissioned 1998||Country Energy||Photovoltaic|
|NSW||GPG Solar||45||commissioned 2008||GPG||Photovoltaic|
|NSW||Building 46, Newington Armoury||64||Commissioned 1999, refurbished 2007||Sydney Olympic Park Authority||Photovoltaic|
|NSW||Liddell Power Station||1,000||Complete||Solar Heat and Power / Macquarie Generation||Solar thermal|
|NSW||Queanbeyan||50||Commissioned 1999||Country Energy||Photovoltaic|
|NSW||Singleton Solar Farm||407||Commissioned 1998||Built By Energy Australia
Sold to XYZ Solar Pty Ltd in June 2014
Polycrystalline 60W panels 200 kW ThinFilm 60W panels 207 kW Tweets: @singletonsolar
|NSW||Sydney Superdome Solar Array||70||Commissioned 1999||Built by Energy Australia
Sold to XYZ Solar Pty Ltd in June 2014
|Photovoltaic ThinFilm 60W panels
|NSW||White Cliffs Solar Power Station||45||Constructed 1981 25 kW,
|ANUTECH ||Originally steam piston
|VIC||Queen Victoria Market||200||Commissioned 2003||Melbourne City Council||Photovoltaic|
|VIC||Ballarat Solar Park. Ballarat Aerodrome. Mitchell Park, Ballarat.||300||Commissioned 2009||Ballarat||Origin Energy / Sharp Corporation||Photovoltaic. Victoria's first ground mounted, flat plate and grid-connected solar farm|
|VIC||Bendigo Solar Park.||300||Commissioned 2009||Bendigo||Origin Energy / Sharp Corporation||Photovoltaic. Victoria's first ground mounted, flat plate and grid-connected solar farm|
|VIC||Bridgewater Solar Plant, Bridgewater, Victoria||500||Commissioned 2010||Shire of Loddon||Silex Systems Ltd||Australia's largest concentrator photovoltaics (CPV) solar power station|
|VIC||NextDC M1 Data Centre, Port Melbourne, Victoria||401||Completed December 2013||Energy Matters||Will be Australia's largest privately owned rooftop photovoltaic solar system|
|QLD||University of Queensland St Lucia campus||1,220||Completed July 2011||Ingenero, Trina Solar, RedFlow||Photovoltaic|
|QLD||Fraser Coast Solar Farm||401||Commissioned November 2012||Ingenero||Photovoltaic, 1,630x 250W Suntech monocrystalline|
|QLD||Queensland University of Technology (QUT)||202||Completed November 2012||Brisbane||Ingenero||Photovoltaic, 250W Suntech and 328W SunPower polycrystalline|
|QLD||Jaques Coffee Plantation||80.5||Commissioned May 2012||NSE Solar||Photovoltaic, 322 x 250w Xinyou XY250-96F/M5 |
|QLD||Moorooka Shopping Centre||60||Commissioned December 2010||Brisbane||Ingenero||Photovoltaic 300x 200W Suntech polycrystalline|
|QLD||Kogan Creek Solar Boost Project||44,000||Under Construction Dec 2011||CS Energy||Solar thermal|
|QLD||Windorah Solar Farm||150||Completed October 2008||Ergon Energy, Solar Systems||Photovoltaic|
|SA||Adelaide Showgrounds||1,000||Completed 2009||Built Environs and Solar Shop Australia||Photovoltaic|
|SA||Jamestown Wastewater Treatment Plant||3,500||Under construction Mar 2015||Infratech Industries||Floating Photovolatic|
|SA||Kingscote Airport||50||Commissioned 2013||Kangaroo Island||Ingenero||Photovoltaic|
|SA||Wilpena Pound||100||Commenced 1998||AGL Energy||Photovoltaic|
|WA||Australian Wool Testing Authority||150||Commissioned 2013||City of Cockburn Perth||Infinite Energy||Photovoltaic 625 x 240W Conergy Power Plus polycrystalline|
|WA||Carnarvon||51.1||Commissioned 2005 (15.8)
30.2 added 2007
5.1 added 2012
|Shire of Carnarvon||Alexander Fullarton||Photovoltaic|
|WA||Greenough River Solar Farm||10,000||Commissioned October 2012||City of Greater Geraldton||Verve Energy and GE Financial Services||Photovoltaic|
|NT||Araluen Arts Centre||162||Completed November 2012||Ingenero||Photovoltaic, 648x Q-Cells monocrystalline|
|NT||Bulman||56||Commissioned 2002||NT PowerWater||Photovoltaic|
|NT||Hermannsburg||192||Commissioned 2005||Solar Systems||Photovoltaic|
|NT||Kings Canyon Solar Power Station||241||Commissioned 2003||NT PowerWater||Photovoltaic|
|NT||Lajamanu||288||Commissioned 2005||Solar Systems||Photovoltaic|
|NT||Yuendumu||192||Commissioned 2005||Solar Systems||Photovoltaic|
|NT||Crowne Plaza Alice Springs||305||Commissioned 2009||SunPower / CAT Projects||Photovoltaic|
|NT||Uterne Solar Power Station, Alice Springs||4,100||Commissioned 2011 (1000)
3100 added 2015
|SunPower Corporation / Power and Water Corporation / Epuron||Photovoltaic|
|NT||Alice Springs Airport||235||4 November 2010||Ingenero / CAT Projects||Concentrated photovoltaics|
|NT||Desert Knowledge Australia Solar Centre, Alice Springs||201||Commissioned 2008||Desert Knowledge Australia / CAT Projects||Various photovoltaic|
|ACT||Parliament House Solar Power Pilot Project||43||Commissioned 2011||Canberra||Todae Solar / Silex Systems Ltd||Photovoltaic|
|ACT||Royalla solar farm||20,000||Commissioned September 2014||Canberra||Fotowatio Renewable Ventures (FRV)||Photovoltaic|
|QLD||Valdora Solar Farm||15,000||Council DA Approval required early 2015. Tender due in first quarter 2015.||Sunshine Coast||(Tender)||Photovoltaic |
|VIC||SeaViews Manor||90||2013||Ocean Grove||Solar Sunwerx||Photovoltaic |
|VIC||Fenning Timber||99||2013||Bairnsdale||Solar Sunwerx||Photovoltaic |
|NSW||Nimbin Community Solar Farm||45||2011||Lismore||Rainbow Power Company & Nimbin Neighbourhood and Information Centre||Photovoltaic |
|WA||Solar Farm Carnarvon||300||2011||Carnarvon||Energy Made Clean||First PPA Solar farm in WA with Horizon Power|
|NSW||Nyngan Solar Plant||102,000||Commissioned in stages. Fully commissioned in June 2015.||Bogan Shire||AGL Energy||CdTe thin-film technology. Is the largest solar PV plant in the Southern Hemisphere. Capacity: 102 MWAC.|
|NSW||Broken Hill Solar Plant||53,000||Started July 2014. Expected completion November 2015.||Broken Hill||AGL Energy||CdTe thin-film technology. Capacity given in AC (53 MWAC).|
The 100 MW PV Mildura Solar Concentrator Power Station, formerly expected to be completed in 2017, is now cancelled. It was expected to be the biggest and most efficient solar photovoltaic power station in the world. The power station was expected to concentrate the sun by 500 times onto the solar cells for ultra high power output. The Victorian power station would have generated electricity directly from the sun to meet the annual needs of over 45,000 homes with on-going zero greenhouse gas emissions.
Western Australia now (Oct 2012) has one of the largest solar power farms in Australia, at Walkaway, 70 km SE of Geraldton. The Greenough River Solar farm was opened in October 2012. The 10MW field has 150,000 solar panels.
The solar power stations at these three remote indigenous communities in Australia's Northern Territory are constructed using Solar Systems' CS500 concentrator dish systems. The project cost A$7M, offset by a grant from the Australian and Northern Territory Governments under their Renewable Remote Power Generation Program.
The project won a prestigious Engineering Excellence award in 2005.
The Federal Government has funded over 120 innovative small-scale standalone solar systems in remote indigenous communities, designed by Bushlight, incorporating sophisticated demand side management systems with user-friendly interfaces.
Australian Capital Territory
A new 20 MWp solar power plant has been built on 50 hectares of land in Royalla, a rural part of the Australian Capital Territory south of Canberra. It is powered by 83,000 solar panels, and can power for 4,400 homes. It was officially opened on 3 September 2014. It is the first solar plant facility in the Australian capital, and at the time of building the largest such plant in Australia. The facility was built by a Spanish company, Fotowatio Renewable Ventures (FRV).
Solar cities program
Solar Cities is a demonstration programme designed to promote solar power, smart meters, and energy conservation in urban locations throughout Australia. One such location is Townsville, Queensland.
Renewable Energy Master Plan 2030
The Council of Sydney is attempting to make the city run 100% on renewable energy by 2030. This plan was announced earlier in 2014 with the blueprints made public on their website. This ambitious plan was recently awarded the 2014 Eurosolar prize in the category of "Towns/municipalities, council districts and public utilities".
- Andrew Blakers
- Building-integrated photovoltaics
- Centre for Appropriate Technology (Australia)
- List of countries by electricity production from renewable sources
- Martin Green
- Photovoltaic and renewable energy engineering in Australia
- "Australian PV market since April 2001". apvi.org.au.
- Center for National Policy, What States Can Do: Climate Change Policy, April 4, 2012
- http://www.adelaidenow.com.au/ June 2, 2008. "Adelaide Showgrounds to have nations biggest solar power project"
- "Account Suspended". alicesolarcity.com.au.[dead link]
- Australia's Greenough River Solar Farm Opens Amid Renewable Target Debate, Reuters, Rebekah Kebede, 9 October 2012
- "Solar Electricity Now Under Half The Cost Of Grid Power For Australian Households". CleanTechnica.
- Sunniest places in the world, Current Results.com
- "Is Australia falling out of love with solar power?". BBC News. 5 February 2014. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
- "In Australia, businesses are getting hit with a $500 fee designed to kill solar power". ThinkProgress. 15 August 2014. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
- "US solar giant quits Australia". Renew Economy. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
- "CSP Today". Italian project shows strong potential for sand based CSP. April 11, 2014.
- "Australian PV market since April 2001". Australian PV Institute. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
- Solar Homes and Communities Plan
- Office of the Renewable Energy Regulator
- The National Solar Schools Program is on the way
- National Solar Schools Program
- "solarschools.net :: Data Monitoring". solarschools.net.
- ACT Govt. Feed In Tariff factsheet
- Matthew Bulat. "Solar Power Calculator". matthewb.id.au.
- Supply side options for WA stationary energy: An assessment of alternative technologies and development support mechanisms in the Final report to WA Greenhouse and Energy Taskforce by Next Energy in 26 September 2006
- Australian Government: Office of the Renewable Energy Regulator[dead link]
- "Budget 2009 10: Climate change and energy". Parliament of Australia. 2010.
- "GreenMode Sustainability Developments: Big Solar for Oz". greenmodesustainabilitydevelopments.blogspot.com.
- "404". azcommerce.com.[dead link]
- autonomousenergy.com Solar Car Park at Sydney Markets - Innovative 170kW Building Integrated Solar Power system
- autonomousenergy.com Autonomous Energy announced as a finalist in the Clean Energy Week 2014 Awards
- autonomousenergy.com Toyota 500kW Industrial Solar Power System
- autonomousenergy.com Solar at Newington College
- autonomousenergy.com Solar at Pymble Ladies' College
- autonomousenergy.com Solar at MLC School
- autonomousenergy.com 120kW Commercial Solar Power System at Sydney Corporate Park
- autonomousenergy.com Ace Gutters 225kW Industrial Solar Power System
- autonomousenergy.com Blacktown Workers Club 100kW Commercial Solar Power System
- "Blacktown Workers Sports Club - 100kW Commercial Solar Power System". autonomousenergy.com.
- autonomousenergy.com Autonomous Energy Wins Best Solar Power System at Clean Energy Week Awards
- autonomousenergy.com 150kW Commercial Solar PV System - Southern Cross Care
- autonomousenergy.com Residential Solar Case Studies—Terrey Hills 2kW PV System
- ABC: Solar Future, 27 July 2006
- The White Cliffs Project: Overview for the period 1979-89
- Stephens, Kim Solar park goes public The Courier. 27 November 2009.
- Ballarat and Bendigo Solar Parks Fact Sheet
- "Bridgewater solar plant commences operations". Yes 2 Renewables.
- Energy Matters. "Australia's Largest Rooftop Commercial Solar Power Project Announced : Renewable Energy News :". energymatters.com.au.
- "UQ leading the way in solar generation". UQ News.
- "Latest News — EcoGeneration — The magazine for Australia's clean energy industry". solarmagazine.com.au.
- "PV output data". Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- "Kogan Creek Solar Boost Project - The largest solar project in the Southern Hemisphere and the largest project of its kind in the world". kogansolarboost.com.au.
- Windorah - Queensland's first solar farm
- "Solarshop Group Pty Ltd.". solarshop.com.au.
- Australia's largest solar power system opens
- Adelaide Showgrounds Solar Photovoltaic Project
- Vorrath, Sophie (2015-03-05). "Floating solar plant set to be built in Australian first". RenewEconomy. Retrieved 2015-04-29.
- "E-vehicle". Kangaroo Island Council. Retrieved 2015-04-29.
- AGL: "Our history", retrieved 8 February 2014
- "About The Project". greenoughsolarfarm.com.au.
- "Solar Centre: Double Tree by Hilton, Alice Springs, Large Scale Roof Mount, SunPower". dkasolarcentre.com.au.
- "Account Suspended". alicesolarcity.com.au.[dead link]
- "Alice Springs Airport Solar Power Station". alicespringsairport.com.au.
- Desert Knowledge Australia Solar Centre
- "Solar Centre: Desert Knowledge Australia". dkasolarcentre.com.au.
- "Solar panels project". aph.gov.au.
- "Parliament House Solar Power Case Study - Todae Solar". todaesolar.com.au.
- 'Australia's largest' solar farm opens at Royalla south of Canberra, Jonathon Gul and Kathleen Dyett, ABC News Online, 3 September 2014
- "Sunshine Coast Council to build Valdora solar farm". Energy Business News. 5 Nov 2014. Retrieved 23 Feb 2015.
- "From sugar to solar: Qld council to build 10MW solar farm". Renew Economy.
- "Solar Sunwerx - Timeline Photos - Facebook". facebook.com.
- "Nimbin Community Solar Farm". rpc.com.au.
- Administrator. "Energy". nnic.org.au.
- "Power to the people". Northern Star.
- "Nimbin's sustainability quest given boost". australiangeographic.com.au.
- "AGL - Nyngan Solar Plant". agl.com.au.
- "AGL's solar plant at Nyngan in western NSW will have over 1.3 million panels". ABC Rural.
- Peter Hannam. "False dawn for solar giant?". The Sydney Morning Herald.
- Jacqueline Breen (4 Sep 2014). "Broken Hill Solar Farm pushes through initial site works, community funding on table". Australian Broadcasting Commission (ABC). Retrieved 6 Feb 2015.
- Tom Arup: "Sunraysia's huge solar farm up and running", in The Age, 17 July 2013
- 154MW Victorian Project
- Solar Systems projects
- Hermannsburg, Yuendumu and Lajamanu solar power stations
- "Big Solar Power a Big Deal in the ACT and Beyond - The Green Power Company". The Green Power Company - Solar Power Systems.
- "Solar Cities". climatechange.gov.au.
- "Renewable Energy Master Plan". Sydney City Council.
- "Winners of Eurosolar Prize 2014". EUROSOLAR.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Solar power in Australia.|
- Live Solar PV map of Australia
- A daily solar map of Australia from Bureau of Meteorology
- The Desert Knowledge Australia Solar Centre
- Brumby planning to plug Victoria into the sun. The Age. 17 June 2008.