Solar power in Germany

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Solar power Germany 2016 fact sheet: electricity generation, development, investments, capacity, employment and the public opinion.[1]
German electricity by source in 2023
Brown coalHard coalNatural gasWindSolarBiomassNuclearHydroOilOther
  •   Brown coal: 77.5 TW⋅h (17.7%)
  •   Hard coal: 36.05 TW⋅h (8.3%)
  •   Natural gas: 45.79 TW⋅h (10.5%)
  •   Wind: 139.77 TW⋅h (32.0%)
  •   Solar: 53.48 TW⋅h (12.2%)
  •   Biomass: 42.25 TW⋅h (9.7%)
  •   Nuclear: 6.72 TW⋅h (1.5%)
  •   Hydro: 19.48 TW⋅h (4.5%)
  •   Oil: 3.15 TW⋅h (0.7%)
  •   Other: 12.59 TW⋅h (2.9%)
Net generated electricity in 2023[2]

Solar power accounted for an estimated 10.7% electricity in Germany in 2022, up from 1.9% in 2010 and less than 0.1% in 2000.[3][4][5][6]

Germany has been among the world's top PV installer for several years, with total installed capacity amounting to 81.8 gigawatts (GW) at the end of 2023.[7] Germany's 807 watts of solar PV per capita (2022) is the third highest in the world, behind only Australia and the Netherlands.[8] Germany's official government plans are to continuously increase renewables' contribution to the country's overall electricity consumption; long-term targets are 80% renewable electricity by 2030 and full decarbonization before 2040.[9][10]

Concentrated solar power (CSP), a solar power technology that does not use photovoltaics, has virtually no significance for Germany, as this technology demands much higher solar insolation. There is, however, a 1.5 MW experimental CSP-plant used for on-site engineering purposes rather than for commercial electricity generation, the Jülich Solar Tower owned by the German Aerospace Center. Germany's largest solar farms are located in Meuro, Neuhardenberg, and Templin with capacities over 100 MW.

According to the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, in 2022, Germany generated 60.8 TWh from solar power, or 11% of Germany's gross electricity consumption.[11]: 6 

The country is increasingly producing more electricity at specific times with high solar irradiation than it needs, driving down spot-market prices[12] and exporting its surplus of electricity to its neighbouring countries, with a record exported surplus of 34 TWh in 2014.[13] A decline in spot-prices may however raise the electricity prices for retail customers, as the spread of the guaranteed feed-in tariff and spot-price increases as well.[4]: 17  As the combined share of fluctuating wind and solar is approaching 17 per cent on the national electricity mix,[citation needed] other issues are becoming more pressing and others more feasible. These include adapting the electrical grid, constructing new grid-storage capacity, dismantling and altering fossil and nuclear power plants—brown coal and nuclear power are the country's cheapest suppliers of electricity, according to today's calculations—and to construct a new generation of combined heat and power plants.[4]: 7 

History[edit]

Price of solar PV systems

History of PV roof-top prices in euro per kilowatt (€/kW)[14]

Germany was one of the first countries to deploy grid-scale PV power. In 2004, Germany was the first country, together with Japan, to reach 1 GW of cumulative installed PV capacity. Since 2004 solar power in Germany has been growing considerably due to the country's feed-in tariffs for renewable energy, which were introduced by the German Renewable Energy Sources Act, and declining PV costs.

Prices of PV systems/solar power system decreased more than 50% in the 5 years since 2006.[15] By 2011, solar PV provided 18 TWh of Germany's electricity, or about 3% of the total.[16] That year the federal government set a target of 66 GW of installed solar PV capacity by 2030,[17] to be reached with an annual increase of 2.5–3.5 GW,[18] and a goal of 80% of electricity from renewable sources by 2050.[19]

More than 7 GW of PV capacity were installed annually during the record years of 2010, 2011 and 2012. For this period, the installed capacity of 22.5 GW represented almost 30% of the worldwide deployed photovoltaics.

Since 2013, the number of new installations declined significantly due to more restrictive governmental policies.

About 1.5 million photovoltaic systems were installed around the country in 2014, ranging from small rooftop systems, to medium commercial and large utility-scale solar parks.[4]: 5 

It's estimated that by 2017 over 70% of the country's jobs in the solar industry have been lost in the solar sector in recent years.[1] Proponents from the PV industry blame the lack of governmental commitment, while others point out the financial burden associated with the fast-paced roll-out of photovoltaics, rendering the transition to renewable energies unsustainable in their view.[16]

A boom in small, residential balcony-mounted solar systems has been reported in the early 2020s.[20][21][22]

Governmental policies[edit]

Feed-in tariff for rooftop solar[23]

History of German feed-in tariffs in ¢/kWh for rooftop solar of less than 10 kWp since 2001. For 2016, it amounted to 12.31 ¢/kWh.[23]

As of 2012, the feed-in tariff (FiT) costs about €14 billion (US$18 billion) per year for wind and solar installations. The cost is spread across all rate-payers in a surcharge of 3.6 €ct (4.6 ¢) per kWh[24] (approximately 15% of the total domestic cost of electricity).[25] On the other hand, as expensive peak power plants are displaced, the price at the power exchange is reduced due to the so-called merit order effect.[26] Germany set a world record for solar power production with 25.8 GW produced at midday on 20 and 21 April 2015.[27]

According to the solar power industry, a feed-in tariff is the most effective means of developing solar power.[28] It is the same as a power purchase agreement, but is at a much higher rate. As the industry matures, it is reduced and becomes the same as a power purchase agreement. A feed-in tariff allows investors a guaranteed return on investment – a requirement for development. A primary difference between a tax credit and a feed-in tariff is that the cost is borne the year of installation with a tax credit, and is spread out over many years with a feed-in tariff. In both cases the incentive cost is distributed over all consumers. This means that the initial cost is very low for a feed-in tariff and very high for a tax credit. In both cases the learning curve reduces the cost of installation, but is not a large contribution to growth, as grid parity is still always reached.[29]

Since the end of the boom period, national PV market has since declined significantly, due to the amendments in the German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) that reduced feed-in tariffs and set constraints on utility-scaled installations, limiting their size to no more than 10 kW.[30]

The previous version of the EEG only guaranteed financial assistance as long as the PV capacity had not yet reached 52 GW. This limit has now been removed. It also foresees to regulate annual PV growth within a range of 2.5 GW to 3.5 GW by adjusting the guaranteed fees accordingly. The legislative reforms stipulates a 40 to 45 per cent share from renewable energy sources by 2025 and a 55 to 60 per cent share by 2035.[31]

As of November 2016, tenants in North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) will soon be able to benefit from the PV panels mounted on the buildings in which they live. The state government has introduced measures covering the self-consumption of power, allowing tenants to acquire the electricity generated onsite more cheaply than their regular utility contracts stipulate.[32][33]

Grid capacity and stability issues[edit]

German electricity generation on 25 and 26 May 2012

In 2017, approximately 9 GW of photovoltaic plants in Germany were being retrofitted to shut down[34] if the frequency increases to 50.2 Hz, indicating an excess of electricity on the grid. The frequency is unlikely to reach 50.2 Hz during normal operation, but can if Germany is exporting power to countries that suddenly experience a power failure. This leads to a surplus of generation in Germany, that is transferred to rotating load and generation, which causes system frequency to rise. This happened in 2003 and 2006.[35][36][37]

However, power failures could not have been caused by photovoltaics in 2006, as solar PV played a negligible role in the German energy mix at that time.[38] In December 2012, the president of Germany's "Bundesnetzagentur", the Federal Network Agency, stated that there is "no indication", that the switch to renewables is causing more power outages.[39] Amory Lovins from the Rocky Mountain Institute wrote about the German Energiewende in 2013, calling the discussion about grid stability a "disinformation campaign".[40]

Potential[edit]

Map of average solar radiation in Germany. For most of the country annual average values are in between 1100 and 1300 kWh per square metre.
Solar potential

Germany has about the same solar potential as Alaska, which has an average of 3.08 sun hours/day in Fairbanks.[citation needed]

Bremen Sun Hours/day (Avg = 2.92 hrs/day)

Stuttgart Sun Hours/day (Avg = 3.33 hrs/day)

Source: NREL, based on an average of 30 years of weather data.[41]

Statistics[edit]

Annual Solar Capacity Added
Comparison of renewable technologies and conventional power plants in Germany in EuroCent per kWh (2018)[42]
The share of solar PV in the country's electricity consumption plotted against an exponential growth curve from 1990 to 2015, doubling every 1.56 years, or growing 56% annually on average. The doubling time and growth rate differ from those of average power and installed capacity as the overall consumption also increased over time. After 2012 the trend slowed down significantly, with only 8.2% of the electricity coming from solar power in 2019.

The history of Germany's installed photovoltaic capacity, its average power output, produced electricity, and its share in the overall consumed electricity, showed a steady, exponential growth for more than two decades up to about 2012.[dubious ] Solar PV capacity doubled on average every 18 months in this period; an annual growth rate of more than 50 per cent. Since about 2012 growth has slowed down significantly.

Generation[edit]

Year Capacity
(MW)
Net annual
generation
(GWh)
% of gross
electricity
consumption
Capacity
Factor (%)
1990 2 1 2e-04 5.7
1991 2 1 2e-04 5.7
1992 6 4 7e-04 7.6
1993 9 3 6e-04 3.8
1994 12 7 0.001 6.7
1995 18 7 0.001 4.4
1996 28 12 0.002 4.9
1997 42 18 0.003 4.9
1998 54 35 0.006 7.4
1999 70 30 0.005 4.9
2000 114 60 0.01 6.0
2001 176 76 0.013 4.9
2002 296 162 0.028 6.2
2003 435 313 0.052 8.2
2004 1105 557 0.091 5.8
2005 2056 1282 0.21 7.1
2006 2899 2220 0.36 8.7
2007 4170 3075 0.49 8.4
2008 6120 4420 0.72 8.2
2009 10566 6583 1.13 7.1
2010 18006 11729 1.9 7.4
2011 25916 19599 3.23 8.6
2012 34077 26220 4.35 8.8
2013 36710 30020 5.13 9.6
2014 37900 34735 6.08 10.9
2015 39224 37330 6.5 11.3
2016 40679 36820 6.4 10.7
2017 42293 38001 6.6 10.6
2018 45158 43451 7.7 11.6
2019 48864 44334 8.2 11.1
2020 54403 48525 8.9 10.1
2021 60108 48373 8.7 9.1
2022 67399 59596 11.1 10.1

Source: Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, for capacity figures[6]: 7  and other figures.[6]: 16–41 

Note: This table does not show net consumption but gross electricity consumption, which includes self-consumption of nuclear and coal-fire power plants. In 2014, net consumption stood at about 6.9% (vs. 6.1% for gross consumption).[4]: 5 

Nationwide PV capacity in megawatts on a linear scale since 1990.
Source: Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy[6]: 7 

Solar PV by type[edit]

Installed PV capacity in Germany by class size 2017[43]
Size
band
% of total
capacity
Notes
<10 kW 14.2% Single direct use systems, mostly residential solar pv systems
10–100 kW 38.2% Systems used collectively within one place such as a large residential block or large commercial premise or intensive agricultural units
100–500 kW 14.1% Typically larger commercial centres, hospitals, schools or industrial/agricultural premises or smaller ground mounted systems
>500 kW 33.5% Mostly district power systems, ground-mounted panels providing power to perhaps a mix of industrial and commercial sites

It is interesting to note that whilst large power plants receive a lot of attention in solar power articles, installations under 0.5 MW in size actually represented nearly two-thirds of the installed capacity in Germany in 2017.

PV capacity by federal states[edit]

Watts per capita by state in 2013[44]
  10 – 50 Watts
  50 – 100 Watts
  100 – 200 Watts
  200 – 350 Watts
  350 – 500 Watts
  500 – 750 Watts
  >750 Watts

Germany is made up of sixteen, partly sovereign federal states or Länder. The southern states of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg account for about half of the total, nationwide PV deployment and are also the wealthiest and most populous states after North Rhine-Westphalia. However, photovoltaic installations are widespread throughout the sixteen states and are not limited to the southern region of the country as demonstrated by a watts per capita distribution.

PV capacity in MW[45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53]
State 2008  2009  2010  2011  2012  2013  2014  2015  2023
(April) 
W per
capita
(2023-4) 
Baden-Württemberg 1,245 1,772 2,907 3,753 5,838.0 6,111.8 4,984.5 5,117.0 8,809 791
Bavaria 2,359 3,955 6,365 7,961 9,700.5 10,424.7 11,099.8 11,309.2 19,563 1,484
Berlin 11 19 68 50 63.2 68.6 80.5 83.9 215 58
Brandenburg 72 219 638 1,313 2,576.1 2,711.2 2,901.0 2,981.5 5,920 2,332
Bremen 4 5 14 30 32.3 35.3 39.9 42.2 70 103
Hamburg 7 9 27 25 32.1 35.8 36.5 36.9 90 48
Hesse 350 549 868 1,174 1,520.9 1,661.8 1,768.5 1,811.2 3,201 508
Lower Saxony 352 709 1,479 2,051 3,045.1 3,257.4 3,490.6 3,580.4 5,957 742
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 48 88 263 455 957.7 1,098.5 1,337.9 1,414.4 3,519 2,184
North Rhine-Westphalia 617 1,046 1,925 2,601 3,582.0 3,878.5 4,234.9 4,363.7 8,113 452
Rhineland-Palatinate 332 504 841 1,124 1,528.2 1,670.8 1,862.2 1,920.5 3,356 817
Saarland 67 100 158 218 318.8 365.4 407.3 415.8 738 751
Saxony 168 288 529 836 1,280.8 1,412.3 1,575.1 1,607.5 2,995 740
Saxony-Anhalt 94 181 450 817 1,377.9 1,556.1 1,828.7 1,962.6 3,891 1,793
Schleswig-Holstein 159 310 695 992 1,351.5 1,407.8 1,468.6 1,498.3 2,587 885
Thuringia 95 159 327 467 871.7 1,013.9 1,119.9 1,187.4 2,226 1,055
Cumulative total installed 5,979 9,913 17,554 23,866 34,076.7 36,710.1 38,236.0 39,332.4 71,259 856
Capacity added 3,934 7,641 6,312 10,210.7 2,633.4 1,525.9 1,096.4

Photovoltaic power stations[edit]

Largest photovoltaic power stations[edit]

PV Power station Capacity
in MWp
Commissioning Location Notes
Solarpark Weesow-Willmersdorf 187 2020 52°38′51.0″N 13°41′29.8″E / 52.647500°N 13.691611°E / 52.647500; 13.691611 (Solarpark Weesow-Willmersdorf) [54]
Solarpark Tramm-Göhten 172 2022 53°31′36″N 11°39′39″E / 53.5267°N 11.6609°E / 53.5267; 11.6609 (Solarpark Tramm-Göhten) [55]
Solarpark Meuro 166 2011/2012 51°32′42″N 13°58′48″E / 51.54500°N 13.98000°E / 51.54500; 13.98000 (Solarpark Meuro) [56]
Solarpark Gottesgabe 150 2021 52°38′28.7″N 14°11′32.3″E / 52.641306°N 14.192306°E / 52.641306; 14.192306 (Solarpark Gottesgabe) [57]
Solarpark Alttrebbin 150 2021 52°41′51.0″N 14°13′51.6″E / 52.697500°N 14.231000°E / 52.697500; 14.231000 (Solarpark Alttrebbin) [58]
Neuhardenberg Solar Park 145 September 2012 52°36′50″N 14°14′33″E / 52.61389°N 14.24250°E / 52.61389; 14.24250 (Neuhardenberg Solar Park) [56][59]
Templin Solar Park 128.5 September 2012 53°1′44″N 13°32′1″E / 53.02889°N 13.53361°E / 53.02889; 13.53361 (Templin Solar Park) [56][60]
Solarpark Schornhof 120 2020 48°38′56.4″N 11°16′41.5″E / 48.649000°N 11.278194°E / 48.649000; 11.278194 (Solarpark Schornhof) [61]
Brandenburg-Briest Solarpark 91 December 2011 52°26′12.1″N 12°27′5.0″E / 52.436694°N 12.451389°E / 52.436694; 12.451389 (Brandenburg-Briest Solarpark)
Solarpark Gaarz 90 2021 53°24′53″N 12°14′49″E / 53.4148°N 12.2470°E / 53.4148; 12.2470 (Solarpark Gaarz) [62]
Solarpark Finow Tower 84.7 2010/2011 52°49′31″N 13°41′54″E / 52.82528°N 13.69833°E / 52.82528; 13.69833 (Solarpark Finow Tower)
Eggebek Solar Park 83.6 2011 54°37′46″N 9°20′36″E / 54.62944°N 9.34333°E / 54.62944; 9.34333 (Eggebek Solar Park)
Finsterwalde Solar Park 80.7 2009/2010 51°34′7.0″N 13°44′15.0″E / 51.568611°N 13.737500°E / 51.568611; 13.737500 (Finsterwalde Solar Park) [63][64]
Solarpark Zietlitz 76 2021 53°38′21″N 12°21′51″E / 53.6391°N 12.3643°E / 53.6391; 12.3643 (Solarpark Zietlitz) [65]
Lieberose Photovoltaic Park 71.8 2009 51°55′54.8″N 14°24′25.9″E / 51.931889°N 14.407194°E / 51.931889; 14.407194 (Lieberose Photovoltaic Park) [66][67]
Solarpark Alt Daber 67.8 2011 53°12′N 12°31′E / 53.200°N 12.517°E / 53.200; 12.517 (Solarpark Alt Daber) [56]
Solarpark Ganzlin 65 2020 53°22′54″N 12°16′08″E / 53.3818°N 12.2688°E / 53.3818; 12.2688 (Solarpark Ganzlin) [68]
Solarpark Lauterbach 54.7 2022 50°35′46″N 9°22′08″E / 50.59600°N 9.36900°E / 50.59600; 9.36900 (Solarpark Lauterbach) [69]
Strasskirchen Solar Park 54 December 2009 48°48′11″N 12°46′1″E / 48.80306°N 12.76694°E / 48.80306; 12.76694 (Strasskirchen Solar Park) [56]
Walddrehna Solar Park 52.3 2012 51°45′45″N 13°36′4″E / 51.76250°N 13.60111°E / 51.76250; 13.60111 (Walddrehna Solar Park)
Waldpolenz Solar Park 52 December 2008 51°19′25″N 12°39′4″E / 51.32361°N 12.65111°E / 51.32361; 12.65111 (Waldpolenz Solar Park) [70][71]
Tutow Solar Park 52 2009/2010/2011 53°55′26″N 13°13′32″E / 53.92389°N 13.22556°E / 53.92389; 13.22556 (Tutow Solar Park)

Location map

Other notable photovoltaic stations[edit]

Name & Description Capacity
in MWp
Location Annual yield
in MWh
Capacity factor Coordinates
Erlasee Solar Park, 1408 SOLON 12 Arnstein 14,000 0.13 50°0′10″N 9°55′15″E / 50.00278°N 9.92083°E / 50.00278; 9.92083 (Erlasee Solar Park)
Gottelborn Solar Park 8.4 Göttelborn n.a. n.a. 49°20′21″N 7°2′7″E / 49.33917°N 7.03528°E / 49.33917; 7.03528 (Gottelborn Solar Park)
Bavaria Solarpark, 57,600 solar modules 6.3 Mühlhausen 6,750 0.12 49°09′29″N 11°25′59″E / 49.15806°N 11.43306°E / 49.15806; 11.43306 (Bavaria Solarpark)
Rote Jahne Solar Park, 92,880 thin-film modules,
First Solar, FS-260, FS-262 and FS-265[72][73]
6.0 Doberschütz 5,700 0.11 51°30′28.8″N 12°40′55.9″E / 51.508000°N 12.682194°E / 51.508000; 12.682194 (Rote Jahne Solar Park)
Bürstadt Solar Farm, 30,000 BP Solar modules 5.0 Bürstadt 4,200 0.10 49°39′N 8°28′E / 49.650°N 8.467°E / 49.650; 8.467
Espenhain, 33,500 Shell Solar modules 5.0 Espenhain 5,000 0.11 51°12′N 12°31′E / 51.200°N 12.517°E / 51.200; 12.517
Geiseltalsee Solarpark, 24,864 BP solar modules 4.0 Merseburg 3,400 0.10 51°22′N 12°0′E / 51.367°N 12.000°E / 51.367; 12.000 (Geiseltalsee Solarpark)
Hemau Solar Farm, 32,740 solar modules 4.0 Hemau 3,900 0.11 49°3′N 11°47′E / 49.050°N 11.783°E / 49.050; 11.783
Solara, Sharp and Kyocera solar modules 3.3 Dingolfing 3,050 0.11 48°38′N 12°30′E / 48.633°N 12.500°E / 48.633; 12.500
Solarpark Herten, 11.319 Modules from Astronergy 3 Rheinfelden 3,000 0.11 47°32′39″N 7°43′30″E / 47.54417°N 7.72500°E / 47.54417; 7.72500
Bavaria Solarpark, Sharp solar modules 1.9 Günching n.a. n.a. 49°15′49″N 11°35′27″E / 49.2636°N 11.5907°E / 49.2636; 11.5907 (Bavaria Solarpark)
Bavaria Solarpark, Sharp solar modules 1.9 Minihof n.a. n.a. 48°28′41″N 12°55′09″E / 48.47818°N 12.91914°E / 48.47818; 12.91914 (Bavaria Solarpark)

Location map

Gallery[edit]

Companies[edit]

Some companies have collapsed since 2008, facing harsh competition from imported solar panels. Some were taken over like Bosch Solar Energy by SolarWorld. Major German solar companies include:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "GERMANY: SOLAR POWER FACTSHEET 2016". Strom-Report.
  2. ^ Burger, Bruno (3 January 2024). Öffentliche Nettostromerzeugung in Deutschland im Jahr 2023 [Public Net Electricity Generation in Germany in 2023] (PDF) (in German). Freiburg, Germany: Fraunhofer-Institut für Solare Energiesysteme ISE. Retrieved 12 January 2024.
  3. ^ "Share of electricity generated by solar power: Germany". Our World In Data. 2024. Retrieved 27 January 2024.
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  5. ^ "Electricity production from solar and wind in Germany in 2014" (PDF). Germany: Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE. 21 July 2014. p. 5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 July 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
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  7. ^ Anu Bhambhani (22 January 2024). "Germany's Official 2023 Solar Installations Exceed 14 GW". Taiyang News. Retrieved 27 January 2024.
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  10. ^ Julian Wettengel (27 June 2023). "Renewables covered more than half of German electricity consumption in first half of 2023". Clean Energy Wire. Retrieved 11 July 2023.
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  14. ^ Average turn-key prices for roof-top PV systems up to 100 kWp. Sources: for data since 2009 photovoltaik-guide.de, pv-preisindex , using for each year average price of month of January. Data source for previous years (2006–2008), see Bundesverband Solarwirtschaft e.V. (BSW-Solar), September 2009, page 4, quarterly figures from EUPD-Research.
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  19. ^ Germany
  20. ^ Alex Stellmacher (2 January 2024). "Balcony power plants cause solar industry to boom". ASB Zeitung. Retrieved 27 January 2024.
  21. ^ Ernestas Naprys (15 November 2023). "Germany's balcony solar craze: is US next?". Cybernews.com. Retrieved 27 January 2024.
  22. ^ Gero Rueter (9 November 2023). "Mini plug-in solar panels: Are they worth it?". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 27 January 2024.
  23. ^ a b "Annual Report 2015". IEA-PVPS. 13 May 2016. p. 63.
  24. ^ Lang, Matthias (14 October 2011). "2012 EEG Surcharge Increases Slightly to 3.592 ct/kWh". German Energy Blog. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
  25. ^ "Europe's Energy Portal » Fuel, Natural Gas and Electricity Prices From Past to Present".
  26. ^ Morris, Craig (2 February 2012). "Merit order effect of PV in Germany". Renewables International. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  27. ^ "Transparency in Energy Markets – Germany".
  28. ^ "The U.S. Needs a Feed-in Tariff". pennenergy.com.
  29. ^ "PV Learning Curves:Past and Future Drivers of Cost Reduction" (PDF). q-cells.com.
  30. ^ "Changes for solar in Germany". renewablesinternational.net. 3 April 2014. Archived from the original on 12 May 2014. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
  31. ^ Energie, Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und. "Erneuerbare Energien". bmwi.de.
  32. ^ "Federal state supports 'tenant electricity' models with solar PV". Clean Energy Wire (CLEW). Berlin, Germany. 1 November 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
  33. ^ "Minister Remmel: "NRW macht es vor — Mieterinnen und Mieter können künftig auch von der Energiewende profitieren." — Umweltministerium fördert Mieterstrom-Modelle und Energiespeicher" [Minister Remmel: "NRW makes it possible — tenants can also benefit from the Energiewende in the future." — Environment Ministry promotes tenant electricity models and energy storage] (Press release) (in German). Düsseldorf, Germany: Umweltministerium North Rhine-Westphalia. 31 October 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
  34. ^ Lang, Matthias (21 September 2011). "Study Recommends Retrofitting of PV Power Plants to Solve 50.2 Hz Problem". German Energy Blog. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  35. ^ The "50.2 Hz" problem for photovoltaic power plants Archived 23 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ "Timeline of the utility frequency: Timeline".
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