Solar power in Hawaii

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
MicroCSP collectors on the Big Island of Hawaii

Hawaii has rapidly adopted solar power due to the high costs of electricity and has one of the highest per capita rates of solar power in the United States. Hawaii's imported energy costs are three times higher, and will soon be close to four times higher[1] than the mainland, so Hawaii has motivation to become one of the highest users of solar energy. Hawaii was the first state in the United States to reach grid parity for photovoltaics. Its tropical location provides abundant sun energy.

Much of Hawaii's solar capacity is distributed solar panels on individual homes and businesses. Hawaii's grid has had to deal with this unique situation by developing new technology for balancing the energy flows in areas with large amounts of solar power. In December 2016, Hawaii had 674MW of installed distributed solar capacity.[2] The largest utility-scale solar farm in Hawaii is the 27.6MW EE Waianae Solar Project which opened in January 2017.[3]

History[edit]

Hawaii has a renewable portfolio standard of 40% renewable energy by 2030 and 100% by 2045.[4] Hawaii had almost 200 MW of grid-connected photovoltaics in 2012. 16 MW of PV were installed in 2010, 40 MW in 2011, and 109 MW in 2012.[5][6]

The electrical grids of the Hawaiian islands are each separate and relatively small. "Overbuilding" distributed solar in some areas has led to issues such as partial duck curve, although time-of-use pricing has reduced disadvantages.[7] HECO has made connecting to the grid more difficult, leading to layoffs among the solar installation industry.[8] In 2014, there were over 40,000 rooftop systems, over 10 percent of customers.[9] A proposed grid interconnection between Oahu and Maui would have allowed more renewable energy but was rejected as too costly.[10]

Kauai[edit]

Kauai has rapidly adopted solar. In 2009, oil provided 91% of the island's electricity. In 2015, solar provided 15% with other renewables providing another 22% with oil providing 63%.[11] Diesel usage was expected to be reduced by 10 million gallons in 2016 compared to 2008. On some days in 2016, solar power provided 77% of the electricity generation on Kauai.[12]

The largest solar project in Hawaii, the 12MW Anahola project, opened on November 2, 2015 on Kauai. It has 59,000 panels on 60 acres of land and is expected to supply up to 20% of the island's momentary electricity demand and up to 5% of the annual demand.[13] The Anahola project also incorporates a 6MW lithium-ion battery.[14][2] The 12 MW Kapaia solar plant is connected to a 13 MW / 52 MWh battery,[15][16] and the power is priced at 13.9 c/kWh.[17] A 2018 project for 28 MW solar with 20 MW / 100 MWh batteries is priced at 11 c/kWh.[18]

Solar power energy statistics[edit]

In 2012 a typical solar system in Hawaii paid for itself in only 4 years, and returned a profit of over 4 times the cost over its life.[19] Hawaii's 35% ($5000.00 Maximum) state tax credit is the second highest in the country, behind Louisiana.[20] Hawaii offers a feed-in tariff, but it does not meet the normal definition of a feed-in tariff, as it is less than the retail cost of electricity, and is therefore simply a Power Purchase Agreement. The Oahu Wind Integration Study[21] released a report detailing the impact on the Oahu grid and found that 500 MW of wind and 100 MW of solar power could provide Oahu up to 25% of its electricity while eliminating the need to burn approximately 2.8 million barrels of low sulfur fuel oil and 132,000 tons of coal each year.[22]

In 2010 Hawaii generated 56 GWh of energy by photovoltaics, and 559 GWh in 2014.[23]

Hawaii Grid-Connected PV Capacity (MW)[24][25][26][27][28][29][30]
Year Capacity Installed % Change
2007 4.5 2.9 181%
2008 13.5 8.6 200%
2009 26.2 12.7 94%
2010 44.7 18.5 71%
2011 85.2 40.5 91%
2012 199.5 114.3 134%
2013 358.2 158.7 80%
2014 447 151 25%
2015 564 117 26%
2016 674 110 20%

This was 0.07% of the state's total electricity generation for 2007, 0.13% for 2008, 0.33% for 2009, 0.51% for 2010,[31][32] and 1% in 2011. In 2015 solar provided 6% of Hawaii's electricity.[33][34][35][36]

Major solar installations in Hawaii[edit]

  • December 2008: DuPont completed a solar power installation on Kauai that is expected to average 80 kW.[37]
  • December 2008: Sunetric, the largest solar installation company in the state,[38] completed the largest roof-mount solar power installation in Hawaii at Kona Commons shopping mall.[39]
  • 2009: Sopogy completed construction on Hawaii's first concentrating solar power project. The project located at the Natural Energy Laboratories of Hawaii is a 2MW solar thermal project interconnected into the Hawaiian Electric Industries grid under a Power Purchase Agreement.
  • 2009: La Ola Solar Farm on Lanai was dedicated in January, with a design capacity of 1.5 MW (1.2MW AC).[40] After operating at 600KW due to variable cloud cover, in September 2010 Xtreme Power announced plans to incorporate their battery storage technology to bring the system up to design capacity.[41] It is the first photovoltaic power plant in the world to include battery storage.[42]
  • 2011: The Kapaa Solar Farm was completed, a 1.21 MW photovoltaic array, the largest in Hawaii, and the first on the island of Kauai.[43][44][45]
  • 2011: Kapolei Sustainable Energy Park on Oahu, 1.18 MW [33]
  • 2012: Port Allen Solar Facility on Kauai, 6 MW photovoltaic array with 3 MW battery storage.[33][46]
  • 2013: Kalaeloa Renewable Energy Park, 5 MW, a photovoltaic array on Oahu.[47][48]
  • 2014: Koloa (Grove Farm) 12 MW photovoltaic array, opened in July 2014 on Kauai.[2][49][50]
  • 2015: Anahola, 12 MW photovoltaic array with 6 MW battery storage on Kauai, can produce 20% of Kauai's power during peak production.[49]
  • 2016: Waihonu Solar Farm North, 5MW and Waihonu Solar Farm South, 1.5MW[51]
  • 2016?: Kalaeloa Solar Power II, 5 MW, a photovoltaic array on Oahu.[52]
  • 2017: Waianae Solar, 40 MWDC (27.6MWAC)[53][54]
  • 2017: Kapaia solar project, 13MW, with 52MWh Tesla battery, on Kauai, to provide electricity only during the evenings[55][56]

Projects under development[edit]

  • Kauai - AES project, 28MW with 100MWh battery[57]
  • Kauai - Pacific Missile Range Facility, U.S. Navy, 44MW, with battery storage[58]
  • Maui - Kuia Solar, 2.8MW[59]
  • Maui - Lahaina, 2.87MW [59]
  • Oahu - Hoopili, 7MW, to be completed 2016[60]
  • Oahu - Pearl Harbor Navy Base, 28 MWDC (20 MWAC)[61]
  • Oahu - Lanikuhana Solar, 15MW, to be completed 2019, Sun Edison project revived by NRG[53][62]
  • Oahu - Waipio PV, 45.9MW, to be completed 2019, Sun Edison project revived by NRG[53][62]
  • Oahu - Kawailoa Solar, 49MW, to be completed 2019, Sun Edison project revived by NRG[53][62]
  • Oahu - Kalaeloa Solar One, 5.9MW solar thermal with batteries[63]

Canceled projects[edit]

  • Oahu - Ka La Nui Solar Farm, 15MW[64]
  • Oahu - Waiawa Solar, 50MW[53]
  • Oahu - Mililani South Solar Park, 20 MW[65][66][67][68]
  • Oahu - IC Sunshine, 5MW[69]
  • Oahu - Hoohana Solar, 20MW[53]

Source:[70][71]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ PUC issues interim decision in Hawaiian Electric rate case
  2. ^ a b c Hawaii Solar, SEIA
  3. ^ Hawaii’s largest solar farm goes online in Waianae, Honolulu Star-Advertiser, Kathryn Mykleseth, January 25, 2017
  4. ^ New law requires 100-percent renewable energy in Hawaii by 2045, KHON2, Brigette Namata, June 8, 2015
  5. ^ U.S. Solar Market Insight Report
  6. ^ 2014 Top 10 Solar States
  7. ^ Lazar, Jim (8 August 2016). "The Duck is learning to fly in California and Hawaii". Utility Dive. Retrieved 29 October 2016. 
  8. ^ HECO rule pulled the plug on PV jobs, Hawaii News Now, Jim Mendoz, Sep 22, 2014
  9. ^ A Solar Permit Slowdown Is Chilling Oahu’s Installer Market, greentechmedia, Eric Wesoff, June 12, 2014
  10. ^ Linking isles' energy grids will save money, state says, Honolulu Star-Advertiser, Alan Yonan Jr., Jan 22, 2014
  11. ^ Inside the first fully dispatchable utility solar-storage project in Hawaii, UtilityDive, Peter Maloney, October 29, 2015
  12. ^ Utility lowers rates by nearly 20% in 2016, Duane Shimogawa, Pacific Business News, December 7, 2016
  13. ^ Anahola Solar Array set to generate 20% of Kauai's electricity, Hawaii News Now, Nov 8, 2014
  14. ^ REC Solar and KIUC connect Hawaii's largest solar project
  15. ^ "SolarCity selects Tesla batteries for Kauai solar+storage project". Utility Dive. February 18, 2016. Retrieved October 29, 2016. 
  16. ^ "Tesla launches its Powerpack 2 project in Hawaii, will help Island of Kauai get more out of its solar power". March 8, 2017. Retrieved March 8, 2017. 
  17. ^ "SolarCity Selects Battery System for Kauaʻi Co-op Solar Storage Project" (PDF). 
  18. ^ "AES' New Kauai Solar-Storage 'Peaker' Shows How Fast Battery Costs Are Falling". January 16, 2017. Retrieved January 24, 2017. 
  19. ^ Hawaii State Solar Power Rebates, Tax Credits, and Incentives
  20. ^ Isles power up in solar rankings
  21. ^ Oahu Wind Integration Study
  22. ^ Hawaii Study: Wind and Solar Can Reliably Supply 25% of Oahu Electricity Needs
  23. ^ Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures May 2015
  24. ^ Sherwood, Larry (July 2014). "U.S. Solar Market Trends 2013" (PDF). Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC). Retrieved 2014-07-27. 
  25. ^ Sherwood, Larry (July 2013). "U.S. Solar Market Trends 2012" (PDF). Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC). p. 16. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  26. ^ Sherwood, Larry (August 2012). "U.S. Solar Market Trends 2011" (PDF). Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC). Retrieved 2012-08-16. 
  27. ^ Sherwood, Larry (June 2011). "U.S. Solar Market Trends 2010" (PDF). Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC). Retrieved 2011-06-29. 
  28. ^ Sherwood, Larry (July 2010). "U.S. Solar Market Trends 2009" (PDF). Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC). Retrieved 2010-07-28. 
  29. ^ Sherwood, Larry (July 2009). "U.S. Solar Market Trends 2008" (PDF). Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC). Retrieved 2010-07-24. 
  30. ^ Hawaii Solar
  31. ^ 2009
  32. ^ 2010
  33. ^ a b c Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures January 2013, State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism Hawaii State Energy Office, January 2013, accessed October 11, 2013
  34. ^ Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures November 2013
  35. ^ Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures November 2014
  36. ^ Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures November 2015
  37. ^ Environmental Leader news: DuPont cuts ribbon on Hawaii solar panel project
  38. ^ Solar Power World
  39. ^ Star Bulletin: Kona Commons gets solar system
  40. ^ Lanai Solar Farm Generating 1.5 MW
  41. ^ "Castle & Cooke's Lanai solar farm getting battery boost". 14 September 2010. 
  42. ^ La Ola Solar Farm Now Operating at Full Capacity
  43. ^ REC Solar unveils Hawai‘i’s largest operational solar system
  44. ^ New Kauai solar farm could power 300 homes
  45. ^ Large Solar Farm in Hawaii Opens on Kaua'i Island
  46. ^ Alexander & Baldwin completes 6MW PV plant on Kauai island
  47. ^ Five-Megawatt Kalaeloa Solar Farm Now Generating Power on Oahu
  48. ^ Kalaeloa Renewable Energy Park
  49. ^ a b REC Solar and KIUC Connect Hawaii's Largest Solar Project
  50. ^ Kauai dedicates its Koloa solar project, KHON2, September 25, 2014
  51. ^ Hawaii Gas Dedicates Oahu’s Biggest Active Solar Farm, Solar Industry, Joseph Bebon, August 26, 2016
  52. ^ Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures, Hawaii State Energy Office, November 2016
  53. ^ a b c d e f Hawaiian Electric sends six more Oahu solar contracts to Public Utilities Commission for approval
  54. ^ Hawaii’s largest solar farm goes online in Waianae, Honolulu Star-Advertiser, Kathryn Mykleseth, January 25, 2017
  55. ^ Inside the first fully dispatchable utility solar-storage project in Hawaii, UtilityDive, Peter Maloney, October 29, 2015
  56. ^ Tesla's dispatchable solar+storage project in Hawaii brought online , UtilityDive, March 13, 2017
  57. ^ One of the largest battery energy systems in the world planned for Hawaii, Duane Shimogawa, Pacific Business News, Jan 10, 2017
  58. ^ Navy developing 44 MW solar+storage facility on Kauai , UtilityDive, February 13, 2017
  59. ^ a b Hawaii regulators approve large Maui solar farm, Duane Shimogawa, Pacific Business News, Feb 23, 2016,
  60. ^ D.R. Horton plans 2015 start on Hawaii solar farm with new contractor, Pacific Business News, Duane Shimogawa, Sep 19, 2014
  61. ^ Navy, Hawaiian Electric Agree to Build Solar Farm, July 25, 2016
  62. ^ a b c RG and Hawaiian Electric Reach New Power Purchase Agreements to Revive Major Solar Projects on Oahu, Maui Electric, January, 1, 2017
  63. ^ [1], February 2016
  64. ^ Eight Industrial-Sized Solar Farms in the Works, Honolulu Civil Beat, Sophie Cocke, February 18, 2015
  65. ^ Lana'i - Going Green
  66. ^ Castle & Cooke gets waiver for solar farm
  67. ^ Sustainable Future
  68. ^ Hawaii's biggest solar farm proposed for Mililani fields
  69. ^ IC Sunshine Solar Project
  70. ^ Renewable Energy Projects in Hawaii
  71. ^ [2]

External links[edit]